Maternal age, sociodemographics, prenatal and behavior: Influences on neonatal risk status

NICHD/LCE, Section on Social and Emotional Development, Bethesda, MD 20892.
Journal of Adolescent Health Care 10/1990; 11(5):423-31. DOI: 10.1016/0197-0070(90)90090-O
Source: PubMed


The effects on neonatal outcome of maternal age, sociodemographic status, and prenatal health and behavior were assessed in a representative national sample of youth (National Longitudinal Survey of Work Experience of Youth). Primiparous women were categorized into four age-at-birth groups: 13 to 15 year old, 16 to 18 year old, 19 to 21 year old, and 22 to 30 year old. Younger mothers were lighter, gained less weight during pregnancy, and sought prenatal care later in their pregnancy. Neonates of the youngest mothers on average had lower birth weights, and shorter gestation periods. There were significant effects of maternal age, race, education, and pregnancy weight gain on the probability of giving birth to a premature or low-birth-weight infant. Our results also implicated the time of first prenatal care in the occurrence of premature delivery. We believe that interventions should emphasize the prevention of pregnancy in young adolescents and amelioration of the adverse prenatal conditions associated with living in lower socioeconomic conditions.

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Available from: Michael E Lamb, Apr 14, 2015
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    • "Whether the adverse pregnancy outcomes seen in pregnant teenagers can be attributed to biologic features of young maternal age or to concomitant detrimental sociodemographic factors remains contentious [14] [24]. Teenage mothers are more likely than older mothers to be nulliparous, nonwhite, of lower income, less well educated, unmarried, and less inclined to receive adequate prenatal care [14] [34] [35]—all sociodemographic factors that could exaggerate biological risk associated with preeclampsia. A major strength of this study is that we were able to adjust for these potential confounders. "
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the joint effect of young maternal age and obesity status on the risk of preeclampsia and eclampsia among a large cohort of singleton pregnancies. Data were obtained from birth cohort files recorded in the state of Florida during the years 2004-2007. The study sample consisted of mothers aged 13-24 (n = 290,807), divided into four obesity categories on the basis of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI): nonobese (BMI < 30), Class I obese (30.0 < or = BMI > or = 34.9), Class II obese (35.0 < or = BMI > or = 39.9), and extreme obesity (BMI > or = 40). Nonobese mothers (BMI < 30) between the ages of 20 and 24 years were the reference group. Logistic regression models were generated to adjust for the association between preeclampsia, obesity, and maternal age with sociodemographic variables and pregnancy complications as covariates. The overall prevalence of preeclampsia in the study population was 5.0%. The risk of preeclampsia and eclampsia increased significantly with increasing BMI and decreasing age. Extremely obese teenagers were almost four times as likely to develop preeclampsia and eclampsia compared with nonobese women aged 20-24 years (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.79 [3.15-4.55]). Whereas obesity elevated the risk for preeclampsia and eclampsia among all women in the study, teenagers were most at risk because of the combined effects of young age and obesity. Effective obesity prevention strategies should continue to be advocated for all teenagers, in addition to innovative approaches to teenage pregnancy prevention.
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    • "overinterpreted, it is interesting to speculate why this trend may be emerging. Arguably, 10 to 14 year old mothers represent a distinct population that experiences unique circumstances leading them to motherhood (Ketterlinus, Henderson, and Lamb 1990; Phipps and Sowers 2002; Reichman and Pagnini 1997). Because pregnancy and births among girls of such young ages are more likely to be the result of sexual abuse or statutory rape compared to childbearing among older teens (Donovan 1997; Elders and Albert 1998; Taylor et al. 1999), these young women may have benefited from greater employment opportunities and labor force participation of potential perpetrators in the 1990s. "

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    • "Si nos interesamos por el entorno que rodea a estas madres adolescentes, aunque existe una gran variabilidad y aparecen en todos los grupos sociales, es muy habitual encontrar una familia de origen caracterizada por tener bajos ingresos, bajos niveles socioeducativos y por no tener acceso a mecanismos de protección familiar. Además, como se señala en la literatura, con frecuencia las madres adolescentes son hijas de mujeres que también se convirtieron en madres muy tempranamente, dando la impresión de que se trata de un hecho que se reproduce de generación en generación, probablemente porque la relación entre embarazo temprano y características socio-económicas es muy compleja, sobre todo cuando tratan de analizarse las relaciones intergeneracionales en estos procesos (Alatorre y Taquín, 1998; Ketterlinus et al. 1990). A raíz de lo anterior, podría suponerse que la probabilidad de convertirse en madre adolescente descansa únicamente en los antecedentes familiares y socio-económicos del hogar. "
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    ABSTRACT: RESUMEN Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar las diferencias en las interacciones que, durante una situación de comida, mantienen un grupo de madres adolescentes y otro de madres adultas con sus bebés de 8-12 meses de edad. Para ello, estudiamos 93 díadas madre-bebé (41 adolescentes y 52 adultas) en 4 dimensiones observacionales: (1) la calidez emocional; (2) la sensibilidad materna; (3) la estimulación del desarrollo lingüístico y de la autonomía; y (4) la organización la situación de comida. Los resultados parecen indicar que las madres adultas se muestran más cálidas y más sensibles durante la interacción. Parecen ser estas madres quienes aprovechan en mayor medida la situación para estimular aspectos relacionados con el lenguaje y la autonomía de sus bebés. Además, el grupo de madres adultas suele dotar de mayor organización a la situación de comida. Los resultados nos permiten concluir que se hace necesaria una intervención ajustada a la realidad que circunda al hecho de convertirse en madre durante la adolescencia. PALABRAS CLAVES Interacciones madres-bebés, maternidad adolescente, calidez afectiva, sensibilidad, desarrollo del lenguaje, desarrollo de la autonomía, estructuración de la situación. ABSTRACT This work analyzes the differences in the interactions of a group of adolescent mothers and another one of adult mothers with their babies of 8-12 months of age during feeding time. In this way, we studied 93 mother-baby dyads (41 adolescents and 52 adults) in 4 observational dimensions: (1) the emotional warm; (2) maternal sensitivity; (3) linguistic development and autonomy stimulation; and (4) feeding time organization. The results indicate that the adult mothers are warmer and more sensible during the interaction than adolescent mothers. Data show that adult mothers who take advantage of in greater measurement the situation to stimulate aspects related to the language and the autonomy of their babies. In addition, the group of adult mothers usually equips from greater the feeding time organization. This results point out that it is necessary a intervention adjust to the fact of becoming mother during the adolescent age. KEY WORDS Mother-children interactions, adolescent maternity, emotional warm, sensibility, linguistic development, autonomy development, structure of situation.
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