Broe GA, Henderson AS, Creasey H 1990. A case-control study of Alzheimer's disease in Australia

University of Sydney, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Repatriation General Hospital, Concord, NSW, Australia.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.29). 12/1990; 40(11):1698-707. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.40.11.1698
Source: PubMed


We conducted a case-control study of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) on 170 cases aged 52 to 96 years, and 170 controls matched for age, sex and, where possible, the general practice of origin. Trained lay interviewers naive to the hypotheses and to the clinical status of the elderly person carried out risk-factor interviews with informants. Significant odds ratios were found for 4 variables: a history of either dementia, probable AD, or Down's syndrome in a 1st-degree relative, and underactivity as a behavioral trait in both the recent and more distant past. Previously reported or suggested associations not confirmed by this study include head injury, starvation, thyroid disease, analgesic abuse, antacid use (aluminum exposure), alcohol abuse, smoking, and being left-handed.

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    • "Previous case-control [6] [21] [22] and populationbased studies [4, 5, 7–20, 23–29] analyzed the longterm effects of coffee, tea, or caffeine consumption and plasma levels of caffeine on cognitive decline and dementia, although time of exposure or changes in habits of coffee consumption were not taken into account. A first meta-analysis of only four studies suggested a negative association between coffee consumption and AD [45], despite important heterogeneity in methods and results. "
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    ABSTRACT: Coffee, tea, or caffeine consumption may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia. We estimated the association between change or constant habits in coffee consumption and the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated 1,445 individuals recruited from 5,632 subjects, aged 65-84 year old, from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging, a population-based sample from eight Italian municipalities with a 3.5-year median follow-up. Cognitively normal older individuals who habitually consumed moderate amount of coffee (from 1 to 2 cups of coffee/day) had a lower rate of the incidence of MCI than those who never or rarely consumed coffee [1 cup/day: hazard ratio (HR): 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.211 to 1.02 or 1-2 cups/day: HR: 0.31 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.75]. For cognitively normal older subjects who changed their coffee consumption habits, those increasing coffee consumption (>1 cup of coffee/day) had higher rate of the incidence of MCI compared to those with constant habits (up to±1 cup of coffee/day) (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.92) or those with reduced consumption (<1 cup of coffee/day) (HR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.16 to 4.08). Finally, there was no significant association between subjects with higher levels of coffee consumption (>2 cups of coffee/day) and the incidence of MCI in comparison with those who never or rarely consumed coffee (HR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.03 to 2.11). In conclusion, cognitively normal older individuals who increased their coffee consumption had a higher rate of developing MCI, while a constant in time moderate coffee consumption was associated to a reduced rate of the incidence of MCI.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
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    • ".) (Barker et al., 2004; Pariente et al., 1992; Voyer et al., 2009). Studies have suggested that stimulating activity, either mentally or socially oriented, may be relevant to preserving mental function in the older (Broe et al., 1990; Fabrigoule et al., 1995; Fratiglioni et al., 2000; Kondo et al., 1994; Wang et al., 2002; Yoshitake et al., 1995). Moreover, increased physical activity has been associated with reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety (Dunn et al., 2001), and aerobic exercise consistent with public health recommendations is an effective treatment for major depressive disorders of mild to moderate severity(Dunn et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of benzodiazepine use among community-dwelling older persons varies between 10% and 30%. The aim of this study was to explore the association between leisure activities and the use of benzodiazepine among older persons living at home. The study population included 4848 persons aged 65 years and over living in either of two French cities. Information was collected from a questionnaire administered to the respondents by trained psychologists during face-to-face interviews at home and from a self-administered questionnaire. Baseline examination included socio-demographic characteristics, drug use and leisure activities. We classified as benzodiazepine users subjects who reported use of at least one benzodiazepine during the month preceding the interview. The association between the use of benzodiazepine and leisure activities was assessed by logistic regression adjusted on known potential confounders. More than 18% of participants reported use of at least one benzodiazepine. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of benzodiazepine use associated with no or lower participation versus participation in the following activities were as follows: OR = 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09 to 1.58) for mental activity; OR = 1.50 (CI: 1.12 to 2.03) for physical activity; OR = 1.28 (CI: 1.05 to 1.55) for productive activity and OR = 0.82 (CI: 0.69 to 0.97) for recreational activity. Low engagement in stimulating activities and high engagement in sedentary activities were associated with recent benzodiazepine use.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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    • "Eight studies used standardized criteria for diagnosing AD [27,28,30-35] and seven studies used clinical criteria or other methods for diagnosing AD [24-26,29,36,38,39]. The OR for exposure to GA and development of AD in studies that used standard criteria was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.84 - 1.33, p = 0.63) and the OR for GA and AD in the remaining studies was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.90 - 1.22, p = 0.53). "
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is common among older adults and leads to significant disability. Volatile anesthetic gases administered during general anesthesia (GA) have been hypothesized to be a risk factor for the development of AD. The objective of this study is to systematically review the association between exposure to GA and risk of AD. We searched electronic databases including MEDLINE, Embase, and Google scholar for observational studies examining the association between exposure to GA and risk of AD. We examined study quality using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa risk of bias assessment for observational studies. We used standard meta-analytic techniques to estimate pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were undertaken to evaluate the robustness of the findings. A total of 15 case-control studies were included in the review. No cohort studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. There was variation in the methodological quality of included studies. There was no significant association between any exposure to GA and risk of AD (pooled OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.93 - 1.19, Z = 0.80, p = 0.43). There was also no significant association between GA and risk of AD in several subgroup and sensitivity analyses. A history of exposure to GA is not associated with an increased risk of AD although there are few high-quality studies in this area. Prospective cohort studies with long-term follow-up or randomized controlled trials are required to further understand the association between GA and AD.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · BMC Geriatrics
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