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Exercise and mental health. Beneficial and detrimental effects

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Abstract

Physical exercise is increasingly being advocated as a means to maintain and enhance good mental health. In general, findings from research indicate that exercise is associated with improvements in mental health including mood state and self-esteem, although a causal link has not been established. Research on acute exercise indicates that 20 to 40 minutes of aerobic activity results in improvements in state anxiety and mood that persist for several hours. These transitory changes in mood occur in both individuals with normal or elevated levels of anxiety, but appear to be limited to aerobic forms of exercise. In the case of long term exercise programmes, improvements in the mental health of 'normal' individuals are either modest in magnitude or do not occur, whereas the changes for those with elevated anxiety or depression are more pronounced. Evidence from studies involving clinical samples indicates that the psychological benefits associated with exercise are comparable to gains found with standard forms of psychotherapy. Hence, for healthy individuals the principal psychological benefit of exercise may be that of prevention, whereas in those suffering from mild to moderate emotional illness exercise may function as a means of treatment. Exercise may also result in detrimental changes in mental health. Some individuals can become overly dependent on physical activity and exercise to an excessive degree. This abuse of exercise can result in disturbances in mood and worsened physical health. In the case of athletes the intense training, or overtraining, necessary for endurance sports consistently results in increased mood disturbance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
... Although the primary focus of mental health and exercise researchers during this time was on exploring and identifying exerciserelated mental health benefits, some researchers also considered the detrimental changes in mental health that can occur with (or in association with) exercise (Raglin, 1990a). For example, Morgan demonstrated that excessive endurance training can produce symptoms of depression (e.g., depressed mood, chronic fatigue, depressed appetite, sleep disturbances) in otherwise healthy young swimmers , while others reported similar findings in speed skaters (Gutmann et al., 1984) and rowers (Raglin, 1990b). ...
... Research on exercise for individuals with anxiety disorders, however, continued to remain scarce. This may have been partially due to an inaccurate, yet widely held belief that exercise induces panic attacks in individuals with anxiety disorders (Pitts and McClure, 1967;Raglin, 1990a) and that experiencing panic attacks would be detrimental to these individuals. While the practice of using nonclinical populations to reduce negative affective states suggested that exercise could have psychological benefits, the conclusions that could be drawn about the benefits of exercise for clinical populations, particularly for individuals with anxiety disorders, were limited. ...
... Because exercise increases somatic sensations of arousal, it may have a more complex relationship in individuals more sensitive to those sensations, such as those with PD. Although early on there was concern that exercise might be harmful for individuals with PD, potentially triggering panic attacks which might be detrimental to patients (Pitts and McClure, 1967;Raglin, 1990a), the effect of exercise on PD has since been reconceptualized as providing a beneficial opportunity to encounter and tolerate panic-like symptoms. Ströhle et al. (2009) compared the acute effects of aerobic exercise or rest prior to administration of cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4)da peptide fragment derived from a larger peptide hormone known to be anxiogenic and induce panic attacksdin patients with PD and healthy control subjects. ...
Chapter
With traces dating back to antiquity, exercise for mental health is not a new practice. However, in recent decades, empirical research has proliferated on exercise and its effect on mood, a number of mental health disorders, and the mechanisms that may explain these effects. In this article, we begin by reviewing the history of this area. Next, we offer an overview of cross-sectional and longitudinal research regarding short- and long-term correlates of exercise on mental health, evidence for a number of putative mechanisms, and results from clinical trials for mental health disorders. Finally, we conclude with suggested directions for future research and recommendations for clinicians who wish to add exercise prescription to their practice.
... Studies point to alarming pandemic-related stress data [17][18][19], with high prevalence in Brazil and worldwide [20,21]. This in turn has a negative influence on practicing physical activity [22,23]. Thus, the high prevalence of physical inactivity becomes a risk factor for developing stress, and stress becomes a risk factor for physical inactivity [24]. ...
... This identification becomes even more relevant, as evidence shows an increase in physical inactivity, stress and worsening in the eating pattern during the pandemic [10,18], which are all recognized factors associated with EE. A robust body of evidence suggests that physical activity practice is considered effective for preventing chronic non-communicable diseases, protecting mental health and EE [22,[39][40][41]84,85]. However, this practice can be used as a compensatory strategy for unhealthy eating habits [74,76], depending on the context in which the individual is inserted. ...
Article
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Physical activity levels during the COVID-19 pandemic have been decreasing and this may be a risk factor for development of emotional eating and its associated factors. The aim of the study was to analyze the factors associated with emotional eating among individuals with different physical activity levels during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data relating to the pandemic on physical activity, emotional eating, sociodemographic data, perceptions about lifestyle habits, body satisfaction , and perceptions about eating habits and food consumption were collected. Factors associated with emotional eating in the group of active and inactive individuals were observed using multiple linear regression controlled for age, sex, BMI, and monthly income. Emotional eating for the active group was associated with perceived stress, body dissatisfaction, and increased consumption of sweets and desserts. In addition to these factors found among the active group, working or studying >8 h/day, sleep worsening, increased amount of food consumed, increased purchase of food through delivery, and increased vegetable consumption were also associated with emotional eating for the inactive group. These findings suggest a potential protective role of physical activity in the appearance of factors associated with emotional eating during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... As for potential solutions to these issues, much evidence has been accrued that supports the idea of exercise being an effective buffer for stress -both in a biochemical and abstract psychological sense. Exercise seems to positively impact mood, mutually reducing stress reactivity, lowering resting cortisol levels when the body is in a resting state (Lichtman & Poser, 1983;Raglin, 1990;Yeung, 1996;Hansen et al., 2001;Peluso & Andrade, 2005;Chase & Hutchinson, 2015;Polenakovic et al., 2017). Furthermore, evidence suggests that exercise garners better same-day cortisol reduction towards achieving the cortisol nadir (low point in a 24 hour period) for the evening to aid in sleep onset, as opposed to not exercising that day (Hackney & Viru, 1999;Daly et al., 2004;Nabkasorn et al., 2006). ...
Preprint
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Background: Exercise has amassed much evidence as a significant buffer for stress,
... In this work, we focused on two of these, the physical activity and the social interaction. Regular physical activity is a key health behavior related to a lower risk of mental disturbance (Raglin, 1990). Rebar et al. (2015), reported significant inverse associations between physical activity participation with depression and anxiety levels in their meta-analysis performed in 2015. ...
Preprint
Background Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the planet is going through a historical time of exceptional concern and uncertainty, which impacts people mental health. Here, we explored the levels of depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and their relation with the degree of physical activity and social interaction during the pandemic. Methods We performed a structured survey containing the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 tests to evaluate depressive symptoms and GAD levels. We also asked about weekly physical activity and the level of social interaction. We surveyed two groups of University students in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: an internal group from the Instituto Tecnologico de Buenos Aires (ITBA), and an external group of students from multiple universities. The survey was conducted in late October/early-November 2020, after a peak of contagions. Some of the participants were surveyed again in January 2021, during academic holidays and after a valley of contagion, for longitudinal analysis Results Our data show that men and women of both groups exhibited a significant positive linear correlation between depression and GAD levels. Moreover, low levels of depression and anxiety were associated with performing physical activity for more than two days a week and to longer periods of social interaction. Finally, the second survey revealed a decrease of the symptoms. Conclusions Our results suggest that performing regular physical activity and avoiding long periods of social isolation gave benefits to mental health. We suggest that public policies could consider protecting these behaviors under health and safety standards.
... It also helps to relieve various conditions such as nicotine withdrawal [13] and menopause [14]. There are many studies showing that physical activity is effective in the treatment [15,16] and even prevention [17][18][19][20] of depressive and anxiety disorders. A physically active lifestyle is increasingly being recommended to people with or without the disease [21]. ...
... The Workout Mode includes audio instructions to guide a user through several exercises. Research indicates that exercise is associated with improved mental health [21,22]. Performing workout routines is also linked to reduced anxiety and stress, as well as improved self-esteem and mood state [23]. ...
Conference Paper
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The COVID pandemic has resulted in many people working from home, blurring lines between work and personal time. In response, the Tomato Dice, a multimodal device, attempts to provide a fun way for people to take more effective breaks amid work through timeboxing. After the dice is rolled, each side plays visual and audio feedback helping users to either work for a set amount of time or take a break away from their work screens. In this paper, we discussed the design process and the different modes of the dice. We also conducted a heuristic evaluation followed by a usability study which revealed that participants were mostly fascinated with the dice and were more likely to use the Tomato Dice to relax than to take breaks.
... Ensinamentos estes que atingem até mesmo adultos praticantes, pois as situações de confronto e as regras de conduta presentes no dojō induzem o participante a melhorar sua capacidade de decisão e reação e promovem valores relacionados ao respeito e a autoconfiança. Percebe-se que a prática do Karate-Dō vem imbuída de um vasto conteúdo de valores que são fomentados no dojo e que estes, associados a anos de prática ininterrupta, irão refletir não só nas capacidades físicas, mas, sobretudo, mentais [15][16] . Nesta perspectiva, o ápice a ser atingido com o Karate-Dō é formar um karateca [5] 5, ou seja, alguém que além de lutador, tenha seu caráter aperfeiçoado pela prática a fim de tornar-se uma pessoa proveitosa para a sociedade 17 As memórias de Watanabe, além de representarem uma dinâmica entre lembranças e esquecimentos aportados em sua memória individual, trazem consigo memórias grupais e coletivas, as quais são construídas na subjetividade e, portanto, representadas em discursos sociais. ...
Article
Este estudo objetivou investigar como ocorreu a introdução do Karate-Do Shotokan no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, por meio da reconstrução das memórias do sensei Luiz Tasuke Watanabe. Tendo como perspectiva teórico-metodológica a História Oral recuperou-se as memórias deste sensei, que foi um dos precursores do estilo Shotokan de Karate-Do no estado. Para tanto, foi gravada e transcrita uma entrevista com o sensei Watanabe. Além desta fonte oral, também foram analisadas fontes documentais, bem como, realizada a revisão bibliográfica sobre o assunto. As análises empreendidas nas fontes acessadas revelaram que Watanabe, ainda criança, emigrou do Japão para o Brasil com sua família e teve sua iniciação no Karate-Do por intermédio de seu irmão, que havia sido praticante no Japão. A prática do Karate-Do intensificou-se quando prestou o serviço militar ao ser aluno do sensei Yasutaka Tanaka, que ministrava aulas no exército. Posteriormente, em 1970, a convite do professor Teruo Obata, Watanabe foi designado para dar aulas em Porto Alegre, onde atuou em diversas localidades, colaborando mais tarde para a criação do Departamento de Karate da Federação de Pugilismo do Rio Grande do Sul. Watanabe, na época, atuava como professor, mas também participou de competições. No ano de 1972, conquistou o primeiro lugar no Campeonato Mundial de Karate e alcançou destaque a nível nacional, contribuindo para a divulgação desta prática. Após uma década na cidade, em 1981, Watanabe partiu de Porto Alegre por designação do exército, retornando a cidade somente 30 anos depois para ministrar um curso.
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Background Physical activity is positively associated with mental health in obese people with chronic comorbidities. However, how physical activity types (PATs), physical activity frequency (PAF), and physical activity duration (PAD) are associated with mental health need to be further clarified. The current study investigated and compared the effectiveness of PATs, physical activity frequency PAF and PAD for mental health in obese people with various chronic comorbid conditions. Methods This cross-sectional study included 871,919 adults who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). They were divided into four groups: healthy people, obese people with 0, 1, and 2+ chronic comorbid conditions. The zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model and the generalized additive model were used to explore the association between physical activity and mental health burden in the four groups, respectively. Results Jogging (30.00%), hiking (28.36%) and bicycling (28.32%) have greater improvement in mental health of healthy people; jogging (19.25%), golf (19.95%) and bicycling machine exercise (19.13%) showed a greater improvement in mental health of obese people with no chronic comorbid condition; and aerobic exercise videos or class showed a greater improvement in mental health of obese people with one chronic comorbid condition (22.14%) and obese people with two or more chronic comorbid conditions (19.60%). Non-linear relationships were observed between PAF, PAD, and energy expenditure and mental health. The healthy participants who exercised about 10–15 times a month and 40–50 min per session or about 400–600 METs-min per week had greater benefits for mental health. However, the lowest point of the smooth curve moved to the left with an increasing number of chronic comorbid conditions in obese people. Conclusions Almost all PATs were associated with better mental health, but their benefits decreased with increasing number of chronic comorbid conditions in obese people. There were U-shaped relationships between mental health and weekly physical activity frequency, duration, and METs-min.
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Background: The advantageous effect of physical activity stimulated mostly by aerobic exercise known to impact the particular phases of brain activities. Exercise does help to improve physical health and develop an individual’s academic performance. Aim and objectives: The study aimed to observe the relationship between type and duration of exercise on the mental, physical health, and academic performance of undergraduate medical students. Materials and method: Present questionnaire-based study was undertaken on 50students of medical undergraduates studying in their preliminary MBBS curriculum. Results: Among the participants involved in regular exercise, 50% of them prefer jogging, brisk walking, or cycling as a mode of exercise, followed by 31% of participants who prefer to play various games that involve muscular activities. The remaining 19% of the students like to be involved in multiple activities of the gym. 84% of participants with regular exercise practice gave a strong opinion that they are confident enough to face academic assessment challenges. This observation was notably higher prevalence than that of non-exercise students (79%). Conclusion: Individuals who exercise for one to two hours have better physical and mental health status and excellent academic performance. It can also be concluded that students who do regular exercise have higher confidence in academics than those who do not. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 21(1) 2022 Page : 135-139
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The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of aerobic fitness on self-esteem and the psychological wellbeing of secondary school students in Makurdi. The population of the study was twelve thousand two hundred and fifteen (12, 215) secondary school students in Makurdi metropolis. The sample for this study was three hundred and eighty-two (382) male (179) and female (103) secondary school students aged between 11 and nineteen years who were randomly selected from six schools in Makurdi, Benue State. The ex-post facto research design was used to conduct the study. Self-esteem was assessed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The psychological general wellbeing index (PGWBI) was used to assess psychological wellbeing. The participants' aerobic fitness was assessed using the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). The PACER reported score (in laps) was converted to VO2max using regression. Descriptive statistics of simple percentages and, mean and standard deviation were used to describe the characteristics of the participants. Independent sample t-test was used to find out if differences exist between students who were fit and those who were unfit in terms of self-esteem and psychological wellbeing. The total sample was divided into two based on their VO2max. Participants with a VO2max of > 42.5kg.ml.min (for males) and >35.0kg.ml.min (for females) were classified as been aerobically fit and vice versa based on ACSM guidelines for adolescents. The result of the study indicated that aerobic fitness has an influence on the self-esteem and psychological wellbeing of secondary school students in Makurdi. It was recommended that; secondary school students should be encouraged to live an active lifestyle to enable them to have sound self-esteem and psychological wellbeing in particular and good health in general.
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For centuries, Man has had strong opinions about the importance of exercise in the maintenance of physical and mental health. Unfortunately, very little systematic study has been conducted to determine whether there is a relationship between exercise and mental health and, if a positive relationship exists, what specific factors under the broader rubric of “exercise” are responsible for its effectiveness in the maintenance and restoration of health.
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