ChapterPDF Available

Trust in Signs

Authors:
... Neuroeconomics uses mainly brain-imaging techniques, in particular functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to bypass the weakness of self-reporting and observe the brain activity that underlies particular consumer behavior. The fMRI scanner generates a strong static magnetic field and can reveal changes in blood flow when a participant is lying inside a large chamber, allowing researchers to study neural activity in the human brain almost in real time (Ashby, 2011;Suomala, 2018b). Therefore, it is no wonder that fMRI has grown to become the dominant measurement technique in cognitive neuroscience and neuroeconomics (Ruff and Huettel, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumers can have difficulty expressing their buying intentions on an explicit level. The most common explanation for this intention-action gap is that consumers have many cognitive biases that interfere with rational decision-making. The current resource-rational approach to understanding human cognition, however, suggests that brain environment interactions lead consumers to minimize the expenditure of cognitive energy according to the principle of Occam's Razor. This means that the consumer seeks as simple of a solution as possible for a problem requiring decision-making. In addition, this resource-rational approach to decision-making emphasizes the role of inductive inference and Bayesian reasoning. Together, the principle of Occam's Razor, inductive inference, and Bayesian reasoning illuminate the dynamic human-environment relationship. This paper analyzes these concepts from a contextual perspective and introduces the Consumer Contextual Decision-Making Model (CCDMM). Based on the CCDMM, two hypothetical strategies of consumer decision-making will be presented. First, the SIMilarity-Strategy (SIMS) is one in which most of a consumer's decisions in a real-life context are based on prior beliefs about the role of a commodities specific to real-life situation being encountered. Because beliefs are based on previous experiences, consumers are already aware of the most likely consequences of their actions. At the same time, they do not waste time on developing contingencies for what, based on previous experience, is unlikely to happen. Second, the What-is-Out-there-in-the-World-Strategy (WOWS) is one in which prior beliefs do not work in a real-life situation, requiring consumers to update their beliefs. The principle argument being made is that most experimental consumer research describes decision-making based on the WOWS, when participants cannot apply their previous knowledge and situation-based strategy to problems. The article analyzes sensory and cognitive biases described by behavioral economists from a CCDMM perspective, followed by a description and explanation of the typical intention-action gap based on the model. Prior to a section dedicated to discussion, the neuroeconomic approach will be described along with the valuation network of the brain, which has evolved to solve problems that the human has previously encountered in an information-rich environment. The principles of brain function will also be compared to CCDMM. Finally, different approaches and the future direction of consumer research from a contextual point of view will be presented.
... Neuroeconomics uses mainly brain-imaging techniques, in particular functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to bypass the weakness of self-reporting and observe the brain activity that underlies particular consumer behavior. The fMRI scanner generates a strong static magnetic field and can reveal changes in blood flow when a participant is lying inside a large chamber, allowing researchers to study neural activity in the human brain almost in real time (Ashby, 2011;Suomala, 2018b). Therefore, it is no wonder that fMRI has grown to become the dominant measurement technique in cognitive neuroscience and neuroeconomics (Ruff and Huettel, 2014). ...
Book
Full-text available
Experimental setups that probe consumers’ underlying feelings, purchase intentions, and choices. The Topic Editors are honoured to present 14 multidisciplinary contributions that focus on successful implementations of physiological and neuroscientific measures in the field of cognitive psychology, marketing, design, and psychiatry. Keywords: preference formation, neuroscience, physiology, evaluative processing, consumer behavior
Article
Full-text available
Despite the recent increase in second-person neuroscience research, it is still hard to understand which neurocognitive mechanisms underlie real-time social behaviours. Here, we propose that social signalling can help us understand social interactions both at the single- and two-brain level in terms of social signal exchanges between senders and receivers. First, we show how subtle manipulations of being watched provide an important tool to dissect meaningful social signals. We then focus on how social signalling can help us build testable hypotheses for second-person neuroscience with the example of imitation and gaze behaviour. Finally, we suggest that linking neural activity to specific social signals will be key to fully understand the neurocognitive systems engaged during face-to-face interactions.
Article
Cyberattacks can be considered one of the fundamental challenges that paralyze the progress of digital payment usage (DPU) progress among citizens, as consumers shun away from using digital banking services due to increased concern over information security. National Cybersecurity Commitment (NCSC) has emerged as a preventive cybersecurity mechanism for countries to tackle such cybersecurity threats. Previous studies have shown that a country's NCSC positively impacts the business and economy of the country. This study examines the effect of NCSC on digital payment usage (DPU) across nations by grounding our discussion on the institutional trust theory. As trusting belief in security measures is a culturally embedded characteristic, we also examine the moderating role of national culture through Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. We use multilevel models to analyze publicly available archives of repeated cross-sectional data covering 76 countries to test the proposed relationships. Our findings indicate that NCSC has a positive influence on DPU. Further, our results highlight that the relationship between NCSC and DPU in a country is contingent on cultural dimensions. Overall, the evidence suggests that a competent cybersecurity environment compatible with cultural values can influence the speedy diffusion of digital payments in a country. Implications of our findings for research and practice are also discussed.
Article
Concerns about the relevance of management research and its impact on management practice have been ongoing for decades. We propose a novel angle to explain this research vs practice gap: instead of focusing on the content and language of management papers as reasons for practitioners’ limited interest in the majority of our results, we focus on the role of trust. We propose that management research is often seen as irrelevant by practitioners because of the shape and direction of trustworthiness-building institutions. Unlike in other professions, such as medical doctors and lawyers, the trustworthiness-building institutions in our field are directed inwards rather than outwards. Institutional arrangements governing the area of management research ensure that scholars can trust results delivered by other scholars, but they do not cover the interaction between scholars and practitioners. Thus, practitioners have few reasons to trust and reach for our results. We conclude that the issue can be addressed, albeit only partially. This is because, unlike in the case of established professions, the well-being of our discipline is not highly dependent on practitioners, neither is practitioners’ well-being particularly dependent on our research.
Article
The study examines potential P2P ride-sharing users' intentions to adopt the service by integrating trust constructs towards the digital platform, attitude towards sharing economy, and functional and emotional benefits as psychological antecedents. An empirical investigation was carried out on a sample of non-users, adopting the PLS-SEM approach to test the hypotheses underlying an especially conceived conceptual model. Sub-samples of non-users (owner and non-owner of a private car; young adults and adults) were also submitted to the hypotheses testing. The results suggest that, for non-users, the dimension of trust towards the digital platform takes a key role in fostering the intention to adopt the service. In contrast, attitude towards sharing economy impacts the perception of the service's functional benefits (i.e., economic and environmental). The study contributes to a deeper understanding of a neglected target that deserves special attention to expand the demand for shared mobility and push sustainable consumption.
Article
Full-text available
Leaders, particularly new leaders, seek to establish high levels of trust, as it has been associated with higher levels of effectiveness and group outcomes. This study is designed to understand how trust changes and develops for leaders in a new role and the implications of that change. Although calls for research on trust over time have been made for the past 2 decades, our knowledge of this phenomenon is still quite limited. The findings indicate that leader and unit performance is a function not only of absolute trust level, but is also affected by the direction and magnitude of change in trust across time periods, with the highest levels of effectiveness being associated with leaders who exhibited an increase in trust from the group over time. The data also suggest that the direction and rate at which trust grew was determined by initial expectations and transformational leadership behaviors.
Chapter
Full-text available
The increasing global nature of projects has highlighted the importance of multiculturalism and the new challenges it brings to project execution. The rationale of this study is to look at how culture affects on trust building process in international projects and its stakeholders. This research employs intensive literature review to develop a model of cultural similarities and dissimilarities for trust building in international projects stakeholders. Culture is a significant factor in building trust among global projects stakeholders for the reason that trust is vital for developing a well-functioning long term business relationship. The study highlighted that cultural differences among project teams can cause conflict, misunderstanding and poor project performance. However, this study is currently explanatory study because no empirical evidence is provided. Future empirical research should investigate various scenarios, types of projects, cultures and countries. Cultural issues are pretty sensitive that have immediate association with trust building process among international projects stakeholders. Petite methodical research has been done on the cultural effects for trust building in international project context. In meticulous, the query of how culture effects trust building efforts in project stakeholders remains unrequited. This study aims to generate interest in the research community for undertaking a detailed and comprehensive research on this topic. It also aims to serve as a foundation for future studies.
Chapter
In recent years, the rise of blogging has led to debate about whether employees should be free to talk about their employers on the Internet, and whether they should be able to blog on company time. Several high-profile cases of fired bloggers between 2002 and 2006, drew attention to important labor and civil rights issues that led to debate among human resources and employment law experts in the mainstream media. The negative publicity surrounding the cases of fired bloggers has given rise to an alternative management strategy – a cautious embrace of blogging by employers, who saw the practice as a potential opportunity for marketing and professional development. However, efforts by bloggers to retain their right to blog anonymously signify continuing tensions, revealing the contradictions between workplace surveillance and an “enlightened” management doctrine based on openness and trust, indicating a refusal by some employees to align their blogging endeavors with the interests of their employer. This chapter examines the workblogging phenomenon as an intersection of organizations, technology, and trust, and makes some tentative connections between Guerra et al.’s (2003) concept of “trust-tension” and the critical management literature.
Chapter
In the perspective of managing the Intellectual Capital (IC), the user friendliness of User Generated Content (UGC) tools may be preferred over the Information Systems platforms offered in the majority of organizations. Based on a review of literature and actual practices, this chapter focuses on aspects related to user practices of social networks and web tools that could be useful for corporate platforms; its aim is to improve the use of corporate platforms by informing both the research academy and managers about effective practices. Case studies are presented to understand how UGC can be used to implement new ways of sharing information and communicating more efficiently in organizations. Knowledge and IC management systems for teaching and learning are presented, in order to better assess whether or not this technology is effective to support knowledge creation and sharing in an academic and business setting.
Article
Full-text available
whether we necessarily need more cooperation, keeping, for the moment, the distinction between cooperation and trust blurred and their relationship implicit. According to the trite observation - Adam Smith wrote - if there is any society among robbers and murderers, they must at least abstain from robbing and murdering one another (Smith [1759] 1976: 86; see also Saint Augustine in Dunn, this volume). This trite observation serves a double purpose: it reminds us that basic forms of cooperation...
Article
Full-text available
this article, when I will conclude that trust is based on reputation and that reputation has ultimately to be acquired through behaviour over time in well-understood circumstances, it will be seen that none of these distinctions, between actions and message transmission, between legal contracts and implicit understandings, is of any analytical moment for the problem at hand. It is important to realize that when Sam Goldwyn remarked that a verbal contract is not worth the paper it is written on, he was only half right, and that all that is interesting in the concept of trust lies precisely in that half which was wrong