... A harmadik fél hatás (third person effect) értelmében az egyén azt gondolja, hogy azért fogalmaznak meg mások ellentétes véleményt az álláspontjával, mert a médiafogyasztásuk révén "agymosottakká" váltak (Davidson, 1983). A naiv realizmus (naive realism) során az egyén úgy gondolja, hogy a többi szavazóval ellentétben ő a politikai valóságot objektíven képes értelmezni és elfogulatlan ítéletet képes alkotni, mivel tájékozottabb és nagyobb tudással rendelkezik (Ross & Ward, 1996). A belief bias révén az érvek közül azokat tartja a legfontosabbnak az egyén, amelyek leginkább támogatják az általa levonni kívánt végkövetkeztetést (Evans & Curtis-Holmes, 2005 ...
... • A naiv realizmus értelmében a választók úgy gondolják, hogy ők ismerik a valódi igazságot, míg mások nem, mert irracionálisak, elfogultak és tájékozatlanok (Ross & Ward, 1996). Pl. "A narancs köd elborította agyadat! ...
A COVID-19 következtében a kormány által kihirdetett gazdasági válságkezelő program a legfontosabb témának tekinthető a politikai napirenden 2020-ban, amely a 2022-es országgyűlési választás kiemelt témája lehet. A Gazdaságvédelmi akcióterv mint politikai termék választói megítélését diskurzuselemzés segítségével, netnográfiai módszerrel vizsgálták a szerzők. Közpolitikai diskurzuselemzésre építve a politikai vezetés marketing-szemléletmódú vizsgálatára és választói heurisztikák azonosítására fókuszáltak. Az empirikus kutatás során 1861 különböző személytől származó 3300 hozzászólás segítségével elemezték a választók információfeldolgozási folyamatát és céljuk volt az ítéletalkotás során fellépő kognitív torzítások, heurisztikák azonosítása. Az eredmények a politikai nyelv konzekvens használatára irányítják a figyelmet és két főbb következtetésre épülnek. Az első a heurisztikák ítéletek megerősítésében betöltött szerepét, a második a folyamatos nyelvi keretezés révén kialakuló választói tanulás fontosságát hangsúlyozzák, ami segíthet a politikai diskurzus uralásában. A tanulmányban öt heurisztikát azonosítottak és egy visszatérő kognitív reakciót, a „politikai mantrákat”. A heurisztikák ismerete segíthet a politikusoknak a szavazóbázis lojalitásának erősítésében és a döntések elfogadtatásában.
... Video tends to elicit stronger emotional responses than other types of evidence ( Sherwin et al., 2006) and leaves jurors Body-worn camera footage and hindsight bias feeling like they have in some way accessed the event itself (Mnookin and West, 2001). This "naı €ve realism" leaves the viewer feeling like they have a complete and objective picture of the event in question (Feigenson and Spiesel, 2009;Ross and Ward, 1996) with the presumed assurance of an authoritative and nonpartisan understanding of the incident (Sherwin, 2007). ...
Purpose: American police agencies’ swift adoption of body-worn camera (BWC) technology, coupled with the ubiquity of smartphones and social media, has led to a “new visibility” of policing. Video recordings are often touted as objective evidentiary accounts of police-civilian interactions. Yet even these recordings are rarely seen in a vacuum, but instead accompanied by headlines and accounts.
Design/methodology/approach: Using a diverse sample of young American adults (N = 943) and an experimental design incorporating a short poorly recorded BWC video embedded within a survey, this study investigates perceptions of the appropriateness of police behavior in an ambiguous situation where officers used deadly force on a Black civilian. All respondents viewed the same 11-second BWC video, however, respondents were randomly assigned to being told the civilian ultimately held a gun, a knife, a cell phone, or nothing.
Findings: Respondents overwhelmingly reported the BWC video was personally important and significant for a subsequent investigation and public opinion. The experimental manipulation, along with background factors, exerted a substantial effect on perceptions of the officers’ actions. Respondents found the officers’ actions more appropriate when told the civilian held a weapon. There were not significant differences between the gun and knife conditions, nor between the cell phone and empty-handed conditions.
Originality/value: Americans are divided on the role of police in a democratic society. Objective accounts like video recordings may be used to build consensus, but our results, derived from a novel method and dataset, suggest deeper cognitive biases must also be overcome.
... This provides a basis for cognitive biases so prevalent amid the COVID-19 emergency including selective reporting and even defending the misinformation and disinformation. Lee and Ward (1995) have outlined three interrelated assumptions that make up naive realism. They argue that these assumptions are supported by a long line of thinking in social psychology, along with several empirical studies. ...
We often encounter misleading claims, some of which have potential to influence decisions we make in our daily lives. Many people from all walks of life, even the most schooled, fall prey to the traps of misinformation and disinformation. How do such delusions enter our knowledge base and inform our public opinions and actions? I discuss in this editorial article the bases that underlie the issues of misinformation and disinformation that plague current COVID-19 vaccine and vaccination efforts. Such issues have a philosophical base anchored on the information processing theories and psychological base linked to our cognitive tendencies. I reflect in the end on our primary responsibility as teachers in these issues. I conclude that metacognition or a knowledge of our thinking, if we mindfully dare to pursue it, can help stimulate an enlightened perspective to ourselves that, with our vast influence as educators, may illuminate the perspectives of others.
... One aspect of confirmation bias that can make it particularly harmful to good relations is that, although it is a human phenomenon and has a pervasive influence on perceptions and judgments, it is hard to realize that it is happening. It feels as if we are experiencing the world as it is-that our perceptions are objective (Ross & Ward, 1996). These feelings of objectivity make it difficult to appreciate that what we see and experience is significantly influenced by our perspective. ...
This is a very challenging time for police–community relations, one characterized by a mutual lack of trust between police and citizens. But trust is an important tenet of effective community policing. Trust between police and communities can result in better problem solving, fewer legal violations by citizens, less frequent use of force by the police, less resistance by citizens during arrests, greater willingness to share information, less inclination to riot, and greater willingness of community members and police to cooperate. One key obstacle to fostering trust between the community and police is confirmation bias—the tendency for people to take in information and process it in a way that confirms their current preconceptions, attitudes, and beliefs. Recognizing and addressing confirmation bias, therefore, plays a critical role in fostering more productive engagement. If we are to improve police–community relations and co-create a way forward, learning to approach debates with open minds, an awareness of the lens of our own perspectives, commitment to considering the opposite, and the goal of listening with curiosity are essential.
... It is the case of the third-person effect , the tendency to believe that disinformation affects more the other group than the one the individual belongs. These effects are often associated with what is called naive realism , the tendency of an individual to assume that the reality they perceive is objective and factual: if applied on news and the perception of the world, it creates a false consensus effect , a tendency for individuals to think their beliefs to be widely accepted; under this perspective, adverse news by hostile news outlets can be classified as a malicious attempt to undermine a widespread acknowledged fact. ...
The history of journalism and news diffusion is tightly coupled with the effort to dispel hoaxes, misinformation, propaganda, unverified rumours, poor reporting, and messages containing hate and divisions. With the explosive growth of online social media and billions of individuals engaged with consuming, creating, and sharing news, this ancient problem has surfaced with a renewed intensity threatening our democracies, public health, and news outlets credibility. This has triggered many researchers to develop new methods for studying, understanding, detecting, and preventing fake-news diffusion; as a consequence, thousands of scientific papers have been published in a relatively short period, making researchers of different disciplines to struggle in search of open problems and most relevant trends. The aim of this survey is threefold: first, we want to provide the researchers interested in this multidisciplinary and challenging area with a network-based analysis of the existing literature to assist them with a visual exploration of papers that can be of interest; second, we present a selection of the main results achieved so far adopting the network as an unifying framework to represent and make sense of data, to model diffusion processes, and to evaluate different debunking strategies. Finally, we present an outline of the most relevant research trends focusing on the moving target of fake-news, bots, and trolls identification by means of data mining and text technologies; despite scholars working on computational linguistics and networks traditionally belong to different scientific communities, we expect that forthcoming computational approaches to prevent fake news from polluting the social media must be developed using hybrid and up-to-date methodologies.
Social media can render content circulating to reach millions with a knack to influence people, despite the questionable authencity of the facts. Internet sources are the most convenient and easy approach to obtain any information these days. Fake news has become the topic of interest for academicians and the rest of society. This kind of propaganda has the power to influence the general perception, offering political groups the ability to control the results of democratic affairs such as elections. Automatic identification of fake news has emerged as one of the significant problems due to the high risks involved. It is challenging in a way because of the complexity levels of accurately interpreting the data. An extensive search has already been performed on English language news data. Our work presents a comparative analysis of fake news classifiers on the low resource Bengali language ‘ban fake news’ dataset from Kaggle. The analysis presented compares deep learning techniques such as LSTM (Long short-term Memory) and BiLSTM (Bi-directional Long short-term Memory) and machine learning methods like Naive Bayes, Passive Aggressive Classifier (PAC), and Random Forest. The comparison has been drawn based on classification metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score. The deep learning method BiLSTM shows 55.92% accuracy while Random Forest, in contrast, has outperformed all the other methods with an accuracy of 62.37%. The work presented in this paper sets a basis for researchers to select the optimum classifiers for their approach towards fake news detection.
The purpose of this paper is to describe and critique ways in which the threats from confirmation bias have been rejected.
Dismissals of the existence of, or threats from, confirmation bias are identified from a review of literature across a very wide range of disciplines. The dismissals are robustly examined.
The dismissals are categorised as: (1) radical scepticism (2) consequentialism: and (3) denial. Each type of dismissal, it is argued, is flawed.
The three-fold structuring of confirmation bias dismissal is novel. In addition to drawing from organisation, management and wider social science literature, the article also uses arguments and examples from the creative arts.
Fernández (2019) offers an account of the nature of episodic memory that marries two core ideas: (i) role-functionalism about episodic memory, and (ii) self-reflexive mnemonic content. One payoff of this view is that episodic memory judgments are immune to error through misidentification. Fernández takes this to reveal something important about the nature of one’s self-awareness in memory and our first-person conception of ourselves. However, once one sees why such judgments are immune in this way, according to the proposed account, the fact that they are immune becomes moot. While technically immune to error through misidentification, episodic memory judgments are not grounded in a way such that they have any interesting epistemological import for the subject (in contrast to other paradigms of such judgments), and any insights about our self-awareness and self-conception are directly derivable from the metaphysics of memory content alone.
Meeting and managing goals can be difficult. Self-regulatory success often requires that people enact strategies to combat the challenges of goal pursuit. Whereas existing research and theory have focused primarily on cognitive processes that implicate shifts in judgments and decisions, we identify and document an additional process that aids self-regulation: motivated visual perception and attention. We argue that, because vision is primary, trusted, flexible, and effortless, motivated visual perception maintains a unique ability to serve self-regulation. We propose a novel theoretical perspective—Goal-Promoting Perception Theory—and review empirical work from our labs and others' that suggests motivated perception aids in three aspects of goal pursuit: goal planning, goal striving, and goal shielding. In addition, we articulate avenues for future research and outline testable hypotheses to strengthen the links between motivated perception and self-regulatory outcomes. Ultimately, this chapter draws together two largely distinct fields of study to suggest that people see the world in a biased manner to help them manage and advance goals.