Article

Social Loafing: A Meta-Analytic Review and Theoretical Integration

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Social loafing is the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. A meta-analysis of 78 studies demonstrates that social loafing is robust and generalizes across tasks and S populations. A large number of variables were found to moderate social loafing. Evaluation potential, expectations of co-worker performance, task meaningfulness, and culture had espeically strong influence. These findings are interpreted in the light of a Collective Effort Model that integrates elements of expectancy-value, social identity, and self-validation theories.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... This is echoed in prior findings where nominal groups (individuals working by themselves) tended to generate more ideas and more original ideas than their interactive group counterparts [53,54]. Conversely, "social loafing" may occur in groups when individuals do not feel as accountable in the group for evaluation purposes (such as a project grade) in comparison to an individual evaluation [55]. Therefore, these types of brainstorming issues may hinder performance if they happen to override high team psychological safety. ...
... Furthermore, while prior research indicates that members who generate ideas in a team tend to offer more ideas than individuals working independently [54], this was not the case in our study. Although feeling interpersonally safe to generate novel ideas may overcome the evaluation apprehension or fear of being judged and looking unintelligent [6,12,34], other factors may bear more weight in this process, such as other barriers to brainstorming, such as production blocking and social loafing [52,55]. This can be seen where production blocking allows only one person to speak at a time [52], and individuals do not hold themselves accountable as a result of social loafing [55], which may be explained by the minimum idea fluency from one of the individuals decreasing as psychological safety increases. ...
... Although feeling interpersonally safe to generate novel ideas may overcome the evaluation apprehension or fear of being judged and looking unintelligent [6,12,34], other factors may bear more weight in this process, such as other barriers to brainstorming, such as production blocking and social loafing [52,55]. This can be seen where production blocking allows only one person to speak at a time [52], and individuals do not hold themselves accountable as a result of social loafing [55], which may be explained by the minimum idea fluency from one of the individuals decreasing as psychological safety increases. However, the ideas generated during the concept generation stage tended to be of high subjective quality based on the idea goodness ratings [68]. ...
Article
While psychological safety has been shown to be a consistent, generalizable, and multilevel predictor of outcomes in team performance across fields that can positively impact the creative process, there have been limited investigations of psychological safety in the engineering domain. Without this knowledge, we do not know whether fostering psychological safety in a team environment is important for specific engineering design outputs from concept generation and screening practices. This study provides one of the first attempts at addressing this research gap through an empirical study with 69 engineering design student teams over the course of 4- and 8-week design projects. Specifically, we sought to identify the role of psychological safety on the number and quality (judged by goodness) of ideas generated. In addition, we explored the role of psychological safety on ownership bias and goodness in the concept screening process. The results of the study identified that while psychological safety was negatively related to the number of ideas a team developed, it was positively related to the quality (goodness) of the ideas developed. This result indicates that while psychological safety may not increase team productivity in terms of the number of ideas produced, it may impact team effectiveness in coming up with viable candidate ideas to move forward in the design process. In addition, there was no relationship between psychological safety and ownership bias during concept screening. These findings provide quantitative evidence on the role of psychological safety on engineering team idea production and identify areas for further study.
... Based on the spiral of silence theory (Noelle-Neumann, 1974, 1993, people are more likely to express their stances when they feel their opinions are shared by the majority. On the other hand, according to the social loafing theory (Karau & Williams, 1993;Klein, Smith, & John, 2004), people are more likely to defend their stances through boycott/buycott actions when they feel they are the opinion minority. Both mechanisms are tested in this study, with the feeling of being in the majority opinion group and the feeling of others not contributing enough as the two mediators. ...
... According to the spiral of silence theory, people would be motivated to express their opinions on a controversial subject because they feel the majority is on their side (Noelle-Neumann, 1974, 1993. Based on the social loafing theory, individuals feel responsible to argue against the majority if others on their side are not influencing the opinion environment in the way desired by themselves (Karau & Williams, 1993;Klein et al., 2004). The consequence of these psychologies is that people are unlikely to change their stances. ...
... This phenomenon is especially prominent on social media since boycott/buycott behavior can transform into hashtag activism through which individual consumers aggregately exert pressure on the target company or show support toward it (Yang, 2016). When it comes to an individual's willingness to contribute to a collective boycott/buycott endeavor with the presence or absence of others' boycott/buycott efforts (Karau & Williams, 1993;Klein et al., 2004), the social loafing theory is a relevant framework, as it particularly focuses on the instrumental nature of boycott/buycott behavior. ...
Article
Using spiral of silence and social loafing theories, this study proposed a parallel mechanism to explain why people defend their stances on controversial sociopolitical issues through political consumption behaviors (i.e., boycott and buycott) when they read about corporate advocacy messages on social media. A 2 (personal stance: supporting vs. opposing gun control) × 3 (other Instagram commenters' stances: majority supporting gun control vs. majority opposing gun control vs. balanced opinions) between-subjects quasi-experiment was conducted to test the mediating effects of feeling of being in the majority opinion group and feeling of others not contributing enough on boycott/buycott intentions. Results showed that people defend their stances through boycott/buycott actions, because of the feeling of being in the majority opinion group.
... SI is also a central process in theoretical models explaining group member motivation like the Collective Effort Model (CEM, Karau & Williams, 1993) or its extension, the Team member Effort Expenditure Model (TEEM, Torka et al., 2021). Both models assume that the team members' effort levels depend on the perception that their individual performance is instrumental for the team outcome. ...
... In principle, the higher task importance and valence of the team outcomes as compared to more artificial tasks in the laboratory could make the relative strength effect more likely. This would be consistent with the CEM (Karau & Williams, 1993), which postulates that individual motivation in group work depends on the task importance and the valence of the group outcomes. However, concerning relay swimming, higher task importance and outcome valence cannot explain the stronger effort gains among weaker as compared to stronger members. ...
... As a consequence, weaker relay members are probably aware of the importance of their performance from the beginning. Expectancy x value models, like the Collective Effort Model (Karau & Williams, 1993; see also Shepperd, 1993;Torka et al., 2021) developed to explain group member work motivation comprise the following central tenet: Members exert more effort in group tasks only if they perceive their individual performance as highly instrumental for achieving a valuable group outcome. The findings in Study 1 correspond with this assumption as inferior relay members showed effort gains even when swimming at the first position of their relay. ...
Article
Members of sports teams often differ in their individual performance capabilities. While numerous laboratory studies have shown that especially less capable members exhibit larger effort gains in teams as compared to their individual performance, related findings in relay swimming remained ambiguous. Thus, this research aims to clarify whether relative strength among the team members represents an independent source of effort gains in swimming relays (i.e., faster swim times in the relay as compared to the individual race). Statistical analyses of relay swimming performances in elite-class (Study 1) and U.S. college (Study 2) competitions were conducted with a total N = 1,488 cases including 1,020 swimmers. We tested the hypothesis that weaker swimmers show larger effort gains in relays than stronger swimmers. The results of both studies correspond and confirm this hypothesis: Weaker relay members exhibit significantly larger effort gains than stronger swimmers. Thus, this study provides evidence for the relative strength hypothesis under real-world conditions. Based on our findings, and contrary to the prevailing preference of swimming coaches, we recommend that the strongest swimmers should not be positioned first in the serial order of the relay team.
... H5. The perception of identifiability in a group positively relates to IWB. Karau and Williams (1993) argued that social loafing is a robust phenomenon that can generate a wide variety of results and affect gender and tasks. The effect of social loafing can be moderated with the help of other factors including (1) the involvement of the task in the employee's personality, (2) performance with strangers or friends and (3) the perception of individuals regarding their unique contributions to the completion of given tasks (Harkins and Petty, 1982). ...
... The researchers (e.g. Karau and Williams, 1993) claim that the circumstances in which an individual employee's contribution is difficult to measure are prevalent and make it easy for him/her to evade a job task that negatively influences performance. Liden et al. (2004) also conclude that task characteristics, lack of cohesiveness and group size exacerbate loafing. ...
... In a sales setting, team formation is a common practice to elicit more participation and greater motivation to achieve higher performance (Mesmer-Magnus and DeChurch, 2009). The social loafing theory proposes that individual team members may put in less effort (Karau and Williams, 1993). Among various factors, the perceived identifiability eliminated or reduced the negative influence of social loafing (Williams et al., 1981), increased involvement in tasks (Brickner et al., 1986), strengthening group cohesion (Williams, 1981) and elevating the sense of individual support (Harkins and Petty, 1982). ...
Article
Purpose A highly competitive business environment needs a creative strategy for long-term survival and a competitive advantage in an uncertain market environment. This objective induces organizations to adopt innovative workplace behavior for better performance. Accordingly, this study aims to examine the impact of spirit at work (SAW), perceived identifiability and shared responsibility on innovative work behavior (IWB) and task performance. Design/methodology/approach The data was collected from 72 business-to-business (B2B) sales teams consisting of 561 employees working in Pakistan's B2B industries. The data was then analyzed using PROCESS macro to test the research hypotheses. Findings The results have shown a surprising and inconsistent finding where shared responsibility has a relatively more substantial and positive influence on IWB and task performance than perceived identifiability and SAW. Research limitations/implications The shared responsibility dimension of “social loafing theory” always negatively influences work-related outcomes, but this study refutes this claim. Therefore, researchers should explore social loafing theory in cultures with a higher collectivism score on the Hofstede cultural model. Practical implications This study motivates the sales manager to reassess the shared responsibility concept, as it may play a synergetic role in boosting innovation in selling approaches. Originality/value As per the researchers' best knowledge, research on social loafing theory has never been conducted in a selling context, specifically in a collectivistic society.
... In crowdfunding, creators set the initial goals, and backers individually decide to contribute but 'fund as a crowd' (Crosetto & Regner, 2018). Hence, crowdfunding goals are group-level, and backers' collective effort (Williams & Karau, 1993) is critical to achieving goals. In other words, tasks are interdependent, and even though individuals in the crowd perform separately in the end, individual inputs are combined or pooled. ...
... In crowdfunding, even though the creator sets the funding goal, fundraising requires contributions from multiple backers. In the case of group-level goals, there may be social loafing (Williams & Karau, 1993) or free riding. In a collective task, the outcome is composed of the cumulative contributions of individuals. ...
Article
The use of crowdfunding as a funding method has increased considerably over the last decade. However, competition for crowdfunding money is tough, and goal setting is critical for fund seekers. We investigate the impact of initially set stretch goals and the project creators' communication openness on project funding performance. Empirical results based on a large dataset from Kickstarter show that the stretch goals and higher levels of communication openness increase the likelihood of project funding success. Furthermore, communication openness positively moderates the relation between stretch goals and funding success. Moreover, projects with aggressive stretch goals are more likely to succeed if the goals are communicated well. The results provide practical implications for project creators to increase funding performance by communicating openly with the crowd.
... The most concise proposition for defining social inhibition was developed under social-experimental psychology-social inhibition is captured as one of the effects Kwiatkowska of social influence that boils down to minimising or completely eliminating behaviour in the presence of others (McCarty & Karau, 2017). In this way, the presence of others is of key importance as it precedes the inhibition of behaviour when the inhibition mechanism is evoked (Karau & Williams, 1993;Latané & Darley, 1968). Thus, social inhibition can be experienced by every human being (McCarty & Karau, 2017). ...
... When placing social inhibition in the CPM space (Strus et al., 2014;Strus & Cieciuch, 2017), we must bear in mind that this construct is a part of a certain universe of personality dispositions which manifest only in a social and interpersonal context (Asendorpf, 1994;Buss, 1980;Denollet, 2000Denollet, , 2005Fox et al., 2015;Kagan et al., 1987;Karau & Williams, 1993;Klein & Mumper, 2018;Latané & Darley, 1968;McCarty & Karau, 2017). For this reason, when locating social inhibition (likewise any other psychosocial disposition) within the CPM one must focus on the content of the metatraits in this respect, i.e., how they manifest in the context of relationships with other people, including both their quantity (to what extent they are stimulating for the individual, which determines the degree of involvement, e.g., in initiating new relationships) and quality (how these relationships develop and how they affect the well-being of the individual and his or her further attitude to people, the world, social norms, etc.). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to present a new model of social inhibition conceptualised as a dual structured construct including shyness and modesty. The complexity and diversity of these two social inhibition forms are shown across various domains of psychosocial functioning (i.e., self-image, cognitive, emotional, and behavioural). Locating shyness and modesty within the space of the Circumplex of Personality Metatraits enabled us to identify conceptually adjacent constructs to social inhibition (i.e., humiliation and humility) and put the latter into a broad personality context. Through supplementary meta-analyses of the relationships of shyness and modesty with the Big Five personality traits, we confront our theoretical proposition with existing empirical findings. Our paper indicates that social inhibition can be treated as a psychoso-cial disposition with two related and sharing core elements, but distinct and differentially targeted forms-more neurotic and dysfunctional shyness and more agreeable and adaptive modesty.
... This motivation leads people to enhance their effort and form good impressions in collaboration settings (Amabile et al. 1990; Baron et al. 1978). Conversely, social loafing theory states that people tend to exert less effort when they work collectively as part of a group than when they complete a task alone (Karau and Williams 1993;Singh et al. 2018). This is mainly because other team members are too active or dominant, their efforts are not recognized or desired, or they believe that the task can be accomplished without their input. ...
... In addition to that, we identified, analysed and categorised 12 sub-theories, issues, and mechanisms as frequent reference points for our KTs which either offer important details on the KTs' underlying key concepts or provide additional insight into potential side effects of constraints in the context of creativity and virtual collaboration via CSS (Table 1). JK4 Social Loafing Individual effort in collaboration Latané et al. (1979), Karau and Williams (1993) JK5 Production blocking ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As next generation Creativity Support Systems (CSS) become increasingly complex, facilitators and virtual teams artificially limit themselves and work around features in order to prevent cognitive overload or spark creativity. Contrary to intuition, research shows that limited functionalities or interactions can be beneficial for creative collaboration. Following a Design Science Research approach, we investigate how CSS should make use of constraints in order to support virtual collaboration. Our research offers two practical insights: Firstly, constraints in CSS can stimulate more radical forms of creativity beyond routine performance, promote adaptation and activity in CSS and enable expression and exploration for inexperienced users. Secondly, we propose five Design Principles (DPs) in accord with these findings: 1) Stimulation and Pause, 2) Blocking and Proceeding, 3) Mixing and Integrating, 4) Initial Limitation and 5) Late Variety.
... Exactly why engagement would be lower among participants in a multi-site replication than in the original study is not entirely clear. Research on social loafing has suggested that people are generally less engaged when performing anonymously as part of a large group than when individually identified (e.g., Karau & Williams, 1993)but participants were often told explicitly that their identities would be submerged in a large group. Most consent forms explicitly state that data will be analyzed at the group level (i.e., the data from all individual participants within a group will be combined). ...
Preprint
Multi-site (multi-lab/many-lab) replications have emerged as a popular way of verifying prior research findings, but their record in social psychology has prompted distrust of the field and a sense of crisis. We review all 36 multi-site social psychology replications (plus three articles reporting multiple mini-studies). We start by assuming both the original and the multi-site replications were conducted in honest and diligent fashion, despite often yielding different conclusions. Four of the 36 (11%) were clearly successful in terms of providing significant support for the original hypothesis, and five others (14%) had mixed results. The remaining 27 (75%) were failures. Multiple explanations for the generally poor record of replications are considered and relevant evidence assessed, including: original hypothesis was wrong; hypothesis not tested because of operational failure; low engagement of participants; and bias toward failure. There was evidence for each of these, with low engagement emerging as a widespread problem (reflected in high rates of discarded data and weak manipulation checks). The few procedures with actual interpersonal interaction fared much better than others. We discuss implications in relation to manipulation checks, effect sizes, and impact on the field and offer recommendations for improving future multi-site projects.
... But it is also possible that there are hidden individual difference moderators, such as group identification, or environmental moderators, such as size of incentives. Working on a team might incentivize some people to display competence to others but might also incentivize others to social loaf (e.g., Karau & Williams, 1993;Schippers, 2014;Stark et al., 2017), producing an overall null effect. Another possibility is that our team manipulation was not strong enough and that with a more powerful manipulation, there would have been more cheating in the Team condition. ...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies (total n = 1,245) explored the influence of (1) receiving public vs. private performance feedback, (2) competing on a team vs. solo, and (3) individual differences in team competition participation on cheating behavior. Participants were given opportunities to cheat in an online trivia competition and self-reported their cheating behavior. Meta-analyses of Studies 1 and 2 revealed that participants who believed their performance feedback would be public cheated more than those who believed their performance feedback would be private, and individuals who regularly participate in team competition cheated more than those who do not. We found no evidence that experimentally manipulating team competition (vs. solo competition) influenced cheating. Our findings suggest that people will put their moral reputations at risk in order to protect their competence reputations by engaging in unethical behavior that signals (false) competence to others.
... First, awe often leads to reports of "being humbled" (Stellar et al., 2018), and humility has been found as a predictor of task performance above and beyond other individual difference predictors (Y. Lee et al., 2019). Second, awe is associated with more collectivistic thinking (Bai et al., 2017), and more collectivistic employees are less likely to engage in counterproductive behavior (Jackson et al., 2006), social loafing (Earley, 1989;Karau & Williams, 1993), and free riding (Wagner, 1995), and a lower level of engagement in all these behaviors can increase one's task performance. This indirect evidence suggests that awe, as a result of human-animal work, can in fact lead to higher levels of task performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Human‐animal work represents a collaboration between humans and animals to achieve work goals, and is common in the domains of healthcare, therapy, entertainment, and education. Although the scopes and types of human‐animal work is diversifying and increasing, organizational scholars have yet to explore its impacts on employees. Drawing from the models of compassion and mind perception theories, we first develop a theoretical model pertaining to the development of compassion as a result of human‐animal work. In a study with zookeepers (Study 1), we find that human‐animal work evokes the emotion of compassion, which in turn is positively associated with employee prosocial behavior and task performance. These mediated effects are moderated by how employees perceive animals – employees are more likely to experience compassion, and in turn become more prosocial and work better when they generally perceive animals to be able to experience emotions and bodily sensations. Furthermore, two follow‐up studies (i.e., Studies 2 and 3) with employees who engage in human‐animal work in Hong Kong and the United States reveal that working with animals evokes awe in addition to compassion, and provides insight into their resultant impact on prosocial behavior and task performance. We end by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of this work. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... To minimize social loafing and increase individual accountability, students completed a graded individual assignment before group work began, with the individual portion counting as 20% of the final project grade. For the group work, students were assigned to work in small groups, because large groups can foster a sense of anonymity, which increases social loafing (Karau & Williams, 1993;North, Linley, & Hargreaves, 2000). Additional steps were taken to increase interdependence. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In ethics courses, students need to begin or continue their transformation from smart, motivated people to ethical, self-reflective professionals. This chapter focuses on some principles and strategies to achieve that goal, including backward design, developing an effective course atmosphere, the nature of teaching and learning ethics, and skill development. Rather than thinking first about classroom activities, reading assignments, and topics, instructors who use backward design start with consideration of the goals they wish their students to achieve, then move on to how they will assess whether students meet those goals. Only then can they design specific, effective activities and assignments for a course. We explore several other principles and assumptions relevant to the teaching of ethics. We do this by presenting an instructor’s observations and reflections on his graduate ethics course, followed by three graduate students’ views of (a) the course and (b) how the instructor attempted to actualize these principles.
... In contrast, social loafing is a phenomenon related to the social domain specifically. Despite being a thoroughly studied phenomenon (see Karau and Williams, 1993), the relationship between social loafing and procrastination is not much explored. Ferrari and Pychyl (2012) pointed out that social loafing and procrastination share similarities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Standard definitions of procrastination underscore the irrational nature of this habit, a critical criterion being that the procrastinating individual delays despite expecting to be worse off for the delay. However, an examination of more than 175 items in 18 procrastination scales reveals that they do not address such a forward-looking criterion. Consequently, scales run the risk of not separating maladaptive and irrational delays from other forms of delay. We propose that forward-looking considerations may not be the best way of operationalizing the irrationality involved in procrastination and argue that scales should instead focus on past negative consequences of unnecessary delay. We suggest a new scale to measure such procrastination-related negative consequences and demonstrate that this scale, used separately or combined with established procrastination scales, performs better in predicting negative states and correlates to procrastination than established scales. The new scale seems to be helpful in separating trivial forms of unnecessary delay from maladaptive forms and hence represents a potentially valuable tool in research and clinical/applied efforts.
... Similarly, in light of the FLAE norm, diffusion of responsibility (Fischer et al., 2011) and social loafing (Karau & Williams, 1993) might be facilitated especially among middle authors. Moreover, individual biases such as the Mere Exposure Effect (Zajonc, 1968;Zajonc, 2001; in the realm of authorship, referring to the higher visibility of the first author compared to the other authors) which is fostered by the perceptual context of research literature (i.e., visual stimuli and typical exposure durations of less than 10 s; Montoya et al., 2017) likely lead to the overestimation of the contribution of the first author to the research project as a whole. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the seventh edition of the publication manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), the APA style now prescribes bias‐free language and encourages accessibility even to non‐academic audiences. However, even with the newest guidelines, the way we credit authors in psychology remains anachronistic, intransparent, and prone to conflict. It still relies on a sequence‐determines‐credit approach in the byline, which concurrently is contradicted by the option to consider the last author as the position of the principal investigator depending on the field or journal. Scholars from various disciplines have argued that relying on such norms introduces a considerable amount of error when stakeholders rely on articles for career‐relevant decisions. Given the existing recommendations towards a credit‐based system, ignoring those issues will further promote bias that could be avoided with rather minor changes to the way we perceive authorship. In this article, we introduce a set of easy‐to‐implement changes to the manuscript layout that value contribution rather than position. Aimed at fostering transparency, accountability, and equality between authors, establishing those changes would likely benefit all stakeholders in contemporary psychological science.
... In addition, the information required for the attribution process may be ambiguous in some cases. For instance, it may be difficult to identify the people who socially loaf in large groups (Karau & Williams, 1993), thereby preventing attributions about these individuals. Moreover, dispersed groups may not have access to information regarding their group member's effort and ability. ...
Article
Full-text available
How do task groups react to poor performers? We integrate attribution theory with individual motivation theories in a novel, parsimonious model that makes nuanced predictions. Our model asserts that group members assess the poor performer's intent to help the group (i.e., pro-group intent) by first considering the poor performer's characteristics suggested by attribution theory: effort and ability. While attribution theorists have mainly assumed that low effort reflects lacking desire to contribute to group goals and that it is infeasible to acquire ability, motivation theories assume individuals set their goals to perform tasks and acquire skills based on both desirability (value) and feasibility (expectancy). As group members may well assume that a poor performer uses these criteria when forming a pro-group intent to contribute to group goals, low effort may also reflect the infeasibility of making the required contributions, and low ability may reflect a low desire to acquire new skills. Therefore, our model of pro-group intent predicts that desirability-feasibility assumptions moderate the effort-ability effect on reactions to poor performers and that evaluations of pro-group intent mediate this effect. Indeed, in five experiments (total N = 1011), low effort only produced more negative reactions than low ability when a desirability attribution was made for effort, and a feasibility attribution was made for ability. In contrast, reversing these assumptions eliminated the effort-ability effect. This interaction was fully mediated by the performer's perceived pro-group intent. We discuss how our (meta-) intentional perspective informs existing accounts of poor performers, group processes, and motivation science.
... However, if a person overestimates both their level of personal concern and the effectiveness of their actions relative to their peers, they may be satisfied with relatively less effective action. Furthermore, self-serving bias might obscure personal responsibility if individuals think they take more action than peers and thus determine they have done "enough" (Karau & Williams, 1993). It is possible that accurate social comparison could provide a helpful benchmark for individuals to gauge and set their own levels of concern and action, but the usefulness of this benchmark may be distorted by widespread selfserving bias. ...
Article
Preventing the negative impacts of major, intersectional social issues hinges on personal concern and willingness to take action. This research examines social comparison in the context of climate change, racial injustice, and COVID‐19 during Fall 2020. Participants in a U.S. university sample (n = 288), reported personal levels of concern and action and estimated peers' concern and action regarding these three issues. Participants estimated that they were more concerned than peers for all three issues and took more action than peers regarding COVID‐19 and climate change. Participants who reported higher levels of personal concern also estimated that they took greater action than peers (relative to participants who reported lower levels of concern). Exploratory analyses found that perceived personal control over social issues were associated with greater concern and action for racial injustice and climate change but not for COVID‐19. This indicates that issue‐specific features, including perceived controllability, may drive people to differently assess their experiences of distinct social issues.
... L'une des premières explications avancées est celle de la paresse sociale, phénomène observé dans différents types de tâches : des tâches physiques (comme le tir à la corde ; Ingham et al., 1974), cognitives (e.g., la résolution de problèmes ; Karau & Williams, 1993), créatives (e.g., brainstorming) ou évaluatives (Furnham, 2000). Il met en évidence que, lors d'une tâche réalisée en groupe, plus la taille du groupe augmente, moins les membres fournissent d'effort individuellement lorsque les contributions de chacun des membres ne sont pas identifiables, c'est-à-dire lorsqu'ils travaillent en situation d'anonymat. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
La créativité est une compétence du 21 e siècle nécessaire au développement d'une société innovante ainsi qu'à l'épanouissement personnel et professionnel (Anaiadou & Clara, 2009). Elle n'est cependant pas qu'une affaire individuelle et peut également apparaître collectivement. A ce titre, la composition des groupes, et notamment la diversité de genre, pourrait influencer la production d'idées créatives. Toutefois, les travaux antérieurs sur ce sujet se révèlent être inconsistants, certains présentant un effet positif de la mixité dans les groupes sur les performances créatives (Schruijer & Mostert, 1997), et d'autres un effet négatif (Goncalo et al., 2014 ). Ainsi, les trois études à grande échelle présentées dans cette thèse avaient pour objectif d'apporter de nouveaux éléments de réponse à ce sujet. La première étude s'est attachée à explorer les effets de la diversité de genre dans les groupes auprès d'une cohorte de lycéens, et la seconde étude a répliqué l'étude précédente auprès d'une nouvelle cohorte, afin d'observer si des résultats similaires étaient obtenus. Enfin, la troisième étude a pris en considération la limite majeure des précédentes études en se focalisant sur des groupes de lycéens issus d'une filière équitablement mixte. Les résultats indiquent de meilleures performances créatives au sein des groupes composés exclusivement de femmes, particulièrement lorsqu'ils sont comparés aux groupes d'hommes et aux groupes composés d'une femme seule parmi une majorité d'hommes. Les perspectives scientifiques et pratiques de ces trois études seront discutées.
... First, regarding the crowd, there are many theories in social psychology and sociology learnt about motivations of people in groups or social communities such as social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954), common identity theory, common bond theory (Prentice et al., 2006), legitimate peripheral participation (Lave and Wenger, 1991), and collective effort model (Karau and Williams, 1993). All of these theories are described in Appendix A. Many studies have applied these theories in the context of crowdsourcing in order to explain several aspects of the motivation or provide approaches that can motivate users in crowdsourcing projects based on the relationships with others in the projects. ...
Thesis
Crowdsourcing is emerging as an efficient approach to solve a wide variety of problems by engaging a large number of Internet users from many places in the world. However, the success of these systems relies critically on motivating the crowd to contribute, especially in microtask crowdsourcing contexts when the tasks are repetitive and easy for people to get bored. Given this, finding ways to efficiently incentivise participants in crowdsourcing projects in general and microtask crowdsourcing projects in particular is a major open challenge. Also, although there are numerous ways to incentivise participants in microtask crowdsourcing projects, the effectiveness of the incentives is likely to be different in different projects based on specific characteristics of those projects. Therefore, in a particular crowdsourcing project, a practical way to address the incentive problem is to choose a certain number of candidate incentives, then have a good strategy to select the most effective incentive at run time so as to maximise the cumulitive utility of the requesters within a given budget and time limit. We refer to this as the incentive selection problem (ISP). We present algorithms (HAIS and BOIS) to deal with the ISP by considering all characteristics of the problem. Specically, the algorithms make use of limited financial and time budgets to have a good exploration-exploitation balance. Also, they consider the group-based nature of the incentives (i.e., sampling two incentives with different group size yields two different number of samples) so as to make a good decision on how many times each incentive will be sampled at each time. By conducting extensive simulations, we show that our algorithms outperform state-of-the-art approaches in most cases. Also from the results of the simulations, practical usage of the two algorithms is discussed.
... Tout d abord, il nous semble important de noter la ressemblance marquante entre le partage des charges proposé par la théorie de la base sociale et les effets de facilitation, d inhibition et de paresse sociale que l on peut retrouver en psychologie sociale (Guerin, 1986). Pour nos lecteurs les moins avertis, il est important de rappeler que la facilitation, l inhibition et la paresse sociale sont des phénomènes qui mettent en évidence une influence de la présence sociale sur les performances des individus : la facilitation sociale est le phénomène associé à l amélioration des performances individuelles en présence d autrui (Zajonc, 1965), l inhibition sociale est le phénomène associé à la diminution des performances (McCarty & Karau, 2016), tandis que la paresse sociale est le phénomène associé à une réduction de l effort engagé par les individus lorsqu ils réalisent une tâche commune (Karau & Williams, 1993). Bien que dans notre étude de l axe , il serait possible de suggérer que les différences de perception observées soient dues à ces phénomènes, cela n apporterait que peu de valeur explicative quant aux effets observés. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
La cognition, la perception et l’action peuvent être considérées comme faisant partie d'un même processus dynamique avant tout orienté vers le maintien adaptatif des individus. Ce que perçoivent les individus, ce n’est pas un environnement objectif et indépendant d’eux, mais c’est un environnement leur offrant des opportunités d’action (e.g., des affordances). En se couplant à l’environnement, les organismes créeront leur propre domaine de signification, ce qui leur permettra en retour d’entreprendre des actions adaptées. Un principe illustrant bien une telle conception au niveau écologique est le principe d’économie d’action. Ce principe stipule que pour survivre, grandir et se reproduire, les organismes doivent conserver leurs énergies dans le temps. Cela, implique alors qu’ils puissent se maintenir autour d’une ligne de base homéostatique autour de laquelle les coûts énergétiques de leurs actions pourront être évalués. Chez l'homme, cette ligne de base serait fonction à la fois des ressources physiologiques, mais également des ressources sociales. Cette idée est notamment défendue par la théorie de la base sociale qui suggère que le fonctionnement par défaut de la cognition humaine serait d’agir au sein d’un environnement social. Selon cette théorie, lorsque les individus feraient face à des demandes environnementales, ils auraient tendance à partager la charge afin de minimiser le coût de leurs interactions avec le monde. Se basant sur cette approche incarnée des relations sociales, cette thèse aura donc pour objectif de comprendre comment s’opère ce partage des charges lorsque les individus anticipent d’agir dans un environnement donné. Précisément, elle sera de montrer que l’impact du partage des charges sur l’économie d’action, est fonction des caractéristiques de la situation (axe 1) mais également du niveau de base sociale des individus (axe 2).
... Based on these positive findings, it is necessary to examine how individual-level factors affect the process of group work and learning outcomes. For example, students may lack satisfaction in their team learning experiences due to dysfunction and interpersonal conflicts, such as free-riding or social loafing [7,8]. These may affect team performance, team stability, the dynamics of the group, and group structure [9,10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine how team process factors relate to students’ self-efficacy, attitude, and learning satisfaction in flipped learning. Since lone-wolf students tend to have little patience for the group work process and exhibit a lack of organizational commitment, this study also explores how students’ preferences for collaborative work or individual work affect their self-efficacy, attitude, and learning satisfaction in a flipped classroom. The participants were thirty-four undergraduate students enrolled in a consumer behavior course offered by a school of business at a university in Seoul, South Korea. Data were collected through surveys that measured team process, lone-wolf tendencies, self-efficacy, and attitude during the course. The results show the factor of team trust had a significant negative correlation with the lone-wolf measure but a positive correlation with responsibility, communication, cognitive and social competency, and self-efficacy. Moreover, communication and responsibility were positive predictors of self-efficacy and attitude. These results imply the usefulness of identifying critical variables of individual difference, such as lone-wolf tendencies, that could lead to both dysfunctional team process and low outcomes. Based on the results, this study provides implications for structuring and managing team projects in a higher education setting.
... In conclusion, meta-analyzes of gender differences in helping behavior (Karau & Williams, 1993) show that masculine and feminine characteristics may have an effect on employees' showing PCB. ...
Article
Full-text available
... esim. Shepperd 1993;Shepperd ja Taylor 1999;Karau ja Williams 1993). Ringelmann-vaikutus voidaankin kiteyttää seuraavasti: motivaationtappioita voi esiintyä ryhmätyöskentelyssä yksilösuorituksiin verrattuna. ...
... Social loafing is a motivational construct [20], a common social phenomenon in which the performance of individuals working together is significantly lower than that of individuals working independently, resulting in a waste of organizational manpower [21]. Based on meta-analysis, social loafing is a phenomenon in which individual efforts in the collective are less than those done independently [22]. Social loafing is a common social behavior in which individual behaviors caused performance of individuals working in a group become significantly lower than that of individuals working alone, resulting in a waste of organizational productivity and success [23][24][25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Megaprojects encounter numerous innovation challenges as well as cross-organization cooperation demands. The paper aims to clarify the relationship between stakeholders’ psychological ownership and cooperative innovation performance. It proposes modelling the behaviors’ mediator process and how and why the megaproject stakeholders’ psychological ownership impacts their cooperative innovation performance. The research aims to expand the domain of psychological ownership by temporary cross-organization aspects and reveal behavioral influence mediation mechanism. This paper opted for an empirical study adapting the SEM approach. Tools such as pre-survey and documentary analysis are applied to design the questionnaire scale. This paper acquired 237 valid questionnaires from seven megaprojects to validate the impact of stakeholders’ psychological ownership on cooperative innovation performance. This paper finds that the following: (1) the psychological ownership of megaproject stakeholders has a negative impact on cooperative innovation performance, which is realized through the dual mediators of territorial behavior and social loafing; (2) psychological ownership has a positive effect on both territorial behavior and social loafing, while territorial behavior and social loafing have a negative effect on cooperative innovation performance. This paper reveals that psychological ownership’s negative influence mechanism on cooperative innovation performance, in temporary cross-organization, further provides support for improving cooperative innovation performance.
... Second, we tend to give more attention to information that supports existing opinions and preferences (Karau & Williams, 1993). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The digital transformation is changing the way we collaborate - be it in education or business. Creativity is essential and considered to be one of the most important core competencies of the 21st century. In order to master digital group work, we need to develop creativity, innovative approaches and new ideas. This handbook demonstrates how creativity can be strategically fostered and encouraged in digital environments. Practitioners, educators, and every day people will find tips and advice from interdisciplinary research on creativity in the virtual setting.
... Ringelmann'a (1913, s.19) göre, kişinin motivasyonunun azalmasının altında yatan sebep; ortak bir amacı gerçekleştirmek üzere bir araya gelen grup üyelerinin ''nasıl olsa gruptaki birileri bu işi halleder'', düşüncesinden ortaya çıkan takım arkadaşına güvenme eğilimine dayanmaktadır. Karau ve Williams (1993, s.681), Ringelman'ın (1913 aksine grup üyelerinin, azami düzeyde katkı sağladıklarını düşündüklerini, motivasyon kaybı olan aylaklığı, farkında olmadan yaptıklarını ileri sürmüştür. Bazı durumlarda da sosyal kaytarma, fark edilirliğin azalması sebebiyle, gruplarda bir motivasyon kaybına neden olmaktadır. ...
Research
Full-text available
zet Sosyal kaytarma davranışı, özellikle grup çalışması olan örgütlerde araştırılması, önlem alınması ve üzerinde durulması gereken önemli bir konudur. Günümüz örgütlerinde küreselleşmenin de etkisiyle çeşitli işleri gerçekleştirmek için gruplar halinde çalışmak adeta bir zorunluluk haline gelmiştir. Ringelmann etkisi olarak da bilinen sosyal kaytarma, temelde bireylerin işe sunduğu katkının, gruptaki insan sayına bağlı olarak etkilendiğini savunmaktadır. Sosyal kaytarmayla davranışları, örgütlere zarar verdiği ve çalışanların verimliliğinin azalması sebebiyle örgütler açısından istenmeyen bir durumdur. Bu çalışmada öncelikle sosyal kaytarma kavramı açıklanmış, sosyal kaytarmaya sebep olan kişisel ve bir takım örgütsel sebeplere yer verilmiş, sosyal kaytarma kavramı kaynakları koruma teorisi perspektifinden incelenerek genel bir değerlendirme yapılmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Sosyal Kaytarma, Ringelmann Etkisi, Kaynakları Koruma Teorisi RESOURCE CONSERVATION THEORY APPROACH TO SOCIAL LOAFING BEHAVIOR Abstract Social loafing behavior is an important issue that needs to be investigated, taken precautions and focused on, especially in organizations with group work. In today's organizations, it has become almost a necessity to work in groups in order to carry out various works with the effect of globalization. Social loafing, also known as the Ringelmann effect, basically argues that the contribution of individuals to work is affected by the number of people in the group. Social loafing is an undesirable situation for organizations as it harms organizations and decreases employee productivity. In this study, first of all, the concept of social loafing is explained, personal and some organizational reasons that cause social loafing are included, and a general evaluation is made by examining the concept of social loafing from the perspective of the theory of conservation of resources.
... The free rider problem (Kandel and Lazear, 1992) occurs when some team members do not play their part in achieving the overall goal, and still partake in the overall compensation -leading to an eventual decrease in output quality caused by the dissatisfaction of the contributing members. Similarly, social loafing (Latane et al., 1979;Karau and Williams, 1993) occurs when individuals exert less effort when working in a group than they would when performing an individual task. ...
Thesis
Crowdsourcing has the potential to revolutionise the way organisations carry out tasks that need to scale out quickly – and indeed this revolution has begun. However, crowdsourcing today, and especially paid microtasks, face several technical and socio-economic challenges that can hamper the realisation of this vision. This work addresses four of such challenges: workflow design; real-time crowd work; motivation and rewards; and synchronous collaboration. The thesis describes the use of a bespoke gamified crowdsourcing platform Wordsmith, and studies the use of furtherance incentives to tackle issues at the heart of microtasks that feature monetary payments as the primary source of incentivisation. Furtherance incentives represent a timely and appropriate reward to improve task continuance presented when a worker is about to quit a task. As such, the keys to effectively deploying furtherance incentives lie in: the timely ability to detect waning worker interest in a task, and, knowledge of the appropriate incentive to offer the particular worker at that stage of the task. In understanding how to improve crowdsourcing workflow designs, the thesis presents an approach that leverages on insights into task features and worker interaction preferences. The findings illustrate how workers interact with tasks in the presence of choice – thus offering us an idea into the types of furtherance incentive to offer workers. In the study on real-time crowd work, microtask contests are introduced as a medium to engage workers to complete tasks featuring tight time constraints. The results give us a rich model that we use to predict when workers are likely to exit a task at different stages. The research into motivation and rewards combines the two components of furtherance incentives by using gamification elements as an additional source of incentives. This leads to more tasks carried out and at a higher quality when compare with baseline paid microtasks. Finally our study on synchronous collaboration offers an additional case study on the effectiveness of furtherance incentives. Here we use sociality-based features of social pressure and social flow between interacting workers as furtherance incentives resulting in improved qualitative and quantitative results.
Chapter
360°-(3D-)Video-Projekte haben häufig einen anwendungsbezogenen Charakter, der es Nutzer*innen ermöglicht, auf einfache Art und Weise in eine aufgezeichnete, reale Umgebung einzutauchen. Durch die sinkenden Kosten dieser Technologie wird ihr Einsatz auch im universitären Kontext immer attraktiver – sowohl in der Forschung als auch in der Lehre. Über die Frage, wie sinnvoll die Implementierung dieser Technologie in forschungsorientierte Lehrprojekte ist, ist gegenwärtig allerdings noch wenig bekannt. Aus diesem Grund illustriert der vorliegende Beitrag anhand eines Fallbeispiels, wie sich 360°-(3D-)Videos in Lehrprojekten umsetzen lassen. Konkret basieren die beschriebenen Erfahrungen auf einem forschungsorientierten Lehrprojekt zum Thema „Psychische Störungen und mediale Stigmatisierung“, welches die Autor*innen im Jahr 2019 durchgeführt haben. Nachdem die Autor*innen ihre Motivation für das forschungsorientierte Lehrprojekt beschreiben, gehen sie detailliert auf dessen Umsetzung ein und leiten anhand dieses Fallbeispiels praktische Implikationen ab, die für zukünftige forschungsorientierte Lehrprojekte mit 360°-(3D-)Videos von Nutzen sein können. Insgesamt zeigt der Beitrag, dass auch in Kontexten, in denen keine umfassende technische Ausstattung vorhanden ist und finanzielle Mittel begrenzt sind, 360°(-3D-)Videos in forschungsorientierten Lehrprojekten erfolgreich eingesetzt werden können. Die Durchführung solcher Projekte ist jedoch noch immer mit einem verhältnismäßig hohen Aufwand verbunden.
Article
This qualitative study examined students' descriptions of their experiences in classroom groups in an interdisciplinary arts and sciences program. Using a grounded theory approach, we found that students used descriptive names to navigate complex group demands. Their reductionist strategies interfered with learning, prevented flexibility, and pointed to small group fatigue.
Article
Full-text available
Perceived coworker loafing can adversely influence organization strategy of using formal groups to achieve effective functioning. Consequently, this study examined the role of perceived coworker loafing and gender on job satisfaction and burnout. Design of this study was cross-sectional, and data were collected with structured self-report measure. One hundred and forty-three participants were sampled from various work background in Nigeria. The respondent sample comprises 55% males and 45% females. Simple regression analysis showed that perceived coworker loafing negatively predicts satisfaction with coworkers and the work itself, and positively predict burnout. Multiple regression analysis showed that perceived coworker loafing significantly predict satisfaction with coworker, work itself, and burnout while gender do not moderate the relationship between perceived coworker loafing and burnout. Based on these findings, management was advised to design job characteristics and group process in such a way that social loafing is minimized and also pay equal attention to the feelings of burnout of both genders as both is prone to such feelings.
Article
Many studies have discussed how motivation in task‐related groups is affected by culture. Despite this, the psychological processes underlying these cultural differences have not yet been fully investigated. This study examined the effects of self‐construal on social compensation, that is, motivation gain caused by the expectation of coworkers' poor performance. Participants were 111 Japanese undergraduate students. They were asked to engage in nine tasks as a team with a coworker whose intelligence was inferior or superior and allocate tasks between themselves and their coworkers. We measured the number of tasks that participants selected as their own work as a dependent measure. The results showed that those with interdependent selves were less likely to engage in social compensation even when their coworkers' capability was low.
Article
Just as organizational citizenship behavior reaches conceptual saturation with numerous studies, theoretical studies are needed in conceptualizing Project Citizenship Behavior (PCB). Therefore, in the project-based business world, the number of which is increasing day by day, this concept will be better filled with various studies that establish theoretical connections with the PCB concept. The aim of the research is to make a theoretical contribution to the possible role of gender in the relationship between PCB and Network Capital (NC). In this direction, we first started by examining PCB on the basis of fundamental gender differences. Secondly, with a dialectical approach, the multiplicity of theoretical connections (i.e., increasing effect of social capital on citizenship behaviors) between PCB and interpersonal NC also raises the question of whether employees exhibit PCB for NC development. It is suggested that the more an individual exhibits PCB the more likely he develops his network. Thus, we hypothesized; “ displaying PCB can be a precursor for network capital of employees according to their gender.” After the extensive literature review we can theoretically say that exhibiting PCB may affect individuals NC creation capabilities. Although the relationship between PCB and gender is limited to a few studies in the literature, the lack of a study that conceptually examines the effect of PCB on individual NC is an element that increases the importance of the research. It is expected that this conceptual approach would contribute to the organizational behavior literature in understanding of the relationships between these concepts.
Article
Finding ways of breaking the gender‐based glass ceiling is an important human resource issue in companies today. Employing a sample of over 200 retail stores, we explore multiple moderating and mediating factors to explain when and why women store leaders perform better, equal to, or worse than men. Results reveal that (a) women are assigned to lead stores that are positioned closer to competitive rivals than men and (b) women receive unfair distributive pay outcomes in that they are generally paid less than their male counterparts. When accounting for these factors, performance (i.e., productivity) differences between stores with men and women leaders diminished. Further, organizational tenure and store‐unit size (i.e., number of employees) were positively associated with sales performance among stores with women leaders. The findings unveil why some store‐units led by women underperform but also offer contingency factors that delineate when women‐led and men‐led stores excel in sales productivity. Implications for recruiting and retaining both women and men in leadership are considered.
Article
Problem definition: We investigate the effect of using subcontracted workers together with permanent workers on project financial performance. Academic/practical relevance: It is widespread practice, across disparate businesses, to staff project teams with subcontracted workers—and yet, despite the prevalence of this phenomenon, there is scant research on how subcontracted workers impact project performance. Investigating such an effect is important because past findings on the effects of subcontracting in retail or assembly lines cannot be hastily extrapolated to the more qualified workers and more demanding tasks normally associated with project environments. Methodology: Building on previous findings about the higher motivation level of subcontracted versus permanent workers when the latter are protected from individual dismissal by the law, we develop hypotheses to conceptualize how and under what conditions subcontracted workers positively impact project performance. We then test our hypotheses by analyzing 413 projects of a European high-tech firm. Results: We find that with increased use of subcontracted workers comes increased project profit margins. This positive effect is stronger for larger teams and weaker when large project scope changes occur or when higher-skilled workers are subcontracted. We also find this effect to be stronger when subcontracted workers are involved in technical rather than administrative roles and when subcontractors join in the later stages of the project. Managerial implications: This study offers guidelines on how project managers can use subcontracting to increase project margins, highlighting strategic and tactical factors that affect the benefits of using subcontracted labor.
Chapter
In our research, we aim to introduce Game-based learning (GBL) activity as part of a holistic approach to supporting knowledge acquisition within a Mechanical Design module. Our case study evaluates Activity Based Learning (ABL) by use of GBL as a tool to drive collaborative student learning. The activity described targets students’ ability to engage in hands-on practical collaborative learning, utilising existing skills in order to collectively share and reinforce knowledge. It relies on knowledge acquired from several subject topics thus consolidating applications through a studio-based activity in the form of a game bringing about its own benefits in teaching and learning. Widely used in a range of subjects, the application of GBL in Engineering and Technology and its effectiveness is less explored and reported as a learning tool in Engineering education. We present an approach to underpinning engineering education as part of a studio-based activity for Mechanical Engineering Design. We explore the options and potential for collaborative learning whilst offering students the opportunity to compete with peer teams for ranked positions on a leader board. We report on the level of student engagement and the extent to which learning outcomes were met through the introduction of such an activity.
Article
Full-text available
Cooperative learning has a long history in higher education, dating back thousands of years. Small groups are used in particular so that students can maximize their own and each other's learning. Cooperative learning, on the other hand, is more than just putting students in groups; it also involves adding fairness and engagement into the group learning process. At Universitas Syiah Kuala, this study sought to determine the impact of free riding and social loafing on a group conversation. Using a genuine experimental design, a total of N=70 people were separated into one experimental class and one control class. The results revealed between the experimental group and the control group than in the experimental group, the subjects tended to rate and be judged by their group peers as optimum contributors (SCI = 1). This SCI of 1 means that group members contribute as they should, nothing more and nothing less. This indicates the absence of social loafing and free riding.
Article
Full-text available
The increasing importance of artificial intelligence (AI) in everyday work also means that new insights into team collaboration must be gained. It is important to research how changes in team composition affect joint work, as previous theories and insights on teams are based on the knowledge of pure human teams. Especially, when AI-based systems act as coequal partners in collaboration scenarios, their role within the team needs to be defined. With a multi-method approach including a quantitative and a qualitative study, we constructed four team roles for AI-based teammates. In our quantitative survey based on existing team role concepts (n = 1.358), we used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to construct possible roles that AI-based teammates can fulfill in teams. With nine expert interviews, we discussed and further extended our initially identified team roles, to construct consistent team roles for AI-based teammates. The results show four consistent team roles: the coordinator, creator, perfectionist and doer. The new team roles including their skills and behaviors can help to better design hybrid human-AI teams and to better understand team dynamics and processes.
Article
Full-text available
Group works provide a highly convenient learning and development setting for university students as it helps them to develop innovative solutions by utilizing multiple perspectives and orientations, and deriving integrated insights. However, some reasons such as group size, task meaningfulness, the belief that one's contribution will not make much of a difference, and group members with diverse backgrounds/experiences may lead group members to lower their physical or cognitive effort and/or trigger them to loaf. The behaviors, identified as 'social loafing' in behavioral sciences literature and arise in the forms of slowdowns, carelessness , putting forth less effort, neglecting, withdrawal, inattention and self-limiting, may have direct effect on the group and its members' performance. Regarding this, the aim of the current study was to investigate the opinions of university students on social loafing behaviors observed and experienced in group works. The Survey of Social Loafing in Classroom Teams of Jassawalla, Malshe and Sashittal (2008), consisting of three scales and three questionnaires, was utilized as the data collection tool after Turkish validity and reliability studies were conducted. A total of 374 university students from seven faculties and 26 different programs of a public university participated to the study. Results of the study indicated that being mostly silent during group meetings and not participating in group's final presentation were the most disruptive loafing behaviors; those behaviors mostly wasted other group members' time and caused them to do more than their share of work; group members mostly tried indirect ways of letting social loafer that they did not approve of his/her behavior, and university students wished faculty members to evaluate individual effort on groups in more ways like making the group report mid-semester on 'who is doing what'.
Article
Robotics Education (RE) is viewed as a tool to narrow the gender gap in STEM fields, especially for promoting girls’ learning. As an emerging and potential model in RE, Pair Learning (PL) is different from Individual Learning (IL), which is impacted by many factors. Among them, social factors need to be further explored. Therefore, this study emphasized gender as a key social factor and focused on girls’ learning performance in different learning models (IL and PL) and gender pairing patterns (boy-girl and girl-girl), as well as exploring the effective pedagogy for enhancing girls’ learning performance in RE. To this end, we conducted a comparison experiment in two classes from the fifth grade in a Chinese primary school. Results indicated that: (a) PL outperforms IL in enhancing girls’ learning engagement; (b) PL and IL have the same effect on the girls’ learning attitude and robotics works; (c) Mixed-gender pairing is more beneficial for girls to complete robotics works than single-gender pairing; and (d) Mixed-gender pairing and single-gender pairing have the same effects on girls’ learning attitudes and engagement. The key findings, possible reasons, and implications for practice are also discussed.
Chapter
A widely held belief in organizations is that small groups represent an ideal configuration for idea generation, in spite of much experimental evidence demonstrating a production loss effect. In this chapter, we review the main causes of this effect and argue that such studies provide an imperfect view of creative collaboration, because participants interacting in classical studies on brainstorming cannot be said to constitute a true group. We introduce a social identity perspective on brainstorming and explore some of its repercussions for improving creative performance in groups. In particular, recent technological developments involving virtual environment technology offer the potential means for organizations to truly benefit from the creative potential of groups.
Article
Full-text available
We propose a new theoretical model depicting the compensatory relations between personal agency and social assistance. It suggests two general hypotheses, namely that (1) the stronger the individuals’ sense of personal agency, the weaker their motivation to utilize social assistance and the greater their consequent tendency to develop anti-social attitudes. Conversely, (2) the stronger the individuals’ reliance on social assistance, the weaker their motivation to be agentic, and the lesser their tendency to develop a strong sense of self. These relations are assumed to apply across levels of generality, that is, concerning agency and assistance within a single goal domain, as well as across domains where the source of agency (e.g., money, power) or assistance facilitates the attainment of multiple goals.
Article
This qualitative study examined students' descriptions of their experiences in classroom groups in an interdisciplinary arts and sciences program. Using a grounded theory approach, we found that students used descriptive names to navigate complex group demands. Their reductionist strategies interfered with learning, prevented flexibility, and pointed to small group fatigue.
Article
Full-text available
To understand lying, we naturally focus on small scale lies involving one speaker, one listener, one assertion. This methodology confers artificial plausibility upon the requirement that liars intend to deceive. For it excludes principal-agent conflicts that emerge from linguistic division of labor. When an employee lies for her boss, she need not inherit his motive to deceive. She displays loyalty even if her lie does not deceive. Focus on a single lie in isolation also blinds us to tactical deceptions such as telling a lie which is intended to be caught to advance another lie. Many of these complexities arise from situations that approximate common knowledge without quite crystallizing into this uniform transparency.
Chapter
Full-text available
Psychologists have long had an interest in how being in a group affects task performance. Because many tasks are performed in social settings, a thorough understanding of the processes by which the group context influences task performance is important for both theoretical and practical reasons. Much research has focused on group problem-solving and group productivity and has been summarized by Davis (1969), Steiner (1972), Hackman and Morris (1975), and Hoffman (1965). The focus of this chapter, however, is on social settings in which individuals perform their own tasks “independent” of the others present. In this situation, individuals typically do not interact or share information as in the case of other group problem-solving and task performance paradigms (cf. Steiner, 1972). Many real-life settings such as athletic events, classrooms, and work environments have this feature. Research employing this coactive or additive paradigm has the advantage of permitting a relatively precise study of the influence of group variables on task performance unencumbered by the complexities of group interaction. Thus, such research provides basic information important for understanding effects in more complex group problem-solving and performance paradigms.
Article
Full-text available
Research conducted in the United States indicates that people exert greater effort in a variety of task situations when they perform individually than when they do so in a group that obscures identifiability of members' individual outputs, a phenomenon termed "social loafing." It was hypothesized that members of cultures whose value emphases and social institutions have been characterized as "group-oriented" would tend to form more cohesive groups and be more likely to place group benefit over individual benefit than members of individualistic U.S. culture, hence evidencing less social loafing. Contrary to this expectation, Chinese school children on Taiwan (grades 2 through 9), asked to produce sound by clapping and shouting alone and in pairs, evidenced levels of social loafing similar to those obtained in U.S. research employing this procedure. Several sources of this absence of a relationship between social loafing and cultural values are discussed, including the effects of the social restrictiveness of the sound production procedure on its ability to tap cultural differences.
Article
Full-text available
Research conducted in the United States and in several non-Western societies has found that people exert greater effort when they work individually than when they do so in a group that obscures identifiability of members' individual outputs, a phenomenon termed "social loafing." It was argued that the apparent transcultural generality of social loafing may be limited to tasks that participants perceive as undiagnostic with respect to the competencies that they assume are valued by important referent others in the research setting. It was predicted that on diagnostic tasks members of group-oriented cultures such as the Chinese would be less likely than members of individualistic cultures to exhibit social loafing. Schoolchildren in the sixth and ninth grade in the United States and China (Taiwan) performed an auditory tracking task that required counting tone patterns alone and in pairs. Consistent with our hypotheses, Americans evidenced social loafing on this task, whereas Chinese exhibited the opposite pattern ("social striving"), performing better in pairs than alone. Alternate sources of this cultural difference in social loafing within the global "group-orientedness" variable are proposed.
Article
Full-text available
Social loafing has been described as the phenomenon in which participants who work together generate less effort than do participants who work alone (e.g., Latané, Williams, & Harkins, 1979). Subsequent research (Harkins & Jackson, 1985; Williams, Harkins, & Latané, 1981) has shown that a particular aspect of this paradigm leads to the loafing effect. When participants "work together," their outputs are pooled (combined) so that evaluation of individual output is not possible. In those studies, the evaluation potential of the experimenter has been emphasized. However, when the experimenter could not evaluate individual outputs, neither could the participants evaluate themselves. In this study we tested the possibility that the opportunity for the participants to evaluate themselves would be sufficient to eliminate the loafing effect. In two experiments, the evaluation potential of the experimenter (experimenter evaluation vs. no experimenter evaluation) was crossed with the potential for self-evaluation (self-evaluation vs. no self-evaluation). In both experiments, consistent with previous loafing research, the potential for evaluation by the experimenter was sufficient to increase motivation, whether participants could self-evaluate or not. However, when the experimenter could not evaluate the participants' outputs, the potential for self-evaluation reliably improved participant performance. In fact, self-evaluation was the only motivation needed for participants to exert as much effort as that exhibited by participants who could be evaluated by the experimenter.
Article
Full-text available
A study was conducted to test Paulus's (1983) cognitive-motivational model of individual task performance in a group. Sixty-four undergraduates completed computerized maze tasks either alone or in the presence of a confederate who played the game on a separate computer. Consequences of task performance for subjects were manipulated by whether the performance scores were identifiable or not. Cognitive and motivational outcomes of the tasks were measured. Paulus's model is supported with some modification. We found task performance to be a function of task complexity, the presence of others, the expected consequences of task performance, and the social anxiety associated with task performance. We conclude that social loafing and social facilitation can be integrated in a task-performance model as Paulus (1.983) suggested.
Article
Full-text available
Subjects were asked to generate uses for an object either alone or in a group. Half were offered a modest incentive for a good (individual or group)performance, and half were not. As predicted, evidence of social loafing was found when subjects worked as part of a group, but only when the incentive was not provided.
Article
Full-text available
Students rated a poem and an editorial believing that they alone were responsible, that they were one of four persons responsible, or that they were one of sixteen persons responsible for evaluating the communications. As predicted, group mem bers reported putting less effort into the assessment than indi viduals, and this diffusion of effort followed an inverse power function. In addition, individuals evaluated the communications more favorably than persons who thought they shared the evalu ation responsibility.
Article
In previous research, the 2nd author and colleagues (see record 1980-30335-001) observed that individuals working together put out less effort than when they work alone; this phenomenon was termed social loafing (SL). Subsequent research by these authors (see record 1981-32831-001) suggested that SL arises, at least in part, because when participants work with others on tasks their individual outputs are lost in the crowd, and, thus, they can receive neither credit nor blame for their performance. The possibility that personal involvement in a task could moderate the SL effect was tested in the present experiment, which used a 2 (high/low involvement) × 2 (high/low identifiability) factorial design across 3 replications with 224 undergraduates. The task involved thoughts generated in response to a counterattitudinal proposal. Replicating previous SL research, present results show that under conditions of low involvement, Ss whose outputs were identifiable worked harder than those whose outputs were pooled. However, when the task was personally involving, the SL effect was eliminated: Ss whose outputs were pooled worked as hard as those whose individual outputs could be identified. (23 ref)
Chapter
When psychologists think of social comparison theory, they initially recall Leon Festinger’s classic paper on a theory of social comparison processes. However, in the three decades since the publication of this work, social comparison theory has evolved in several ways. First, there have been many restatements and amendments to the theory, some connecting it with other theories current in social psychology. Second, several discrete areas of empirical investigation have flourished that are closely connected to the theory. A modern theory of social comparison draws on both these developments for its formulation.
Article
Presents a framework derived from expectancy theory for organizing the research on productivity loss among individuals combining their efforts into a common pool (i.e., the research on social loafing, free riding, and the sucker effect). Low productivity is characterized as a problem of low motivation arising when individuals perceive no value to contributing, perceive no contingency between their contributions and achieving a desirable outcome, or perceive the costs of contributing to be excessive. Three broad categories of solutions, corresponding to each of the 3 sources of low productivity, are discussed: (1) providing incentives for contributing, (2) making contributions indispensable, and (3) decreasing the cost of contributing. Each of these solutions is examined, and directions for future research and the application of this framework to social dilemmas are discussed.
Article
Research results in the social and behavioral sciences are often conceded to be less replicable than research results in the physical sciences. However, direct empirical comparisons of the cumulativeness of research in the social and physical sciences have not been made to date. This article notes the parallels between methods used in the quantitative synthesis of research in the social and in the physical sciences. Essentially identical methods are used to test the consistency of research results in physics and in psychology. These methods can be used to compare the consistency of replicated research results in physics and in the social sciences. The methodology is illustrated with 13 exemplary reviews from each domain. The exemplary comparison suggests that the results of physical experiments may not be strikingly more consistent than those of social or behavioral experiments. The data suggest that even the results of physical experiments may not be cumulative in the absolute sense by statistical criteria. It is argued that the study of the actual cumulativeness found in physical data could inform social scientists about what to expect from replicated experiments under good conditions.
Article
The present paper examines the effect of a central cultural value, individualism-collectivism, on social loafing in an organizational setting. A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that collectivistic beliefs influence the incidence of social loafing. Forty-eight managerial trainees each from the United States and the People's Republic of China worked on an in-basket task under conditions of low or high accountability and low or high shared responsibility. The results of regression analyses demonstrate the moderating role of collectivistic beliefs on social loafing, and they are discussed in terms of social responsibility and its relation to performance in work groups.
Article
Comparability of performances within four-person groups was manipulated in a brainstorming task. Crossed with this manipulation of evaluation potential, participants' outputs either were individually identifiable or were pooled. Replicating previous social-loafing research (Latane, Williams, & Harkins, 1979), when outputs were identifiable, participants generated more uses than when their outputs were pooled. However, this difference emerged only when participants believed that their individual outputs could be evaluated through comparison with their co-workers' performances. When participants believed that their individual outputs were not comparable and thus could not be evaluated, there was no difference in the number of uses generated by participants whose outputs were identifiable and those whose outputs were pooled. These data suggest that to eliminate social loafing participants must feel not only that their outputs are individually identifiable as suggested by Williams, Harkins, and Latane (1981), but also that these outputs can be evaluated through comparison with the outputs of their co-workers.
Article
Three aspects of the self (private, public, collective) with different probabilities in different kinds of social environments were sampled. Three dimensions of cultural variation (individualism-collectivism, tightness-looseness, cultural complexity) are discussed in relation to the sampling of these three aspects of the self. The more complex the culture, the more frequent the sampling of the public and private self and the less frequent the sampling of the collective self. The more individualistic the culture, the more frequent the sampling of the private self and the less frequent the sampling of the collective self. Collectivism, external threat, competition with outgroups, and common fate increase the sampling of the collective self. Cultural homogeneity results in tightness and in the sampling of the collective self. The article outlines theoretical links among aspects of the environment, child-rearing patterns, and cultural patterns, which are linked to differential sampling of aspects of the self. Such sampling has implications for social behavior. Empirical investigations of some of these links are reviewed.
Article
A sizable body of research indicates that people tend to put forth less effort when performing in groups than when alone, a phenomenon called social loafing. However, archival data suggest that swimmers actually perform better when swimming in relays than when swimming in individuals events. Physical factors contributing to this difference were controlled in an experiment in which the degree of identifiability of swimmers' times and type of event (individual vs. relay) were manipulated. A significant interaction between these two variables resulted, supporting previous social loafing findings. Swimmers recorded significantly better times in relays than individually when identifiability was high but tended to perform more poorly in relays under conditions of low identifiability.
Article
Studies which used behavioral observation techniques were reviewed to determine if significant sex differences exist in small group interaction. Results-indicated that (1) there are no significant differences between men and women in total participation rates, (2) men have significantly higher active task behavior (answers) and women have significantly higher positive social-emotional behavior, but the differences are less than 10%, (3) there are no significant sex differences in rates of negative social-emotional behavior or passive task behavior (questions), (4) these interaction rates are independent of sexual composition of the group but are affected by the sexual bias of the group's task, (5) sex differences in interaction are not related to differences in group productivity, (6) the majority of men's and women's interaction, both as members and as group leaders, is in the task categories, (7) members' attitudes and satisfaction are related to sex differences in approximately 30% of the tested relationships but not always in the manner which sexual stereotypes would suggest. Implications of these conclusions are discussed briefly.
Article
Social loafing research has shown that participants working together put out less effort than participants working individually (Latane, Williams, & Harkins, 1979), apparently a result of the fact that evaluation is not possible when outputs are pooled (Harkins & Jackson, 1985). On the other hand, research on creativity (e.g., Amabile, 1979), suggests that minimizing the expectation of evaluation facilitates performance. In the present study, treatment conditions typically used in social loafing and creativity research were incorporated in a single design. Participants were asked either to generate as many uses as possible for a common object or to generate uses that were as creative as possible. Participants were also led to believe either that their outputs could be evaluated or that their outputs would be pooled with those of others. The performance of participants given number instructions was facilitated by the prospect of evaluation. However, when asked to be creative, participants whose outputs were pooled performed better than participants whose outputs could be evaluated. These data suggest that on tasks that require creativity, conditions that are thought to lead to "loafing" can have the opposite effect.
Article
The study reported here tests the effects of accountability and shared responsibility on cognitive effort. Fifty undergraduate students performed a multiattribute judgment task, and math models of their judgments were constructed. As expected, judges who shared responsibility for the judgment task and were not held accountable for their judgments used less complex judgment strategies than judges working alone. This replicates the social loafing effect found by Weldon and Gargano (1985) in an earlier study of cognitive effort. Results also showed that social loafing was reduced under conditions of individual accountability. Multiple judges who expected to justify their judgments worked as hard as individual judges on one measure of cognitive effort.
Article
The present investigation examined the hypothesis that internal group pressures to maximize productivity would moderate social loafing (the decrease of individual effort as group size increases). Subjects, working in either two-or four-person groups, were told to construct as many folded paper products as they could in a fixed time period. Task attractiveness, a determinant of productivity, was manipulated. As predicted, social loafing occurred in the low task attractiveness conditions. In high task attractiveness conditions, a social enhancement effect occurred where four-person groups outperformed two-person groups.
Article
Recent work suggests that group members' motivation for certain types of tasks declines as group size increases. Two experiments examined alternative explanations for this effect. The results of the first study disconfirmed the "me first" explanation, which holds that the effect occurs only when an individual performs in several different size groups. The second experiment supported the "hide-in—the crowd"explanation, which holds that member anonymity increases with group size for the tasks which have yielded the effect.
Article
Individuals often engage in social loafing, exerting less effort on collective rather than individual tasks. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that social loafing can be reduced or eliminated when individuals work in cohesive rather than noncohesive groups. In Experiment 1, secretarial students typed both individually and collectively in simulated word-processing pools composed of either friends or strangers. In Experiment 2, dyads composed of either friends or strangers worked either coactively or collectively on an idea-generation task. Both studies supported the group cohesiveness hypothesis. Experiment 2 also suggested that individuals tend to engage in social compensation when working with coworkers who are low in ability. These findings are discussed in relation to S. J. Karau and K. D. Williams's (1993) Collective Effort Model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This experiment was designed to test the motivation to perform a task for males and females in mixed and same-sex groups. Individuals in homogeneous groups (four males or four females) or heterogeneous groups (two males and two females) clapped their hands alone, in pairs and in foursomes. People exerted more effort alone than in groups, regardless of group compositions. Females performed better in same-sex pairs than in opposite-sex pairs. Implications concerning relative abilities and social loafing are discussed. (Author)
Article
The tendency for individuals to reduce their own efforts when others are available to respond has been called "social loafing." Social loafing has been found also to characterize collective endeavors on tasks considered cognitively efffortful. To test the hypothesis that reduced cognitive effort related to the presence of a coacting group would lead to a less systematic analysis of covariation information in forming causal attributions and a possibly greater susceptibility to salience factors, 36 undergraduates completed a 48 item questionnaire in which each item consisted of a statement of person-object relationship, i.e., like or dislike; supplemental information; and rating scales for subjects' self reports about the separate causal influences of the person and the object in the relationship. Results indicated that when a person was described as disliking an object and covariation information suggested that the object was the primary cause of the relationship, subjects who shared responsibility for the attribution task with a group were less extreme in their attributions than subjects who felt they were individually responsible. The findings suggest that group diffusion of cognitive effort is predictive of the degreee and quality of causal attributions. (Author/PAS)
Article
Mfost of social psychology's theories of the self fail to take into account the significance of social identification in the definition of self. Social identities are self-definitions that are more inclusive than the individuated self-concept of most American psychology. A model of optimal distinctiveness is proposed in which social identity is viewed as a reconciliation of opposing needs for assimilation and differentiation from others. According to this model, individuals avoid self-construals that are either too personalized or too inclusive and instead define themselves in terms of distinctive category memberships. Social identity and group loyalty are hypothesized to be strongest for those self-categorizations that simultaneously provide for a sense of belonging and a sense of distinctiveness. Results from an initial laboratory experiment support the prediction that depersonalization and group size interact as determinants of the strength of social identification.
Article
Three aspects of the self (private, public, collective) with different probabilities in different kinds of social environments were sampled. Three dimensions of cultural variation (individualism–collectivism, tightness–looseness, cultural complexity) are discussed in relation to the sampling of these three aspects of the self. The more complex the culture, the more frequent the sampling of the public and private self and the less frequent the sampling of the collective self. The more individualistic the culture, the more frequent the sampling of the private self and the less frequent the sampling of the collective self. Collectivism, external threat, competition with outgroups, and common fate increase the sampling of the collective self. Cultural homogeneity results in tightness and in the sampling of the collective self. The article outlines theoretical links among aspects of the environment, child-rearing patterns, and cultural patterns, which are linked to differential sampling of aspects of the self. Such sampling has implications for social behavior. Empirical investigations of some of these links are reviewed.
Article
76 intercollegiate swimmers from 3 universities participated in both an individual and group competition 200-yd freestyle swim. Hypotheses were based on an expectancy-value approach, which emphasizes the negative as well as positive consequences of undertaking an activity. Achievement and affiliation motives were assessed by J. W. Atkinson's projective measures; Ss also completed the Test Anxiety Scale and the Interpersonal Opinion Questionnaire, a fear-of-social-rejection measure. It was found, as predicted, that while approval-oriented swimmers had faster swimming speeds in group than in individual competition, rejection-threatened swimmers actually had slower swimming speeds in group than in individual competition. This significant Affiliation-Related Motives by Experimental Conditions interaction was also greater for success-oriented than failure-threatened swimmers and for males than females. These latter differences and the advantages of the field-experimental situation are discussed in light of current findings in the motivation area. (38 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)