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Infectious episodes in runners before and after the LA Marathon

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Abstract

An epidemiologic study of Los Angeles Marathon (LAM) applicants was conducted to investigate the relationship between self-reported infectious episodes (IE), training data, and LAM participation. Eight days before the LAM, 4926 of 12,200 applicants were randomly selected, and sent a pilot-tested four page questionnaire, which was received 7 days after the LAM. The 2311 respondents were found to be 2.0 yr older and 7.6 min faster than other LAM finishers (p less than .01). Univariate and multivariate analyses (logistic regression) were conducted to test the relationship between IE and km/wk of running (6 total categories). The final model tested controlled for age, marital status, reported sickness in other members of the runner's home, perceived feelings of stress in response to personal training regimens, and the suppressive effect of sickness on regular training. In runners training greater than or equal to 97 vs less than 32 km/wk, the odds ratio (OR) for IE during the 2 month period prior to the LAM was 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.4). A test for trend showed an increase in OR with increase in km/wk category (p = .04) which was largely explained by the increased odds of reported sickness in the greater than or equal to 97 km/wk category. Of the 1828 LAM participants without IE before the LAM, 236 (12.9%) reported IE during the week following the LAM vs 3 of 134 (2.2%) similarly experienced runners who did not participate, OR = 5.9 (95% CI 1.9-18.8). These data suggest that runners may experience increased odds for IE during heavy training or following a marathon race.
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... Across all studies, vigorous exercise consisted of long distance running, endurance training, swimming, triathlon, track and field, athletics, cross-country skiing, and both winter and summer Olympic sports. Of the 22 studies selected, 5 did not report the sex of the participants enrolled [39][40][41][42][43], whereas 17 enrolled both male and female subjects [44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60]. Studies ranged from 20 to 11,274 total participants, and the proportion of female participants ranged from 0.12% (N=23) to 26% (N=5,089). ...
Preprint
The practice of physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological strategy for preventing and treating chronic diseases. A large body of evidence has contributed to establishing a positive correlation between a physically active lifestyle and health benefits, including enhanced vaccination responses, lower numbers of senescent T-cells, increased T-cell proliferative capacity, lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, and improved neutrophil and macrophage function. While females are generally thought to exert more robust immune responses than males in response to a variety of challenges, and both male and female sex hormones have been suggested as mediators of immune function, research on this topic has not always been designed with a sex-specific lens. The goal of this review is to summarize the available experimental and clinical evidence linking exercise and immune function in male and female subjects, with an emphasis on sex differences and sex-specific mechanisms. Overall, the available evidence indicates that moderate exercise and physical activity improves immune function in both sexes, whereas prolonged and high-intensity exercise temporarily impairs immune responses at a higher degree in females. A role of male and female sex hormones in these sex-specific effects is also discussed.
... Излагање појединачном напорном и дуготрајном физичком оптерећењу има привремено депресивно дејство на активност имуног система. Наиме, забележена је два до шест пута већа учесталост инфекција горњег респираторног тракта код спортиста након маратона у поређењу са контролним тркачима који нису учествовали у овим тркама (Nieman et al, 1990;Peters and Bateman, 1983;Peters et al, 1993;Peters et al, 1996). Такође, акутни наступ физичке активности је праћен реакцијама организма које су по многим критеријумима веома слични онима које су изазване инфекцијом, сепсом или траумом (Northoff et al, 1998). ...
Conference Paper
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У савременом свету, спортске повреде заузимају високо место у хијерархији учесталости повреда. Услед излагања организма великим напорима током бављења спортом, могу настати бројне и разноврсне повреде које су најчешће последица понављаних микротраума, али могу бити и акутне, услед наглог деловања одређене силе. Повреде могу бити специфичне и неспецифичне. Циљ овог истраживања је да се прикупе и анализирају истраживања објављена у последњих десетак година на тему спортских повреда у гимнастици. Прикупљено је укупно шест истраживања која су одговарала свим постављеним критеријумима и која су била подвргнута даљој анализи.
... Излагање појединачном напорном и дуготрајном физичком оптерећењу има привремено депресивно дејство на активност имуног система. Наиме, забележена је два до шест пута већа учесталост инфекција горњег респираторног тракта код спортиста након маратона у поређењу са контролним тркачима који нису учествовали у овим тркама (Nieman et al, 1990;Peters and Bateman, 1983;Peters et al, 1993;Peters et al, 1996). Такође, акутни наступ физичке активности је праћен реакцијама организма које су по многим критеријумима веома слични онима које су изазване инфекцијом, сепсом или траумом (Northoff et al, 1998). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Овим истраживања се је желело утврди заступљеност деформитета ногу код деце предшколског узраста у Републици Србији. Приликом сакупљања досадашњих истраживања претраживане су следеће базе података: KOBSON, SCIndeks, Google Scholar, Google. Претраживанa су истраживања у последњој декади односно у периоду од 2005. до 2015. године. Да би се истраживање прихватило за коначну анализу, било је потребно задовољити критеријуме: да постоје испитаници којима је вршена процена деформитета ногу и да су испитаници предшколског узраста у Републици Србији. Бројна истраживања (111) су искључени на основу унапред прецизираних критеријума, осталих 7 истраживања су испунила постављене критеријуме. У истраживањима које је обухватило ово истраживање измерено је 3205 детета. Деформитет ногу дијагностикован је код 773 детета, односно 24,118%. Увидом метода којим се процењивало постурално стање ногу, може се предложити метод Наполеона Воланског и соматоскопска метода. Резултати овог истраживања указују да је засупљеност неправилног постуралног статуса ногу веома велики односно да свако четврто дете предшколског узраста у Србији има нарушен постурални статус ногу.
... Subsequently, a reduction of lymphocyte counts from approximately 30 min until up to 72 h after exercise results in a period of time the host may be vulnerable to opportunistic infections; the so-called 'Open-Window' Nieman, 1994;Simpson et al., 2020). Though increased rates of upper respiratory illnesses have previously been demonstrated following singular athletic events (Nieman et al., 1990;Peters, Shaik & Kleinveldt, 2010) and training (Spence et al., 2007;Gleeson et al., 2013), the post-exercise decline in lymphocyte counts has also been suggested to be programmed egress from circulation, triggered by cortisol (Okutsu et al., 2005;Okutsu et al., 2008), that enhances immunosurveillance (Simpson et al., 2020;Campbell & Turner, 2018). As such, there is no consensus as to whether exercise induced immunosuppression occurs (for a review, see (Simpson et al., 2020)), though immunosuppression is still considered a hallmark of over-reaching and overtraining syndrome (Meeusen et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Background Systematic reviews and meta-analyses related to high-intensity functional training (HIFT) have been conducted. However, due to a restricted pool of available research, these investigations are often limited in scope. As such, a scoping review investigating the present literature surrounding the acute physiological response to HIFT-based exercise was chosen as a more appropriate structured review. Methodology A scoping review was conducted following Arksey and O’Malley’s framework. Three large scale databases were searched to reveal any article pertaining to HIFT and related exercise terminology. Results A total of 2,241 articles were found during the initial search. Following this, titles, then abstracts, and full-texts were reviewed to determine inclusion eligibility. A total of 60 articles which investigated a combined total of 35 unique HIFT workouts were included within this review. Conclusions A variety of physiological parameters and HIFT workouts have been examined. Markers of intensity ( e.g ., blood lactate concentrations, heart rate) have been most consistently assessed across all studies, and these support the idea that HIFT workouts are typically performed at high-intensity. In contrast, the inclusion of most other measures ( e.g ., hormonal, markers of inflammation and damage, energy expenditure, performance) has been inconsistent and has thus, limited the possibility for making generalized conclusions. Differences in study methodologies have further impacted conclusions, as different studies have varied in sample population characteristics, workouts assessed, and time points. Though it may be impossible to comprehensively research all possible HIFT workouts, consistent adoption of population definitions and workload quantification may overcome this challenge and assist with future comparisons.
... High intensity trainings changes the immune response, thus raising biological markers of immune system such as natural killer cells (NK cells), T cells, B cells and increasing infection susceptibility. As a result, athletes, who are generally considered healthier than the general population, are more prone to respiratory related issues due to a compromised immune system at the time of intense training [23][24][25]. A study on athletic children playing hockey revealed that the facilities where children practice any outdoor game are exposed to gases like carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and monoxide that are produced by ice cleaning machines. ...
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Malnutrition is a global concern since it affects 130 million children under the age of 5 worldwide. The child’s immunity is brutally compromised, making them susceptible to various diseases and infections, leading to a high mortality rate. Multiple strategies have been implemented to strengthen immunity in children with compromised immunity, such as rendering a balanced diet, fortifying food, dietary supplements, and introducing potential natural dietary fibers to maintain good nutrition status, such as β-glucan. A class of biologically active polysaccharides, sourced from yeast, mushroom, bacteria, and cereals with versatile immunomodulatory benefits that potentially primes the host immune system, drives several metabolic health effects, increases infection resistance, shields against the damaging effects of stress, and maintains healthy energy levels. This review focuses on the capabilities, underlying mechanisms, immune-stimulating potency, and clinically meaningful shreds of evidence to substantiate the multiple health benefits of β-glucan in children. Although, more clinical studies are required, current findings confirms the various biological response modifying abilities of β-glucan that may notably aid in the development of a strong immune system in children for their overall health and wellbeing.
... In addition, cellular defense is temporarily reduced [83]. This could favor infections after intensive physical exercise ("open window theory") [84,85]. How far these factors influence oral health in athletes has not yet been evaluated. ...
Article
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Recently, there has been intense discussion about sports dentistry and potential interactions between oral health and athletes’ performance. This narrative review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the available literature about oral inflammation in sports. For this purpose, it presents the most common types of oral inflammation (gingivitis, periodontitis, pericoronitis, apical periodontitis), and their prevalence in athletes. Both the impact of oral inflammation on performance and causes for oral inflammation in athletes are discussed by presenting current literature. Finally, international recommendations for dental care in sports are presented. Several studies stated a high prevalence of oral inflammation in athletes, especially of gingivitis (58–97%) and periodontitis (41%). Also, many athletes report oral pain (17–30%) and a negative impact of oral health on training (3–9%). Besides this, a systemic impact of oral inflammation is discussed: In periodontitis patients, blood parameters and physical fitness are changed. In athletes, associations between muscle injuries and poor oral health are reported. There are deficits in oral health behavior. Furthermore, systemic changes due to physical stress could influence oral tissues. Overall, complex bidirectional interactions between competitive sports and oral inflammation are possible. Regular dental examinations and prevention strategies should be implemented in sports.
... Across all studies, vigorous exercise consisted of long distance running, endurance training, swimming, triathlon, track and field, athletics, cross-country skiing, and both winter and summer Olympic sports. Of the 22 studies selected, 5 did not report the sex of the participants enrolled [39][40][41][42][43], whereas 17 enrolled both male and female subjects [44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60]. Studies ranged from 20 to 11,274 total participants, and the proportion of female participants ranged from 0.12% (N=23) to 26% (N=5,089). ...
Preprint
The practice of physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological strategy for preventing and treating chronic diseases. A large body of evidence has contributed to establishing a positive correlation between a physically active lifestyle and health benefits, including enhanced vaccination responses, lower numbers of senescent T-cells, increased T-cell proliferative capacity, lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, and improved neutrophil and macrophage function. While females are generally thought to exert more robust immune responses than males in response to a variety of challenges, and both male and female sex hormones have been suggested as mediators of immune function, research on this topic has not always been designed with a sex-specific lens. The goal of this review is to summarize the available experimental and clinical evidence linking exercise and immune function in male and female subjects, with an emphasis on sex differences and sex-specific mechanisms. Overall, the available evidence indicates that moderate exercise and physical activity improves immune function in both sexes, whereas prolonged and high-intensity exercise temporarily impairs immune responses at a higher degree in females. A role of male and female sex hormones in these sex-specific effects is also discussed.
... Nachdem es einerseits Evidenzen gibt, dass beispielsweise Marathonläufer in den folgenden Wochen nach einem Wettkampf einer erhöhten Infektionsgefahr ausgesetzt sind, sie also eine Immunsuppression erleiden aufgrund der hohen Belastung (vgl. Nieman et al., 1990), konnten andererseits auch protektive Effekte bei moderaten Belastungsintensitäten nachgewiesen werden (vgl. . Abhängig von der Dauer und Intensität der Belastung kommt es während der Aktivität zu einem Anstieg der Lymphozytenzahlen (T-Zellen, B-Zellen und natürliche Killerzellen (NK)) im peripheren Blut, bevor sie nach Beendigung der Belastung unter das Ausgangslevel abfallen können. ...
Thesis
In der vorliegenden Arbeit sollen vielfältige Sport- und Bewegungsprogramme als Möglichkeit innovativer Trainingskonzepte erläutert, teilweise untersucht und die Ergebnisse entsprechend eingeordnet werden. Es geht dabei darum, diese Konzepte auch für Therapiemaßnahmen zu evaluieren und letztendlich zukünftig nutzbar zu machen. Die Ansätze der dafür zugrundeliegenden Untersuchungen sind vielfältig und bewusst heterogen angelegt, ebenso wie meine generelle Forschungsausrichtung. So erforsche ich intensiv die Optimierung sportorientierter Therapiebegleitung bei malignen Erkrankungen (Schwerpunkt pädiatrische Onkologie). Dabei spielen in der Forschung und anschließenden Implementierung in bewegungsorientierte Therapiemaßnahmen die Bereiche Gesundheit und Bewegungswissenschaft gleichermaßen eine bedeutende Rolle, die ich parallel bearbeite. Bei den Untersuchungen geht es einerseits um Trainingskonzepte, die relativ unaufwendig auf Trainingsflächen der Kliniken oder Rehabilitationseinrichtungen angeleitet oder auch selbstständig durchgeführt werden können (Block 1: Trainingswissenschaft). Andererseits geht es um biomechanische und bewegungswissenschaftliche Messungen ausgewählter gesundheitsrelevanter Parameter (Block 2: Biomechanik und Bewegungswissenschaft), um z.B. das Lehrkonzept und das verwendete Material für Block 3 zu evaluieren und im Sinne eines gesundheitsspezifischen, zielorientierten und nachhaltigen Ansatzes der Rehabilitation zu optimieren. In einem dritten Schritt wird in Block 3 (Klinik und immunologische Aspekte) der Natursport „Skilauf“ als Rehabilitationsmaßnahme untersucht. In diesem Gefüge soll hier zunächst der direkte Zusammenhang von Bewegungswissenschaften und Gesundheitssport deutlich werden, was auf der Grundlage eines bewegungswissenschaftlichen Blickwinkels geschieht. Anschließend soll dieser Zusammenhang über bewusst sehr heterogen angelegte Studien noch deutlicher werden, die alle das gleiche Ziel verfolgen: innovative Sport-, Bewegungs- und Gesundheitskonzepte auf einer empirischen Grundlage für die Trainingstherapie einzusetzen.
Chapter
Patients with hematological malignancies have decreased immune function due to hematopoietic abnormalities and treatments such as high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Studies in healthy subjects have shown that exercise effectively improves immune function and may thus also benefit immune function in patients with hematological malignancies. However, sufficient evidence has not yet been established, since there are few studies on the association between immune function and exercise in patients with hematological malignancies. This chapter discusses the possible effects of exercise on immune function in patients with hematological malignancies and prospects, using references to healthy subjects and patients with hematological malignancies. In addition, we hope that this chapter will stimulate interest in immunity and exercise, contribute to the decision-making process for exercise prescription, and create theories for future research.
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