ArticleLiterature Review

Stress, Emotion, and human immune function

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Abstract

This article provides a review of empirical evidence linking emotional processes to immune function in humans. Acute stressors have produced mixed effects on immunity, presumably through differential activation of physiological stress systems. Chronic stress has been associated with suppression of immune function, and there is evidence that the immune system may not adapt over time. Effects of stress accompanying social disruption and psychological depression, when demonstrated, have been consistently adverse. Certain personality styles may enhance or degrade immune response. Relationships between psychosocial factors and immunity have been identified for several diseases, including cancer, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and autoimmune diseases; psychosocial interventions have been tested with variable results. Theoretical and methodological considerations are summarized and directions for future research suggested.

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... Consequences of depression in PLWH are many, such as weakening treatment effects, accelerating progression of AIDS, deteriorating immune system, increasing risks of morbidity and mortality, and decreasing quality of life of PLWH [15][16][17][18]. One of the most detrimental conse- quences of depression in PLWH is the increased likeli- hood of committing suicide in this population, as many studies found that PLWH reported elevated levels of sui- cide [19][20][21]. ...
... The median years of HIV infection since diagnosis was 2.7 years (IQR: 1.1-5.0). Medians (IQR) of the scores of PIS, perceived stigma, internalized stigma, and depres- sion were 35 (29-41), 17 (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19), 18 (14-22), and 13 (10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19), respectively. The majority of the participants had a medium level of PIS (63.8%), followed by 22.4% of a low level and 13.9% of a high level. ...
... The median years of HIV infection since diagnosis was 2.7 years (IQR: 1.1-5.0). Medians (IQR) of the scores of PIS, perceived stigma, internalized stigma, and depres- sion were 35 (29-41), 17 (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19), 18 (14-22), and 13 (10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19), respectively. The majority of the participants had a medium level of PIS (63.8%), followed by 22.4% of a low level and 13.9% of a high level. ...
... Consequences of depression in PLWH are many, such as weakening treatment effects, accelerating progression of AIDS, deteriorating immune system, increasing risks of morbidity and mortality, and decreasing quality of life of PLWH [15][16][17][18]. One of the most detrimental consequences of depression in PLWH is the increased likelihood of committing suicide in this population, as many studies found that PLWH reported elevated levels of suicide [19][20][21]. ...
... The median years of HIV infection since diagnosis was 2.7 years (IQR: 1.1-5.0). Medians (IQR) of the scores of PIS, perceived stigma, internalized stigma, and depression were 35 (29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41), 17 (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19), 18 (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22), and 13 (10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19), respectively. The majority of the participants had a medium level of PIS (63.8%), followed by 22.4% of a low level and 13.9% of a high level. ...
... The median years of HIV infection since diagnosis was 2.7 years (IQR: 1.1-5.0). Medians (IQR) of the scores of PIS, perceived stigma, internalized stigma, and depression were 35 (29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41), 17 (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19), 18 (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22), and 13 (10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19), respectively. The majority of the participants had a medium level of PIS (63.8%), followed by 22.4% of a low level and 13.9% of a high level. ...
Article
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Background Previous studies have shown positive association between HIV-related stigma and depression, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempt among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). But few studies have examined the mechanisms among HIV-related stigma, depression, and suicidal status (suicidal ideation and/or suicidal attempt) in PLWH. The current study examined the relationships among perceived and internalized stigma (PIS), depression, and suicidal status among PLWH in Guangzhou, China using structural equation modeling. Methods Cross-sectional study by convenience sampling was conducted and 411 PLWH were recruited from the Number Eight People’s Hospital from March to June, 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Participants were interviewed on their PIS, depressive symptoms, suicidal status, and socio-demographic characteristics. PLWH who had had suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts since HIV diagnosis were considered to be suicidal. Structural equation model was performed to examine the direct and indirect associations of PIS and suicidal status. Indicators to evaluate goodness of fit of the structural equation model included Chi-square Statistic, Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR), and Weighted Root Mean Square Residual (WRMR). ResultsMore than one-third (38.4%) of the PLWH had depressive symptoms and 32.4% reported suicidal ideation and/or attempt since HIV diagnosis. The global model showed good model fit (Chi-square value = 34.42, CFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.03, WRMR = 0.73). Structural equation model revealed that direct pathway of PIS on suicidal status was significant (standardized pathway coefficient = 0.21), and indirect pathway of PIS on suicidal status via depression was also significant (standardized pathway coefficient = 0.24). There was a partial mediating effect of depression in the association between PIS and suicidal status. Conclusions Our findings suggest that PIS is associated with increased depression and the likelihood of suicidal status. Depression is in turn positively associated with suicidal status and plays a mediating role between PIS and suicidal status. Therefore, to reduce suicidal ideation and attempt in PLWH, targeted interventions to reduce PIS and improve mental health status of PLWH are warranted.
... Implementation of these ideas led to an emergence of a new, interdisciplinary field of psychoneuroimmunology (Schedlowski & Tewes 1999, Ader et al. 2001, and soon enough this approach led to numerous contributions of psychosocial factors to health outcomes (e.g. Glaser et al. 1986;Irwin et al. 1986;O'Leary 1990;Wiedenfeld et al. 1990;Glaser & Kiecolt-Glaser 1994;Cohen & Herbert 1996;Kang et al. 1997;Stowell et al. 2001). Modern interdisciplinary research provides a framework not only for understanding how the interaction of genes and environment influences development of specific individual characteristics, and how an organism copes with others (either of different species or within its own social hierarchy), but also for understanding how these interactions lead to pathophysiological changes and disease. ...
... While the notion of a relationship between behavioral traits and health outcomes is by no means new in the field of health psychology (Glaser et al. 1986;Irwin et al 1986;O'Leary 1990;Wiedenfeld et al 1990;Glaser & Kiecolt-Glaser 1994;Cohen & Herbert 1996;Kang et al. 1997;Schedlowski & Tewes 1999;Stowell et al 2001;Ader et al. 2001;Sarafino 2008), there has not been much research regarding health outcomes in humans stemming from the theoretical framework of Darwinian medicine. Interestingly, some older studies -stemming from different theoretical backgroundsshowed precisely the outcomes one might predict based on Darwinian medicine. ...
Article
One of the issues within the framework of Darwinian medicine is why individuals develop the specific disease they do. Ethologists have long known that within any given population, there are organisms with the tendency towards higher (Hawks) or lower (Doves) aggressiveness, and since the physiological responses to stressful events are different in Hawks and Doves, it has been suggested that these strategies might be related to health outcomes. The aims of this exploratory study were to determine whether an analogues of Hawks and Doves as basic coping strategies could be defined among chronically ill patients and healthy controls and whether the proportion of Hawks and Doves differs among different groups of patients. Patients from several clinical departments (dermatology, gastroenterology and psychiatry) and a comparable group of healthy participants were recruited (N = 288). Based on their coping style and anxiety trait, they were categorized as either Hawks (low anxiety trait and problem-oriented coping style) or Doves (high anxiety trait and avoidant coping style). We found a significantly larger proportion of Hawks among patients with gastroenterological and dermatologic symptoms, and significantly more Doves among psychiatric patients. The proportion of Hawks and Doves in healthy controls was close to 50:50. This is in accordance with the notion that Hawks and Doves have different allostatic load management, and that the onset of certain diseases might be related to these strategies. However, prospective longitudinal studies are necessary to reach definite conclusions regarding the susceptibility to certain diseases among people with different stress-related behavioral and emotional strategies.
... In quantitative measurements, in a given amount of blood, number of cells or percentage of each immune cell type is counted. In functional measurement, lymphocytes for example, are exposed to non-specific antigen (mitogen) and the results of the exposure in terms of T-cell proliferation are assessed [43]. ...
... Interestingly, certain personality styles may enhance or degrade immune response. Relationships between psychosocial factors and immunity have been identified for several diseases, including cancer, AIDS and autoimmune diseases; psychosocial interventions have been tested with variable outcomes [43]. ...
Article
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Background: Higher animals, especially the human beings have the privilege of employing advanced central nervous system (CNS) as well as the evolved immune system to ward off various onslaughts throughout their life. Alterations in inflammatory and neural regulatory pathways lead to several disorders that are now becoming the cause of concern across the world. Deregulation in bidirectional network, particularly in aging population, leads to several neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia as a one of the major characteristics. Objective: Interestingly, research updates have signified the role of abrupt immune regulation in several brain diseases, establishing a link between altered immune system and CNS related diseases. In the later period of life, the altered immune response in the pathogenesis of major psychiatric disorders, has become more visible. In the present manuscript, we present a synopsis on the linkage of CNS and immune system with respect to psychology, with the aim to further understand the biological machinery of psychoneuroimmunological disorders. The immune system of human being plays an important role in keeping pathogen onslaughts on bay. Conclusion: Our manuscript concludes a close relationship between emotion and psychology to diseases and immunology, proclaiming the need of providing enhanced attention on mechanistic aspect of psychoneuroimmunological disorders.
... behavioral interventions may have important physical and psychological impact (Ann, 1990;Antoni et al., 1990;Volhardt, 1991). The immune system involves the action of lymphocytes that deactivates antigens either by stimulating production of antibodies (humeral immune response) or by direct attack on the foreign bodies (cell mediated response) among HIV patients. ...
... Both high levels of negative stress and more common use of emotion focused coping was related to lower QOL, higher psychological suffering, and more uncertainty. Ann (1990) reviewed the empirical evidences showing links of emotional processes to focus that many evidences reported that stress has been associated with suppression of immune response. Certain personality styles may enhance or degrade immune response. ...
Thesis
This study examines the relationship among social support, personality traits and immune response in HIV positive participants. Further examine the direct effect between social support and immune response, hardiness and immune response, self perception and immune response, and gender and immune response of the participants. In addition this study, also examines moderating effect of hardiness, self perception, and gender and social support on immune response. A sample consisting of 200 (100 men & 100 women) HIV diagnosed participants, mean age 33.35 year, enrolled in ART centers at Bilaspur, Raipur and Durg districts of Chhattisgarh state were selected on the basis of purposive sampling technique. The inclusion criteria for the participants in sample were literate (those who could read and write), PLWHA on ART were included. PLWHA suffering from other infections and having CD4 count below 100 and above 1000 cell/ mm3 were excluded. Correlational design was employed; in the research Social support was measured by ‘Social Support Scale’ (Pandey & Shrivastava, 2014), Hardiness was measured by ‘Psychological Hardiness Scale’ (Singh, 2008), and Self perception was measured by ‘Scale Measuring Self Perception’ (Agarwal, 1991) was used. CD4 count was assessed on the basis of records at ART centers. Consent of the participants was obtained before administering the scales used in the research. Prior permission from Chhattisgarh State Aids Control Society (CGSACS) and Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC) for human research, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, has been obtained by the researcher to conduct the research. The data was analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The main results of the study are self perception, hardiness, and social support significantly positive correlation between immune response of the participants individually. Moreover, self perception dimensions i.e. self acceptance and self regard; hardiness component i.e. commitment and control, and social support dimension i.e. emotional support and informational support was also found significant positive correlation with immune response. Furthermore moderating effect of hardiness, self perception and gender, and social support was found insignificant correlation with immune response (CD4 count) of the participants. It is concluded that composite scores of self perception, social support, and hardiness has been found to have positive association with CD4+ count in HIV positive participants. It means that for better immune function the HIV positives should have positive sense of acceptance and regard of themselves, their social activity, relationship with family and colleagues need to be improved. It also suggest that the positive people should be encouraged to increase hardiness attribute in their personality, especially commitment and control. Keywords: social support, hardiness, self perception, Psychoneuroimmunology, gender, HIV/AIDS.
... Moreover, psychologists have verified the important roles that emotion plays in human health. Difficulties in the regulation of negative emotions may cause various mood disorders, such as stress and depression (Gross and Muñoz, 1995), which may influence people's health (O'Leary, 1990). Hence, emotion recognition techniques also contribute to developing e-services for mental health monitoring. ...
Article
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Recognizing cross-subject emotions based on brain imaging data, e.g., EEG, has always been difficult due to the poor generalizability of features across subjects. Thus, systematically exploring the ability of different EEG features to identify emotional information across subjects is crucial. Prior related work has explored this question based only on one or two kinds of features, and different findings and conclusions have been presented. In this work, we aim at a more comprehensive investigation on this question with a wider range of feature types, including 18 kinds of linear and non-linear EEG features. The effectiveness of these features was examined on two publicly accessible datasets, namely, the dataset for emotion analysis using physiological signals (DEAP) and the SJTU emotion EEG dataset (SEED). We adopted the support vector machine (SVM) approach and the “leave-one-subject-out” verification strategy to evaluate recognition performance. Using automatic feature selection methods, the highest mean recognition accuracy of 59.06% (AUC = 0.605) on the DEAP dataset and of 83.33% (AUC = 0.904) on the SEED dataset were reached. Furthermore, using manually operated feature selection on the SEED dataset, we explored the importance of different EEG features in cross-subject emotion recognition from multiple perspectives, including different channels, brain regions, rhythms, and feature types. For example, we found that the Hjorth parameter of mobility in the beta rhythm achieved the best mean recognition accuracy compared to the other features. Through a pilot correlation analysis, we further examined the highly correlated features, for a better understanding of the implications hidden in those features that allow for differentiating cross-subject emotions. Various remarkable observations have been made. The results of this paper validate the possibility of exploring robust EEG features in cross-subject emotion recognition.
... (Lazarus, 1990, p. 5). These small to moderate correlations merely reflect the fact that health is an extremely complex phenomenon, with multiple determinants, moderating factors, psychological and physiological inertia, and threshold or trigger effects (Cohen & Williamson, 1991;Lin & Ensel, 1989;O'Leary, 1990). But whatever the underlying reason, we must acknowledge that simple scatterplots between variables exhibiting this magnitude of association look virtually random to even experienced viewers. ...
Article
Both historians and psychiatrists have tried to explain the recurrent attacks of mental and physical illness experienced by King George III of Great Britain. Although the porphyria hypothesis is widely accepted, this diagnosis assumes that the king’s breakdowns were not precipitated by extreme stress. This assumption was tested using single-case historiometric methods. Biographical data were compiled to form two extensive chronologies of the monarch’s life, one for stressful events and the other for pathological symptoms. From this information 22 independent judges reliably assessed fluctuations in stress (total, personal, and political) and health (total, physical, and mental) across 624 consecutive months between 1760 and 1811. The cross-correlations were then calculated for the raw, first-differenced, and prewhitened time series. A consistent tendency appeared for the king’s health to deteriorate after increases in stress, most frequently with a 9-month delay. The current study demonstrates the utility of applying quantitative techniques to a psychobiographical debate hitherto examined solely by qualitative approaches.
... $&87( 675 (66 9(5686 &+521,& 675(66 To adequately describe the psychophysiological consequences of stress, it is important to discriminate between acute and chronic stress (9). For instance, research in the interdisciplinary field of psychoneuroimmunology has shown that various forms of FKURQLF VWUHVVRUV, such as marital problems, work-related stressors or bereavement, generally have a suppressive effect on parameters of the immune system (10)(11)(12)(13)(14). In the case of chronic stress, the down-regulation of components of the immune system may lead to increased susceptibility to infections (colds, herpes, HIV) and worsen existing diseases such as cancer (4,5). ...
Technical Report
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This report reviews a number of potential stress indicators of health status. The immunobiological stress markers are all related in some way to cortisol which may be regarded as the golden standard in stress research. Finally, the relation between the reviewed biological markers and the endpoints as determined via the psychological approach is discussed.
... 29,30 132 Hormonal mechanisms might also play an important 133 role in the development of depressive symptoms in 134 cancer patients. For instance, pro-inflammatory cyto-135 kines are able to trigger the activation of the HPA axis by 136 increasing the level of CRH and vasopressin 31,32 and to 137 induce, in periphery, the glucocorticoid receptor resis-138 tance 33 and the abolition of the inhibitory effect of 139 glucocorticoids on cytochine production. 34 140 Along this view, an intriguing and less known body of 141 research concerns the association between pancreatic cancer 142 and alterations in mood possibly due to multiple mechan-143 isms. ...
Article
Patients with cancer may report neuropsychiatric abnormalities including cognitive impairment, behavioral disturbances, and psychiatric disorders that potentially worsen their quality of life, reduce their treatment response, and aggravate their overall prognosis. Neuropsychiatric disturbances have a different pathophysiology, including immuno-inflammatory and neuroendocrine mechanisms, as a consequence of oncologic treatments (chemo- and radio-therapy). Among clinicians involved in the management of such patients, psychiatrists need to pay particular attention in recognizing behavioral disturbances that arise in oncologic patients, and determining those that may be effectively treated with psychotropic medications, psychotherapeutic interventions, and an integration of them. Through the contribution of different clinicians actively involved in the management of oncological patients, the present review is ultimately aimed at updating psychiatrists in relation to the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the onset of cognitive, affective, and behavioral syndromes in these patients, along with epidemiologic and clinical considerations and therapeutic perspectives.
... En tant que dynamisme motivationnel, I'émotio n amp lifie toutes les autres motivations, organ isant, par exemp le, I'atlachement et autres relations humaines, la com munication, la connaissance du rée l (plus spécialement à travers une médiation symbolique), le narcissisme. Herbert et Cohen, 1993;Fillion, Kirouac, Lemyre et Mandeville, 1994;O'Leary, 1990;Weisse, 1992 (Cohen, 1985;Delongis, Folkman & Lazarus, 1988;Miller;Minter & Patterson, 1978;Zegans, 1982 (Asterita, 1985;Dantzer et 191 Kelley, 1989;Schneiderman et McCabe, 1989;Selye, 1950 Lemyre et Roy, 1994). ...
... For instance, a recent experiment with medical students demonstrated that mindfulness meditation not only decreases anxiety and depression, but also increases empathy and spirituality (Shapiro et al., 1998). So, people who practice relaxation techniques not only gain practical skills for managing subsequent stressors, but also develop more complex and resilient views of self (Benson et al., 1994;Kabat-Zinn, 1990), improve their immune functioning (O'Leary, 1990), and even extend their lives (Alexander et al., 1989). These new sources of resiliency, according to the broaden-and-build model, function as personal resources that can be drawn on later to promote coping and enhance health and well-being. ...
Article
L’article présente la théorie de Fredrickson sur les émotions positives dite « expansion et construction » ( broaden and build ) ainsi que des résultats qui la soutiennent. Dans le contexte de cette théorie, nous discutons des bienfaits de l’expansion et de la construction des émotions positives sur la santé physique et psychologique : une résilience aguerrie, des stratégies efficaces face au stress ainsi que la récupération physiologique à la suite d’expériences négatives. Enfin, nous présentons un bref aperçu des approches passées et actuelles pour l’étude des émotions positives et nous proposons de nouvelles techniques pour la mesure de ces émotions en utilisant les nouvelles technologies mobiles.
... Aktivacija pak sustava hipotalamus -hipofiza -kora nadbubrežne žlijezde rezultira povećanim lučenjem adrenokortikotropnog hormona (ACTH) i kortikosteroida, osobito kortizola. Utvrđeno je da kortizol ima veći supresivni utjecaj na celularni (Tlimfociti) nego na humoralni (B-limfociti) imunitet (Weisse i sur., 1998), pa reducira broj limfocita, slabi njihove reakcije na mitogene, te djeluje supresijski na aktivnost NK stanica (O'Leary, 1990). Prema nekim autorima (Ader i sur., 1995) imunosupresijski efekti kortizola opaženi su uglavnom poslije farmakoloških doza ovog hormona, dok je njegova fiziološka funkcija normalna regulacija imunoloških stanja, pa može i jačati imunološki sustav. ...
Article
The term psychoneuroimmunology refers to a relatively new multidisciplinary field of research which is aimed at the investigation of the dynamic interaction between the nervous, endocrine and the immunological system. The article gives a brief overview of existing investigations of the effect of stress on the immunological system and points to certain methodological difficulties of these investigations.
... In line with the original observation by Selye of an involution of the thymus and other lymphoid organs in response to stress (205) and the subsequent demonstration of the immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (101), glucocorticoids have traditionally been seen as the hormonal mediators of the immunosuppressive effects of stressors. We will not delve into the details of the vast literature on the effects of stress on immunity, as this topic has been reviewed on several occasions and it is not directly relevant to the present review (3,9,160,169,204,220). ...
Article
Because of the compartmentalization of disciplines that shaped the academic landscape of biology and biomedical sciences in the past, physiological systems have long been studied in isolation from each other. This has particularly been the case for the immune system. As a consequence of its ties with pathology and microbiology, immunology as a discipline has largely grown independently of physiology. Accordingly, it has taken a long time for immunologists to accept the concept that the immune system is not self-regulated but functions in close association with the nervous system. These associations are present at different levels of organization. At the local level, there is clear evidence for the production and use of immune factors by the central nervous system and for the production and use of neuroendocrine mediators by the immune system. Short-range interactions between immune cells and peripheral nerve endings innervating immune organs allow the immune system to recruit local neuronal elements for fine tuning of the immune response. Reciprocally, immune cells and mediators play a regulatory role in the nervous system and participate in the elimination and plasticity of synapses during development as well as in synaptic plasticity at adulthood. At the whole organism level, long-range interactions between immune cells and the central nervous system allow the immune system to engage the rest of the body in the fight against infection from pathogenic microorganisms and permit the nervous system to regulate immune functioning. Alterations in communication pathways between the immune system and the nervous system can account for many pathological conditions that were initially attributed to strict organ dysfunction. This applies in particular to psychiatric disorders and several immune-mediated diseases. This review will show how our understanding of this balance between long-range and short-range interactions between the immune system and the central nervous system has evolved over time, since the first demonstrations of immune influences on brain functions. The necessary complementarity of these two modes of communication will then be discussed. Finally, a few examples will illustrate how dysfunction in these communication pathways results in what was formerly considered in psychiatry and immunology to be strict organ pathologies.
... Similarly, PEA induced a dose-dependent anti-depressant effect (Yu et al., 2011), and reduced aggressive behavior that was blocked by pretreatment with antagonists . The relationship between PPAR activation and emotional regulation is further supported by its activity in neuroinflammation (O'Leary, 1990;Racke and Drew, 2008;Rolland et al., 2013;Esmaeili et al., 2015;Jeon and Kim, 2016), but even more so, by the localization of PPAR-α in brain areas that regulate mood and emotions. ...
... It is believed that both natural and laboratoryinduced stressors have profound direct and indirect influences on immune responses [4]. Such stresses along with social and psychological disturbances suppress immune responses and leave body unprotected against diseases and infections [5]. On the other hand, poverty may exacerbate immunopathology following prolonged activation and dysregulation of the immune system and causes altered production of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) [4]. ...
... Of note, PEA adjunctive therapy to citalopram improves depressed symptoms [241] and intense physical activity increases PEA and OEA levels while improving depression and PTSD symptoms [242]. The relationship between PPAR-α and emotional regulation is further highlighted by its role as an anti-neuroinflammatory target [243][244][245][246][247]. In recent studies originated in our laboratory we have shown that stimulation of PPAR-α by PEA or synthetic agonists increased corticolimbic Allo levels in hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex, which facilitated contextual fear extinction and fear extinction retention, and improved aggression and anxiety-like behavior in SI mice [193,248]. ...
Article
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Introduction: Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are two complex and debilitating psychiatric disorders that result in poor life and destructive behaviors against self and others. Currently, diagnosis is based on subjective rather than objective determinations leading to misdiagnose and ineffective treatments. Advances in novel neurobiological methods have allowed assessment of promising biomarkers to diagnose depression and PTSD, which offers a new means of appropriately treating patients. Areas covered: Biomarkers discovery in blood represents a fundamental tool to predict, diagnose, and monitor treatment efficacy in depression and PTSD. The potential role of altered HPA axis, epigenetics, NPY, BDNF, neurosteroid biosynthesis, the endocannabinoid system, and their function as biomarkers for mood disorders is discussed. Insofar, we propose the identification of a biomarker axis to univocally identify and discriminate disorders with large comorbidity and symptoms overlap,so as to provide a base of support for development of targeted treatments. We also weigh in on the feasibility of a future blood test for early diagnosis. Expert commentary: Potential biomarkers have already been assessed in patients’blood and need to be further validated through multisite large clinical trial stratification. Another challenge is to assess therelation among several interdependent biomarkers to form an axis that identifies a specific disorder and secures the best-individualized treatment. The future of blood-based tests for PTSD and depression is not only on the horizon but, possibly, already around the corner.
... Altogether this indicates that competitive conditions (11 vs. 11) induce a greater acute stress state [207,208]. That said, we cannot exclude the role of psychosocial factors (competition stress) in the etiology of the specific physiological changes observed here such as immunological responses [209]. ...
Article
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Background Understanding soccer players’ match-related fatigue and recovery profiles likely helps with developing conditioning programs that increase team performance and reduce injuries and illnesses. In order to improve match recovery (the return-to-play process and ergogenic interventions) it is also pivotal to determine if match simulation protocols and actual match-play lead to similar responses. Objectives (1) To thoroughly describe the development of fatigue during actual soccer match play and its recovery time course in terms of physiological, neuromuscular, technical, biochemical and perceptual responses, and (2) to determine similarities of recovery responses between actual competition (11 vs. 11) and match simulations. Methods A first screening phase consisted of a systematic search on PubMed (MEDLINE) and SportDiscus databases until March 2016. Inclusion criteria were: longitudinal study with soccer players; match or validated protocol; duration > 45 min; and published in English. Results A total of 77 eligible studies (n = 1105) were used to compute 1196 effect sizes (ES). Half-time assessments revealed small to large alterations in immunological parameters (e.g. leukocytes, ES = 1.9), a moderate decrement in insulin concentration (ES = − 0.9) and a small to moderate impairment in lower-limb muscle function (ES = − 0.5 to − 0.7) and physical performance measures (e.g. linear sprint, ES = − 0.3 to − 1.0). All the systematically analyzed fatigue-related markers were substantially altered at post-match. Hamstrings force production capacity (ES = − 0.7), physical performance (2–4%, ES = 0.3−0.5), creatine kinase (CK, ES = 0.4), well-being (ES = 0.2−0.4) and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, ES = 0.6–1.3) remained substantially impaired at G + 72 h. Compared to simulation protocols, 11 vs. 11 match format (CK, ES = 1.8) induced a greater magnitude of change in muscle damage (i.e. CK, ES = 1.8 vs. 0.7), inflammatory (IL-6, ES = 2.6 vs. 1.1) and immunological markers and DOMS (ES = 1.5 vs. 0.7) than simulation protocols at post-assessments. Neuromuscular performances at post-match did not differ between protocols. Conclusion While some parameters are fully recovered (e.g. hormonal and technical), our systematic review shows that a period of 72 h post-match play is not long enough to completely restore homeostatic balance (e.g. muscle damage, physical and well-being status). The extent of the recovery period post-soccer game cannot consist of a ‘one size fits all approach’. Additionally, the ‘real match’ (11 vs. 11 format) likely induces greater magnitudes of perceptual (DOMS) and biochemical alterations (e.g. muscle damage), while neuromuscular alterations were essentially similar. Overall, coaches must adjust the structure and content of the training sessions during the 72-h post-match intervention to effectively manage the training load within this time-frame.
... 7,8,[10][11][12][13][14][15][16] Over time, chronic ineffective stress management can lead to impaired metabolic and immune functioning, resulting in vulnerability to new health conditions and exacerbation of existing ones, such as viruses, cancers, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and chronic pain. [17][18][19][20][21][22][23] Thus, insufficiently managed stress is a significant problem for college students. ...
Article
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Background: College students are susceptible to undermanaged stress and its detrimental effects, and though they could use evidence-based stress reduction techniques (SRTs) to remedy this, many do not. Unfortunately, little is known about what might encourage greater use. Purpose: This study examined to what extent a framework integrating cognitive, social, behavioral, and experiential factors related to influential health behavior models could account for increased intention to use SRTs (intention) and willingness to recommend SRTs (promoter willingness). Methods: College students (n = 233) completed a survey assessing health beliefs, past and intended future use of SRTs, willingness to recommend SRTs, and potential changes in intention or promoter willingness following brief Health Education messages. Results: Health Belief Model components, theory of planned behavior descriptive norms, and prior SRT use predicted significant variability in intention and promoter willingness (experienced effectiveness of particular SRTs also predicted intention), and Health Education messages increased both outcomes. Discussion: Informational and experiential exposure to different SRTs may promote greater SRT use and dissemination. Translation to Health Education Practice: Institutions can assess student stress management needs and increase student SRT use and dissemination through existing modalities that provide students information, peer discussion opportunities, and reinforcing effects of SRT practice.
... Emotional stress is the one of the six central causes of death in developing countries [3]. Stress may subsequently lead to more complex health issues like cancer, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and autoimmune diseases [4], gastrointestinal diseases, sleep problems, depression, respiratory disorders, cardiovascular diseases and suicide [5]. Psychological stress may also affect fetal development during pregnancy [6]. ...
... Fear and anxiety may lead to phobias (Ohman, 1993). Acute and chronic stress may affect the immune system (O'Leary, 1990). Sad and grief may lead to depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, et ai, 1993) and chronic anger and hostility are associated with hypertension and heart diseases (Smith, 1992). ...
Article
Increasing evidence supports that negative emotions lead to poorer health and other psychological problems. In contrast, positive emotions improve mental states. promote health and counteract negative emotions. Hence it is desirable for patients to maintain positive emotional states to maximise their recovery process. Emotional robots are recent development that enables robots to communicate affect and socialise with human. The ability to communicate emotions makes it possible for Emotional robots to be applied as an alternative approach for patient care. This paper proposes a framework for Emotional robots in improving the mental well being of hospital patients.
... In line with the original observation by Selye of an involution of the thymus and other lymphoid organs in response to stress (205) and the subsequent demonstration of the immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (101), glucocorticoids have traditionally been seen as the hormonal mediators of the immunosuppressive effects of stressors. We will not delve into the details of the vast literature on the effects of stress on immunity, as this topic has been reviewed on several occasions and it is not directly relevant to the present review (3,9,160,169,204,220). ...
... Psychological distress and level of CD4 cell count; and stressful experiences were negatively associated to CD4 cell count (Ann, 1990;McCain & Cella, 1995;Antoni, 2003). Cohen and Herbert (1996) Depression not only affects quality of life but also confers significant barriers to optimizing self-care behaviors, which are important to medical care. ...
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Preface The present research work is an attempt to study influence of cognitive behaviour therapy on depression and immune response through mediational factors among people living with HIV/AIDS in the state of Chhattisgarh. The entire work has been presented in five chapters, as under: Chapter-I is an introductory chapter divided into three subsections. The first section presents background of the study. The attempt is to make the readers familiar with context of the study. It presents various dimensions and variables in details, which have been used in the study. Variables CD4 Cell Count, Depression, Social Support, Hardiness, Hope, Self-Perception and Socio-demographic factors are clearly and broadly presented to have in-depth understanding. The second part of the chapter explains about Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and its use in the study. The third and final part of the study presents the Objectives and hypothesis used in the study. Chapter-II deals with research methodology adopted in the current study. It essentially states the nature of participants in the study followed by measurement and operational definition of variables including socio-demographic details, social support, self-perception, hardiness, hope, depression, immune response and CBT intervention. The chapter also elucidates the ethical consideration of the study. The last part of the chapter describes the design and analysis used in the study along with the details of the procedure. Chapter-III deals with results and their interpretation. It presents the demographic information of the participants along with test of all the eight hypotheses of the study. Path modeling and descriptive statistics is used for analysis of data. Chapter-IV presents the discussion of the results based on all the variables and past studies. It combines the outcomes of the present study with the relevance it draws with the past studies. Chapter-V offers a summary and presents the conclusion of the present study. It presents the final inference drawn from the study along with its implication. It highlights the strength, limitations, and suggestion for future research.
... There should be no harm in aerobic physical activity in the early post-transplant period. Since retrospectively there has been an effort to understand stress on physiology, immunology and psychology [44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60], more is now needed to understand what laboratory parameters are affected in CKD patients and how best to support education surrounding this. ...
... Bullying is one form of discrimination that can result from prejudice and stereotypes (Palmer & Abbott, 2018). The consequences of social exclusion for children can be severe, for example, poorer quality of friendships, higher anxiety and depression, lower self-esteem, poorer academic performance (Juvonen & Graham, 2001;Nansel et al., 2001;O'Leary, 1990;Twenge & Baumeister, 2005). Similarly, bullying can also lead to lower health and well-being, and social exclusion. ...
Article
A growing body of research has shown that imagined intergroup contact can improve outgroup attitudes. The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of a multifaceted form of imagined contact in counteracting bullying in school children, and additionally to test the underlying processes of this effect. Two hundred and fifteen Italian elementary school children took part in a 3-week intervention, where they were asked to imagine a scenario in which they become friends with an unknown disabled child, interact in various social settings, and react to forms of discrimination toward the newly acquired friend. After each session, they discussed collectively what they had imagined. The dependent measures were administered 1 week after the last session. Results revealed that inclusion of an outgroup member in the self mediated the effect of imagined contact on intentions to counteract social exclusion and bullying of disabled children, as well as helping intentions. Imagined contact also promoted greater willingness for outgroup contact via more positive outgroup attitudes and empathy. Our findings are important in delineating new forms of imagined contact, and understanding ways to promote behaviors that defend victims of social exclusion and bullying in school environments.
... Unhealthy thoughts and emotional responses to stress are capable of leading to reduced productivity and health problems (Gharib et al. 2016;Gitonga and Ndagi 2016;Manabete et al. 2016). Evidence-based studies have indicated that irrational beliefs and automatic thoughts about work and work place stressful experiences can result in unhealthy negative emotions (David et al. 2016;David and Matu 2013;O'leary 1990). SPACE model of CBC has consistently been used in non-clinical settings in improving the overall personal skills for coping with the demands of the work environments (Edgerton and Palmer 2005;Palmer and Szymanska 2007). ...
Article
Stress symptoms have been found to be highly prevalent among school administrators in Nigeria. Management of occupational stress constitutes a major challenge facing school administrators who are in secondary schools in Nigeria. The present study sought to validate the effectiveness of group SPACE model training in reducing occupational stress among secondary school administrators in south-east, Nigeria. The study employed a group randomized wait-list control trial design with pre-test, post-test and follow-up assessments. A total of 65 participants constituted the study sample. Participants were randomly assigned to immediate intervention group (IIG) and waitlist control group (WLCG). The IIG participated in a 90-min group SPACE model training programme weekly for a period of 12 weeks. Three measures were used to collect data at baseline, post-test and follow-up evaluations. Data collected were analyzed using t test statistics, repeated measures ANOVA, 2 × 3 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics and Post Hoc analysis. Results revealed that participants in the IIG had significant decrease in their perceived stress and stress symptoms compared to the WLCG. No significant changes in the occupational stress indices were found across baseline, post-test and follow-up. Given that group SPACE model training intervention was effective in mitigating perceived occupational stress and stress symptoms, even when the occupational indices could not be minimized among the school administrators, it was concluded that group SPACE model training intervention can be used to overcome negative perception of occupational stress and the associated stress symptoms in secondary school administrators.
... For example, having disinhibited personality traits may affect postsurgery control over eating habits. Similarly, more neurotic, anxious, and depressed patients may experience more stress, which may lead to weight gain through maladaptive eating behaviors or through the physiological effects of stress (O'Leary, 1990). However, many of these same psychological variables have been found not to significantly predict weight loss after bariatric surgery (e.g., mood and anxiety disorder symptoms, binge eating disorder symptoms, and personality traits; Herpertz, Kielmann, Wolf, Hebebrand, & Senf, 2004;Kalarchian et al., 2016;Marek et al., 2016;Wimmelmann et al., 2014). ...
Preprint
Objective: Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity, which has been increasing worldwide. However, bariatric surgery causes dramatic physical changes that can cause significant stress. Prior research has found that psychological variables such as personality traits and levels of psychopathology can influence success after bariatric surgery (in terms of body-mass index [BMI] reduction and weight loss). However, most prior studies have been limited by small sample sizes, inconsistent follow-up, and categorical assessment of psychopathology. Methods: The present study examines the predictive utility of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales for three bariatric surgery outcomes (BMI reduction, weight loss, and percent excess weight loss [%EWL]) across ten follow-up points five years after surgery. It also examines the largest sample of bariatric surgery-completing patients (N = 2,267) on the PAI to date. Latent growth modeling was used to examine change in the outcome variables. Results: Results indicate that personality and psychopathology variables predicted less BMI reduction, weight loss, and %EWL five years after surgery and also affected the trajectories of change in the outcome variables across time. The PAI scales predicted more variance in the five-year BMI outcomes than did age and gender. The most robust effects were for scales assessing phobias, traumatic stress, identity problems, and negative relationships. Conclusions: The PAI may be useful to clinical health psychologists who conduct recommended psychological evaluations with potential bariatric surgery candidates.
... For example, having disinhibited personality traits may affect postsurgery control over eating habits. Similarly, more neurotic, anxious, and depressed patients may experience more stress, which may lead to weight gain through maladaptive eating behaviors or through the physiological effects of stress (O'Leary, 1990). However, many of these same psychological variables have been found not to significantly predict weight loss after bariatric surgery (e.g., mood and anxiety disorder symptoms, binge eating disorder symptoms, and personality traits; Herpertz, Kielmann, Wolf, Hebebrand, & Senf, 2004;Kalarchian et al., 2016;Marek et al., 2016;Wimmelmann et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity, which has been increasing worldwide. However, bariatric surgery causes dramatic physical changes that can cause significant stress. Prior research has found that psychological variables such as personality traits and levels of psychopathology can influence success after bariatric surgery (in terms of body mass index [BMI] reduction and weight loss). However, most prior studies have been limited by small sample sizes, inconsistent follow up, and categorical assessment of psychopathology. Method: The present study examines the predictive utility of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales for three bariatric surgery outcomes (BMI reduction, weight loss, and percent excess weight loss [%EWL]) across 10 follow-up points 5 years after surgery. It also examines the largest sample of bariatric surgery-completing patients (N = 2,267) on the PAI to date. Latent growth modeling was used to examine change in the outcome variables. Results: Results indicate that personality and psychopathology variables predicted less BMI reduction, weight loss, and %EWL 5 years after surgery and also affected the trajectories of change in the outcome variables across time. The PAI scales predicted more variance in the 5-year BMI outcomes than did age and gender. The most robust effects were for scales assessing phobias, traumatic stress, identity problems, and negative relationships. Conclusion: The PAI may be useful to clinical health psychologists who conduct recommended psychological evaluations with potential bariatric surgery candidates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Stress and the resulting physical and psychological problems are a modern-day epidemic impacting health and wellbeing (Kalia 2002;Neckel et al. 2017). High levels of stress can have adverse effects on emotional health and a systemic negative impact on immune and cognitive functioning (Chen and Baram 2016;McEwen 2008;O'leary 1990). The negative impact of stress can influence functioning over the lifespan, and childhood exposure to stress is known to increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, and premature death (Miller et al. 2011). ...
Article
Prior research demonstrates that stress and coping strategies have a significant influence on development and wellbeing, however few studies focus on the impact of daily stressors and coping strategies on anxiety and resiliency in preadolescents living in Mexico. The current study aim is to determine the impact of coping strategies and daily stressors on anxiety and resilience. Daily stressors, coping strategy use, anxiety symptoms, and resilience were assessed in a sample of 98 students (age 9–13) from two schools serving similar socioeconomic areas in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. The relationship was analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) to better account for the influence of coping daily stressors, gender, and age on both anxiety and resilience. The proposed model had excellent indices of model fit and revealed a positive relationship between daily stressors and levels of anxiety. Non-productive coping strategies were also associated with higher levels of anxiety while the relying on others strategy associated with less anxiety. Productive coping and non-productive coping strategies were associated with greater resiliency. Our findings parallel other findings from the literature, however, in a sample from Mexico. The findings suggest that preadolescents use different coping strategies to effectively manage daily stressors, and that anxiety may influence resiliency.
... It is well known that negative affect can cause all kinds of problems for both individuals and society [1]. Evidence shows that anxiety, sadness and anger may lead to susceptibilities to stress-related physical disorders [2], unipolar depression [3], loss of work productivity [4], heart disease [5], some cancers [6], and even suicide [7]. Considering the severe suffering and loss, it is crucial to help individuals increase affective well-being to regulate negative emotions. ...
... [56] Stress is thought to affect the immune system, increases the levels of neuroendocrine hormones, and alters the levels of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. [57,58] Descending autonomic nerves have been found to stimulate the release of neuropeptides in the skin. [57,59] Skin biopsies from patients with nonsegmental vitiligo have found higher reactivity of neuropeptide and neuronal markers. ...
... Basically it will take a long time to do rapport or even rejected by participants if a group approach is taken (39,40) and since the participants have been diagnosed with leprosy, they tend to cover and keep their own psychological problems to themselves and feel reluctant and afraid to engage intensively on an activity (2). The fifth matter is that based on scale measurement on SRQ-20 score, the decline on the participants centered around affective, cognitive, and conative symptoms; however, the physiological aspect tends to remain the same (41). Physiological symptoms shown in research participants may be affected by leprosy itself because a chronic disease tends to weaken the immune system and alter the stamina (42). ...
... A longitudinal casestudy of one year of psychotherapy also found decreases in excreted IL-6 over time, which seemed to correspond with gradual symptom improvements [77] . Additionally, following a four-week stress management intervention for survivors of childhood sexual abuse, Wilson [78] found a modest but statistically significant increase in salivary secretory Immunoglobulin A, a secreted biomarker involved in viral and bacterial immunity [79] . ...
... Pierwsze publikacje, które niejako zerwały z dominującym przez całe stulecie nurtem psychopatologii, traktujące o humorze, pochodzą z lat dziewięćdziesiątych XX wieku (np. Ruch, McGhee, Hehl 1990;Cohen, Williamson 1991;O'Leary 1990). Badania te obejmowały szerokie spek-trum poczucia humoru -od uwarunkowań temperamentalnych przez powiązania z funkcjonowaniem fizycznym do sposobu nabywania oraz rozwoju zachowań komicznych (Nevo, Aharonson, Klingman 1998). ...
Article
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Sense of humour is defined as the ability to perceive certain phenomena as funny and amusing as well as the skills of telling hilarious stories and provoke funny situations. Research suggests a correlation between sense of humour and the way people function in different situations. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the correlation between humour styles and stress. The employed study tool was the HSQ test of R. Martin et al., as well as the PSS-10 test. The study comprised 182 participants. The results of the study have revealed that the non-adaptive humour styles-aggressive and self-enhancing-are correlated with a greater perception of stress.
... psiholo{koj, dovode do promjena u drugim razinama (Tkal~i}, 1998.). Ovaj teorijski okvir potaknuo je brojna istra`ivanja koja su jasno upozorila na postojanje psiho-socijalnih~initelja sa zdravljem/bole{}u (O'Leary, 1990.; Wiedenfeld i sur., 1990.). ...
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Darwinian medicine postulates a concept of "allostatic overload" as a trigger for certain types of diseases. It also postulates two behavioural strategies, doves and hawks, which differ in the immune system responses to allostatic load. The Darwinian medicine framework postulates that hawks should have greater incidence of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. This hypothesis was tested on the psoriasis model, as there are two types of psoriasis: type I, with a genetic component, and type II, regarded as reactive, i.e. dependant upon exogenous factors. Since psoriasis type I is less dependant upon environmental triggers, we do not expect differences between the personality profiles of these patients and the comparable group of dermatological patients. However, we do expect a specific personality profile in patients with psoriasis type II, a disease which can be considered a consequence of allostatic overload. We compared MMPI-201 profiles of 44 patients with psoriasis type I, 26 patients with psoriasis type II, and 70 patients diagnosed with other skin diseases. Only patients diagnosed with psoriasis type II showed a clinically indicative Hs-D-Hy profile. Furthermore, although patients with a type II psoriasis had objectively poorer clinical condition (as measured with PASI index and exacerbation of illness), the perception of psoriasis-induced stress in everyday life was related only with the personality profile, and not with the type of psoriasis. Since behavioural traits of people with Hs-D-Hy profile resemble those of hawks, we consider this finding to be indirect evidence in favour of the proposed hypothesis.
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This study is about understanding the coping strategies used during childhood andadolescence. Its purpose is to investigate those factors that may effect on the copingstrategies, either separately or together. Our main concern while studying the copyingstrategies is to focus on the system “parents-children”. Research questions that ariseare the following: How can children’s and adolescent’s coping strategies be predictedbased on a) their parents’ attitudes regarding their children’s coping strategies, b) theirparents’ own coping strategies, c) their parent’s personality, d) children’s andadolescent’s behaviour as well as their sufficiency (according to children’s andparents’ attitudes).The theoretical background is based on the systemic theory, according to whichcoping strategies can be described as a result from the interaction between children’sbehavior and their parents’ behavior. According to relative research, the way theparents react under stress situation is a better predictive factor for their children’ssame behaviour than the actual stress event. Emphasis is put on understanding theway that children’s and adolescents’ behaviour is related to the interaction in familysystem. This leads to a different way of appraisal and a shift from linear “causeeffect’’,to the study of the interaction between the family members’ at “here andnow” rather than viewing the person itself as the vector of the symptom.We investigate the hypothesis that the coping of children and adolescents is differentbetween the two age groups (aged 11 and 14) related to what their parents say aboutthis issue, also related to parents’ personality, as well as to parents’ coping.Moreover, we investigate the relation, if there is any, between the coping of childrenand adolescents and possible behavioural and psychological problems, as describedby the children and their parents.Additionally, we investigate which from these variables above can be emerged aspredictive factors for children’s coping (depended variable).The research design consists of two phases: In the first phase, the sample wascollected (354 children and adolescents, divided to two equal age groups) as well asone parent (the mother or the father) and the evaluation tools were selected. In thesecond phase, we investigated the interaction between independent variables andchildren’s coping and their predictive value on it.The results indicate that the age of the children has a significant effect on copingstrategies that children choose and they choose, approximately, the same copingstrategies as their parents. Age and gender differences that are found are the samewith the results of other relative Greek studies. Furthermore, there seems to be arelationship between non functional coping strategies, that children choose, anddysfunctional behavior, they show. Also, it seems that the parents have the same ideaswith their children about their children’s behavioral and psychological health. Last butnot least, there is positive relationship between parents’ personality traits and theirattitudes about their children’s behavioural and psychological health.As far as the independed variables’ predictive value on children’s coping strategiesis concerned, the results indicate that the children’s gender, their age, their attitudes,as well as their parents’ attitudes, about its social adequacy, the internal and externalbehaviours, father’s education and the parents’ coping strategies – especially theavoidance strategies- can predict children’s coping strategies. Parent’s copingstrategies have the more significant predictive value. Parents’ personality traits werenot significant.
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In this work, we analyze psychological well-being (positive and negative affectivity) in a sample of 40 divorced parents. We have found associations between this variable and attachment style, loneliness and preoccupation towards the ex-spouse. Positive affectivity was predicted by low levels of social loneliness, secure attachment and low levels of preoccupation with the ex-spouse. Negative affectivity was predicted by anxiety towards relationships, a lower number of children and romantic loneliness. Implications for prevention and clinical intervention with divorced parents and their families are discussed.
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Emotional wellness provides individuals with a positive outlook towards life and helps them in coping with untoward incidents of life. The problems associated with emotional wellness become more evident with old age. Statistics show that the aging population is increasing fast which means an increase in the strain on social services. Emotional wellness, in spite of its importance, has received the little attention of academia and industry. With the advent of novel technologies like wearables, provision of emotional wellness can be revolutionized. In this paper, we address the need for prevention driven strategies to provide emotional wellness for young elderly (60-75 years). We conduct a thorough literature review and realize that the literature does not adequately address the emotional wellness of aging population. We also conduct Perceived Wellness Survey that shows a strong impact of emotional wellness on other wellness dimensions and overall wellness of individuals. Based on our literature review and survey results, we provide design recommendations to develop wearables that can help young elderly to manage their self and stressful situations better.
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In order for treatment as prevention to work as a national strategy to contain the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States (US), the HIV care continuum must become more robust, retaining more individuals at each step. The majority of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the US are gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Within this population, there are distinct race- and ethnicity-based disparities in rates of HIV infection, engagement, and retention in HIV care, and viral suppression. Compared with White MSM, HIV-infected Black MSM are less likely to be on anti-retroviral therapy (ART), adhere to ART, and achieve viral suppression. Among MSM living in urban areas, falling off the continuum may be influenced by factors beyond the individual level, with new research identifying key roles for network- and neighborhood-level characteristics. To inform multi-level and multi-component interventions, particularly to support Black MSM living in urban areas, a clearer understanding of the pathways of influence among factors at various levels of the social ecology is required. Here, we review and apply the empirical literature and relevant theoretical perspectives to develop a series of potential pathways of influence that may be further evaluated. Results of research based on these pathways may provide insights into the design of interventions, urban planning efforts, and assessments of program implementation, resulting in increased retention in care, ART adherence, and viral suppression among urban-dwelling, HIV-infected MSM.
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Chapter
Introduction In this chapter we intend to provide an assessment of the research literature on unemployment and health. We draw on our somewhat more recent and much more detailed review of this research (Kasl & Jones, 2000), as well as on some key or trendsetting studies that have been published in the last few years. In orienting the reader to this topic, we begin with a few general observations on recent research trends and themes: There continues to be a strong and sustained interest in the topic of unemployment and health, both in the USA and, even more so, in Western Europe. The boundaries of the topic have enlarged, reflecting the impact of changes in the economies of many industrial countries. Specifically, there is a growing interest in the impact of job insecurity, downsizing and involuntary part-time employment (e.g. Ferrie, Shipley et al., 2003; Friedland & Price, 2003; Kivimaki et al., 2003). In fact, the old dichotomy of working vs. unemployed is being replaced by a continuum which includes in-between categories of sub-optimal employment (Grzywacz & Dooley, 2003). This newly complex domain of research has generated its own glossary to help readers understand the concepts being investigated (Bartley & Ferrie, 2000). […]
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The development of an adequate assessment instrument is a necessary prerequisite for social psychological research on loneliness. Two studies provide methodological refinement in the measurement of loneliness. Study 1 presents a revised version of the self-report UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) Loneliness Scale, designed to counter the possible effects of response bias in the original scale, and reports concurrent validity evidence for the revised measure. Study 2 demonstrates that although loneliness is correlated with measures of negative affect, social risk taking, and affiliative tendencies, it is nonetheless a distinct psychological experience.
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Hypothesized that hardiness—commitment, control, and challenge—functions to decrease the effect of stressful life events to producing illness symptoms. 259 upper- and middle-level male managers (mean age 48 yrs) were administered a battery of tests (including Rotter's Internal–External Locus of Control Scale, the Schedule of Life Events, and the Seriousness of Illness Survey) covering a 5-yr period. Results support the hypothesis by showing main effects on illness for both stressful life events and hardiness and an interaction effect for these independent variables. (37 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The relation between life stress and immune parameters was investigated for 33 female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients interviewed during three routine monthly clinic checkups. Life stress from major and minor events, coping efficacy, and self-reported psychological distress were assessed, and immunofluorescence of T-cells and B-cells was performed on the blood drawn during each visit. Small stressful events were positively related to the proportion of circulating B-cells, psychological distress was inversely related to proportion of circulating T-cells, and major life events were associated with lower T-helper/T-suppressor cell ratios.
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Most current models in health psychology assume that stress adversely affects physical health. We re-examined this assumption by reviewing extensive data from the literature and from six samples of our own, in which we collected measures of personality, health and fitness, stress, and current emotional functioning. Results indicate that self-report health measures reflect a pervasive mood disposition of negative affectivity (NA); self-report stress scales also contain a substantial NA component. However, although NA is correlated with health compliant scales, it is not strongly or consistently related to actual, long-term health status, and thus will act as a general nuisance factor in health research. Because self-report measures of stress and health both contain a significant NA component, correlations between such measures likely overestimate the true association between stress and health. Results demonstrate the importance of including different types of health measures in health psychology research.
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One-hundred and thirty-two college students were exposed in small groups to two films which contrasted in the extent to which they aroused either power or affiliation motivation. In previous studies high power motivation, if it is inhibited, has been associated with lower levels of salivary immunoglobulin A (S-Ig A), and high affiliation motivation, if it is not inhibited, is associated with higher concentrations of S-Ig A. The film which aroused power motivation more was not followed by a decrease in S-Ig A concentrations as predicted, but the film was followed by a significant reduction in S-Ig A concentrations for those individuals with the inhibited power motive syndrome at baseline as compared to individuals characterized by other motive syndromes. The film which aroused affiliation motivation more was followed by an increase in S-Ig A concentrations immediately afterwards, and this increase was sustained an hour later when subjects continued to dwell on the loving relationships that characterized the film. Subjects characterized by the relaxed affiliative syndrome at baseline showed greater gains in S-Ig A in response to the film which aroused affiliative concerns. Although higher S-Ig A levels at baseline are associated with reports of less severe illness in the past among males, neither males nor females who showed consistent gains in S-Ig A after the affiliative film reported less severe illness in the past.
Article
Thirty-three patients diagnosed as suffering from definite or classic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) received conventional medical therapies and were randomly assigned to one of three adjunct treatment conditions. These were (a) thermal biofeedback training and cognitive-behavioral group therapy; (b) structured social support group therapy; and (c) no adjunct treatment. Subjects in both the cognitive-behavioral and the social support treatment conditions reported significant descreases in trait anxiety and depression from the pre-treatment to posttreatment assessment. Only the cognitive-behavioral subjects showed significant decreases across assessment periods in pain behavior, self-reports of pain intensity, and rheumatoid factor titer. Subjects' perceptions of control over their RA symptoms were not associated with their outcomes. The results suggest that the cognitive-behavioral treatment produced positive effects upon pain behavior and immune system activity. The stability of these results will be examined using the entire sample of 53 subjects at six-month and one-year follow-up assessments.
Article
Much recent work has focused on the interrelationships among environmental. psychological and physiological phenomena involved in immune-related disorders. with special emphasis being given to neoplastic processes. The present review looks first at the physiological pathways involved in the body's assorted and alternating responses to stressful environmental and psychological conditions and the immune system sequelae following each of two distinct psychophysiological coping responses—active coping and passive coping/helplessness reaction. Psychoimmunological findings about stressful life events. bereavement and mental depression as stressors the integrated with current psychoneuroimmunological postulates. A framework is outlined that may have utility for understanding the relationship among chronic psychological emotional stress in its many forms, accompanying neurohormonal changes. and increased susceptibility to immune-mediated neoplastic growth. Finally, the recently evolved concepts of hyper-adaptosis and cancrophilia are employed to further integrate theoretical pathways with clinical findings in the hopes of presenting a fertile base on which others may plan and conduct empirical research and intervention strategies.
Article
Provides an overview of the immune system as well as some basic guidelines for measurements of immunocompetence in humans. A case is made for the emerging area of psychoneuroimmunology, which deals with how the mind may influence health or contribute to a disease process. It is contended that the issue of illness behavior (IB) requires consideration at both ends of the process—IB as a coping strategy at one end and the question of secondary gain after the disease has set in. Questions, such as how to distinguish between somatic disease and the IB that may feed it and the influences of immunologic disturbances on behavior, are posed. It is emphasized that using a multidisciplinary approach results in a greater understanding of the interactions between the bodily systems, from the psychosocial to the molecular. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
in this chapter, some of the psychobiological interactions between social, psychological and biological phenomena are explored biomedical approaches ways of classifying depression epidemiology / neurobiology / neuroendocrinology environment-animal interactions and psychobiological processes / learned helplessness / psychological approaches to depression / isolation / social defeat human appraisal and symbolic codes (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Starting with the premise that research questions emanating from the fields of psychoneuroimmunology and behavioral medicine may provide critical information for understanding and treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), we provide brief backgrounds on psychoneuroimmunology and on AIDS. Previously, Solomon had generated 25 hypotheses based on the thesis that the immune and central nervous systems are intimately linked. Eight hypotheses from his list are presented as particularly relevant to AIDS. From these hypotheses, we derived a set of 12 new questions to be addressed in research on AIDS. Evidence and illustrations from studies in the literature, from our own research on psychoimmunologic relationships and psychosocial factors related to outcome, and from clinical examples is discussed for each question. Finally, suggestions are offered to address some of the problems in conducting psychoneurologic research.
Article
The effect of acute exercise on natural killer (NK) activity and on the distribution of phenotypic characteristics of peripheral blood lymphocytes was examined. Trained and sedentary individuals underwent a standard progressive exercise test on a cycle ergometer using an incremental work load of 15 W (90 kpm), increased every minute. Each subject was encouraged to exercise to exhaustion, and total ventilation and mixed expired O2 and CO2 were measured every 30 sec. All subjects reached the anaerobic threshold as judged by the deflection of ventilation at a work load nearVO2max. NK activity against K562 reached maximum levels immediately after exercise, dropped to a low point 120 min later, then slowly came back to preexercise levels within 20 hr. No significant differences were observed between the trained and the sedentary groups. Furthermore, immediately after exercise the proportion of OKT-3+ and OKT-4+ cells was reduced by 29.83.6 and 33.65.4%, respectively; the percentage Leu-7+ and Leu-11a+ cells was increased by 53.91.7 and 57.32.9%, respectively. The percentage OKT-8+ cells was not significantly altered. When the percentage binding of effector to target cells was examined, it was highest at 0 min post-exercise (196.2%) and lowest at 120 min postexercise (73.9%), but the absolute number of NK cells remained unchanged. The source of serum used in the lytic assay had no effect on the NK activity, as fetal calf serum and autologous sera drawn at different time intervals during exercise gave similar results. Epinephrine suppressed and interferon enhanced the NK activity of all cells tested, which indicates that during and after exercise NK cells did not go through a refractory stage. Our results show that, contrary to other lymphocyte subpopulations, NK cells are resistant to the depletive and modulatory effects of acute exercise and the increase in NK activity is not due to an increase in the absolute number of NK cells.
Article
Much has been written during the past decade about the mortality and morbidity which may follow conjugal bereavement [1–4]. Existing studies of morbidity do not however enable us to draw any substantial conclusions about the prevalence of such consequences in widows and widowers. Either the population of bereaved persons has been a highly selected one, commonly available for study because they have been referred for psychiatric treatment, or there has been no utilization of a non-bereaved control group, the desirability of which is heightened by the tendency towards some deterioration in physical and mental health in middle age [5].This present study developed as one segment of a major research endeavour, aimed ultimately at the identification in advance of those widows most likely to suffer untoward physical and/or psychological consequences following conjugal bereavement [6]. Our major focus has been on the subject's interaction with her social network during the three months immediately following the bereavement [7], the whole study being conceptualized within the framework of crisis theory [8]. Our findings on the health of widows, however, were of such interest that it seemed worthwhile to examine suitably matched control groups in order to determine more truly the prevalence of health deterioration following bereavement. As well as information about the overall prevalence of health deterioration in two samples of widows, one in Boston, Massachusetts and the other in Sydney, Australia, our techniques also enabled us to gather information about the specific symptoms and syndromes manifested by the subjects and the matched controls.
Article
A review of the literature relating personality factors to rheumatoid arthritis has shown some communalities and some differences in results across studies. Several investigators agreed that rheumatoid arthritics, when compared to various control groups, tend to be self-sacrificing, masochistic, conforming, self-conscious, shy, inhibited, perfectionistic, and interested in sports and games. They also tend to over-react to their illness. There were, however, disagreements about many other factors, e.g., the extent of the expression of anger, the importance of separation trauma, and the amount of impulsivity and defiance shown.Several important factors, the existence of which limit the generalizability of the results of previous work, and which in addition help in understanding the disagreements among various studies, were discussed. These factors include a gross lack of information about patient characteristics such as age, intelligence, severity of disease, etc.; radical differences in the theoretical orientations and methods of the different investigations; a lack of adequate and comparable control groups; the difficulty of obtaining clear-cut unambiguous behavioral predictions from personality theories which hypothesize that similar underlying personality traits may manifest themselves in different, perhaps even opposite ways; a lack of knowledge about the relationship between what an arthritic says about himself in an interview or on psychologic tests, and what his external behavior is actually like; an assumption that particular personality patterns antedate the onset of disease; and an overemphasis on ‘negative’ personality traits.Some suggestions for further work were made.
Article
The long-term upward trend in real percaput incomes is associated with better health, but the smoothed curve disguises cyclic fluctuations, recessions followed by periods of rapid economic growth, which may be stressful to certain groups in the workforce and, by extension, to their families. Especially vulnerable in recessions are those in industries whose goods or services are not essential, the less skilled who are the first to lose their jobs and the last to get their jobs back when the economy improves, and those who find that over one turn in the business cycle their skills are no longer needed. For these groups, most often to be found in the lower socioeconomic classes, this lack of economic security is stressful: social and family structures break down and habits that are harmful to health are adopted. Acutely, if the effect manifests as a psychopathological event (e.g., suicide), or after a time lag of a few years or even one or more turns of the business cycle for chronic diseases, economic recessions and subsequent periods of rapid economic growth are associated with a deceleration in the normally declining curve of mortality against time. This model, tested previously on U.S. data, has now been confirmed on data for England and Wales.
Article
A prospective, multidisciplinary, 5-year study of 69 consecutive female patients with early (T0,1N0,1M0) breast cancer was conducted. Patients' psychological responses to the diagnosis of cancer were assessed 3 months postoperatively. These responses were related to outcome 5 years after operation. Recurrence-free survival was significantly common among patients who had initially reacted to cancer by denial or who had a fighting spirit than among patients who had responded with stoic acceptance or feelings of helplessness and hopelessness.
Article
Changes in numbers of peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy individuals were calculated from samples collected before and after parenteral administration of adrenaline, insulin and hydrocortisone, respectively. A marked increase in circulating lymphocytes was noted in response to adrenaline and insulin. However, subpopulation analysis showed a decrease in the proportion of T-lymphocytes, estimated as cells forming rosettes with sheep red blood cells after incubation in the cold and a corresponding increase in proportion of lymphocytes having receptors for C3 (non-T lymphocytes). In contrast, lymphocyte numbers were unaffected by hydrocortisone. The results indicate that a decreased proportion of circulating T-lymphocytes and an increase of non-T-lymphocytes may be the result of adaptive changes in response to various forms of stress and hence is to be expected in several clinical conditions.
Article
Although it has been clearly established that glucocorticoids inhibit mitogen- or antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, the mechanism underlying this effect has remained ill-defined. Recently, it has become evident that T cell proliferation is mediated by a soluble T cell growth factor (TCGF) released by mitogen/antigen stimulated T cells. Therefore it seemed probable that the inhibitory effects of glucocorticoids were manifested either at the level of TCGF production or at the level of the activated T lymphocyte. We found that differentiated cytolytic T lymphocytes harvested from TCGF-dependent long-term culture were only mildly sensitive to inhibitory effects (25 to 30% inhibition) of glucocorticoids as measured by decreased cellular proliferation and the incorporation of tritiated thymidine. The degree of inhibition observed was most probably mediated through glucocorticoid receptors in that the half maximal inhibitory glucocorticoid concentration correlated with half-maximal glucocorticoid receptor saturation. In contrast, we found that mitogen-induced TCGF production and T cell proliferation were completely inhibited by pharmacologic concentrations of dexamethasone (10-6 M). Finally, the TCGF supplementation of mitogen-stimulated cultures treated with maximal inhibitory concentrations of dexamethasone resulted in complete amelioration of glucocorticoid suppression. These results indicate that a major mechanism of glucocorticoid-mediated immunosuppression may occur at the level of the TCGF-producing cell, resulting in the control of clonal expansion of activated T cells via inhibition of TCGF production.
Article
Administered inventories designed to assess self-reported psychopathology, other-deception (lying), and self-deception to a group of 250 undergraduates. The inventories included the Beck Depression Inventory, the Neuroticism and Lie scales of the Eysenck Personality Inventory, the Manifest Symptom Questionnaire, the Other-Deception Questionnaire, and the Self-Deception Questionnaire. Substantial negative correlations were found between self-deception and psychopathology scores, and the relationships between the self-deception and psychopathology scores were stronger than those between the other-deception and psychopathology measures. Findings support the view that self-deception significantly contributes to the invalidity of self-report inventories and more so than does other-deception. The possibility is raised that self-deception is a moderating variable contributing to the lack of agreement between clinical and actuarial forms of assessment. (7 ref)
Article
Personality was studied as a conditioner of the effects of stressful life events on illness onset. Two groups of middle and upper level executives had comparably high degrees of stressful life events in the previous 3 years, as measured by the Holmes and Rahe Schedule of Recent Life Events. One group (n = 86) suffered high stress without falling ill, whereas the other (n = 75) reported becoming sick after their encounter with stressful life events. Illness was measured by the Wyler, Masuda, and Holmes Seriousness of Illness Survey. Discriminant function analysis, run on half of the subjects in each group and cross-validated on the remaining cases, supported the prediction that high stress/low illness executives show, by comparison with high stress/high illness executives, more hardiness, that is, have a stronger commitment to self, an attitude of vigorousness toward the environment, a sense of meaningfulness, and an internal locus of control.
Article
Thirty-five women with metastatic breast cancer received a battery of baseline psychological tests; results were correlated with length of survival. Patients who died in less than one year from baseline were categorized as short-term survivors, while patients who lived for one year or longer were assigned to the long-term survivor group. The long-term survivors were more symptomatic overall, with particular elevations on measures of anxiety and alienation, and substantially higher levels of dysphoric mood (eg, depression, guilt) than the short-term survivors. Short-term survivors revealed significantly lower levels of hostility, with higher levels of positive mood. Treating oncologists perceived the long-term survivors to show significantly poorer adjustment to their illnesses than the short-term survivors, and an interviewer's ratings indicated that long-term survivors had significantly poorer attitudes toward their physicians. Measures of clinical status and demographic data revealed few differences between the two groups.
Article
A long-standing problem in stress research has been that individuals' reports of their tendencies to become anxious are often inconsistent with relevant behavioral and physiological indices. This study investigated the distinction between (a) truly low-anxious Ss, who report low trait anxiety on the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale and low defensiveness on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and (b) repressors, who report low anxiety but high defensiveness. These groups were compared with a moderately high-anxious one. Heart rate, spontaneous skin resistance responses, and forehead muscle tension were recorded from 40 male college students during a phrase association task. Significant differences in the 3 physiological measures as well as in 3 behavioral ones (reaction time, content avoidance, and verbal interference) all indicated that the repressors were more stressed than the low-anxious Ss despite their claims of lower trait anxiety. The high-anxious group exhibited a 3rd pattern suggesting an intermediate level of anxious responding. These data document the need to distinguish between repressors and truly low-anxious persons in research concerned with relations between self-reported anxiety and behavioral and physiological responses to stress. (42 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
143 undergraduates completed an attributional style scale designed by the authors, the short form of the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List. Results show that depressed Ss, compared to nondepressed Ss, attributed bad outcomes to internal, stable, and global causes, as measured by the attributional style scale. This attributional style was predicted by the reformulated helplessness model of depression. In addition, relative to nondepressed Ss, depressed Ss attributed good outcomes to external, unstable causes. (8 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
After mice were exposed to a daily auditory stressor for varying lengths of time, the responses of their splenic lymphoid cells in vitro were assessed. Both the blastogenic activity of concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide and the ability of immune lymphocytes to lyse P815 target cells showed the same patterns of immunosuppression and enhancement.
Article
Exposure of 8 healthy human females to a moderately stressful 77-hr vigil under strictly controlled conditions was accompanied by changes in adrenal cortical and medullary hormones compatible with a stress reaction. The ability of the lymphocytes to procedure interferon in response to the addition of Sendai virus to blood samples rose during the stressor exposure and was highest after this. Phagocytosis by peripheral blood phagocytes showed a decrease during the vigil and was followed in post-exposure samples by a rise to levels above pre-exposure values.
Article
The mechanisms and kinetics of the immunosuppressive effects of alternate-day prednisone were investigated in a group of patients with a variety of inflammatory diseases receiving a range of alternate-day prednisone doses from 5 to 120 mg. Total circulating lymphocyte and monocyte counts, as well as proportions of lymphocyte subpopulations defined both by surface markers and by in vitro functional capacities, were studied. At 8 a. m. of the day on prednisone, just before drug administration, lymphocyte and monocyte counts, proportions of lymphocyte subpopulations, as well as in vitro lymphocyte blastogenic responses to various mitogenic and antigenic stimuli were normal. 4 h after the administration of prednisone, there was a profound lymphocytopenia and monocytopenia, with a differential depletion of thymus-derived lymphocytes as well as various functionally defined lymphocyte subpopulations. Lymphocyte kinetic studies using a radioactive chromium-labeled autologous lymphocytes showed that the lymphocytopenia was due predominantly to a transient depletion of the recirculating portion of the intravascular lymphocytepool. All these parameters returned to normal by 8 a.m. of the following day (off prednisone) and remained normal throughout the day. This very transient lymphocytopenia and monocytopenia after prednisone, with normal cell numbers, proportions, and functions throughout the remainder of the 2-day cycle, was associated with suppression of disease activity, yet did not affect cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity in these patients nor increase the likelihood of infectious complications. This drug-associated cyclic and transient monocytopenia and selective lymphocytopenia is best explained by a redistribution of recirculating lymphocytes to other body compartments, particularly the bone marrow.
Article
Adrenaline, noradrenaline, isoprenaline and salbutamol were infused at the rate of 7 mug/min for 30 min into 5 healthy subjects. Pulse rates showed a marked increase after isoprenaline, a moderate increase after adrenaline and salbutamol, and a consistent decrease after noradrenaline. The total leucocyte counts increased in response to adrenaline and noradrenaline but remained unchanged after isoprenaline and salbutamol. The absolute lymphocyte counts showed significant increases after all the four agonists. Neutrophils increased in response to adrenaline and noradrenaline but remained unchanged after isoprenaline and salbutamol. 'Stress' lymphocyte counts rose in response to adrenaline, isoprenaline and salbutamol but not to noradrenaline. From these and other reported observations it is suggested that both alpha- and beta-receptors are involved in the mobolization of lymphocytes, while neither has any specific role in the mobilization of neutrophils.
Article
The hematologic and immunologic functions of the Skylab 3 (second manned mission) astronauts were examined during the preflight, inflight, and postflight phases of the 59-d mission in order to evaluate the response to and/or the influence of the space flight environment. Most changes observed were subtle and did not represent a threat to the health and safety of the crewmen during orbital flight. Even the most significant change observed, a reduction in the circulating red cell mass, did not have a detrimental influence on the astronaut cardiovascular or exercise responses as evaluated by other experiment protocols. Considering the facts that the data were not collected under ideally controlled conditions and that the astronauts were in excellent physical condition, the results of these studies would seem to indicate that man can function quite well in the space flight environment of the Skylab orbiting workshop for extended periods of time.
Article
We assessed changes in psychological and immunological functioning during 5-week periods preceding and following notification of serostatus among gay males taking the HIV-1 antibody test. Forty-six asymptomatic homosexual men between the ages of 18 and 40 yrs were recruited from a gay men's organization and through advertisements in a local newspaper. Measures of cell-mediated immunity (lymphocyte phenotypic markers, mitogen responsivity, and natural killer cell cytotoxicity) and psychological functioning (state anxiety, intrusive thoughts, and avoidant behaviors) were obtained at baseline, five weeks later and 72 hr before serostatus notification, and 1 week, 3 weeks and 5 weeks postnotification. Results suggested a dissociation between psychological and immunological phenomena among seropositives wherein lymphocyte proliferative responses to the mitogens phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) remained unchanged in the face of significant increases in state anxiety and intrusive thoughts following serostatus notification. These findings suggested that asymptomatic HIV-1 infected individuals, even at the earliest stages of infection, may be unable to mount an immune response to potent psychosocial stressors (i.e., serostatus notification), due perhaps, to the fact that the viral contribution to immune functioning overrides any influence of environmental stimuli. Among the seronegative subjects studied, blastogenic responses to PHA and PWM were depressed at baseline (relative to a group of age and gender-matched controls who were not undergoing HIV-1 antibody testing) but PHA values returned to normal values 5 weeks later. Natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and CD4+CD45R+ inducer cell counts appeared to parallel these changes in seronegatives. Seropositives did display fluctuations in NK cell cytotoxicity that were similar to those noted for seronegatives. Correlational analyses suggested that individual differences in anxiety responses at the time of notification of seropositivity predicted subsequent (1-week lag) declines in NK cell cytotoxicity but not other functional markers. Although most seropositives displayed clinical levels of anxiety, intrusive thoughts and avoidant responses during the week of serostatus notification, these measures returned to their initial nonclinical baseline levels within 5 weeks after notification in both the seropositive and seronegative groups.
Article
This experiment examined the impact of experimentally varied perceived self-efficacy in exercising control over stressors on components of the immunological system. Immunological changes while coping with phobic stressors were measured within an intrasubject control design that included a baseline phase, an efficacy-acquisition phase, and a maximal-efficacy phase. In each of these phases, perceived coping self-efficacy, level of autonomic and endocrine activation, and several components of the immunological system were measured. Development of strong perceived self-efficacy to control phobic stressors had an immunoenhancing effect. A slow growth of perceived self-efficacy, heart rate acceleration, and cortisol activation attenuated immunological system status during the efficacy-acquisition phase. Rapid growth of perceived self-efficacy also predicted maintenance of immunoenhancement during the maximal perceived self-efficacy phase.
Article
This article reports three studies that taken together support two hypotheses: (a) that the stressed power motivation syndrome is associated with relatively low natural killer cell activity (NKCA) and (b) that the unstressed affiliation motivation syndrome is associated with higher NKCA. In Study 1, college students who were relatively high in stressed power motivation had significantly lower NKCA than did their peers. In addition, students high in unstressed affiliation motivation had significantly greater NKCA than did those showing less evidence of this syndrome. Study 2 replicated these findings on a sample of middle-class men. In Study 3, which tested the hypotheses among adult patients from a Health Maintenance Organization, results were in the same direction but less significant. Meta-analyses clearly indicate that the combined evidence from the three studies reliably supports both hypotheses.
Article
The effects of cortisol on the natural killer (NK) activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells were studied in vitro using a direct 4-h 51Cr-release assay and K 562 cell line as a target. Preincubation for 20 h of PBM cells drawn from healthy donors with 1 X 10(-8) to 1 X 10(-5) M cortisol resulted in a significant decrease of NK cell activity. The magnitude of the suppression was directly related to the steroid concentration and inversely related to the number of effector cells. Cortisol was able to minimize the enhancement of NK cytotoxicity obtainable in the presence of immune interferon (IFN-gamma). A significantly higher suppression was achieved after sequential exposure of PBM cells to cortisol and equimolar levels of prostaglandin E2 (PgE2). The concomitant incubation with theophylline and isobutyl-methylxanthine failed to enhance the cortisol-induced suppression, whereas PgE2-dependent inhibition significantly increased after exposure of PBM cells to methyl-xanthines. The inhibitory effect of cortisol was partially or totally prevented by the concomitant incubation with equimolar amounts of 11-deoxycortisol and RU 486 but not of progesterone. Treatment of NK effectors with a monoclonal anti-human corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) antibody produced an enhancement of the spontaneous NK activity and a partial suppression of cortisol-mediated effects. Our results suggest that endogenous glucocorticoids play a role in the regulation of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Since the effect of cortisol was additive to that of PgE2 and was not changed by phosphodiesterase inhibitors, it is conceivable that the hormone acts at a level different from the adenylate cyclase-phosphodiesterase system. Data obtained with the use of antiglucocorticoids and the anti-CBG antibody are compatible with a role both of high-affinity glucocorticoid receptors and of CBG in mediating cortisol action on the human NK cell activity.
Article
Psychological stress has been shown to affect immune system status and function, but most studies of this relationship have focused on acute stress and/or laboratory situations. The present study compared total numbers of leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations (determined by flow cytometry) and antibody titers to latent and nonlatent viruses among a group of chronically stressed individuals living near the damaged Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant with those of a demographically comparable control group. Urinary catecholamine and cortisol levels were also examined. Residents of the TMI area exhibited greater numbers of neutrophils, which were positively correlated with epinephrine levels. The TMI group also exhibited fewer B lymphocytes, T-suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Antibody titers to herpes simplex were significantly different across groups as well, whereas titers to nonlatent rubella virus as well as IgG and IgM levels were comparable.
Article
The relationships among stressful life experience, mood, helper-inducer (CD4+) and suppressor-cytotoxic (CD8+) T cells and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) recurrence were investigated prospectively in 36 patients with recurrent HSV. The following factors were measured monthly for six months: stressful life experience (including current acute and ongoing stressors, residual effects of previous stressors, and anticipation of future stressors), negative mood, health behaviors, other possible HSV triggers, HSV recurrences, and the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells (in half the sample). Results averaging monthly scores over the six-month study period indicated that: 1) subjects with high levels of stressful experience had a lower proportion of both CD4+ and CD8+ cells, 2) subjects with high levels of depressive mood, anxiety, or hostility had a lower proportion of CD8+ cells, and 3) subjects with high levels of depressive mood who did not report many symptoms of other infections had a higher rate of HSV recurrence. A model is proposed linking depressive mood, CD8+ cells, and HSV recurrence.
Article
We examined recent assertions of Stone, Cox, Valdimarsdottir, and Neale regarding the use of S-IgA concentrations in whole saliva as a measure of mucosal immune competence. Our conclusions are markedly different from theirs. In this article, we report the results of a meta-analysis that reveals a significant relation between psychosocial variables and salivary S-IgA concentrations. Second, we note that an inverse relation between salivary flow and S-IgA would not preclude studying salivary S-IgA concentration. Third, we present a different perspective on the assertion of Stone et al that IgA proteases in whole saliva potentially lead to erroneous results from the radial immunodiffusion assay. Fourth, we report a meta-analysis suggesting a statistically significant relation between S-IgA salivary concentrations and the incidence of acute upper respiratory illnesses. We conclude that there is no empirical or logical reason to prefer the measurement of another aspect of immunity to total S-IgA concentration in whole saliva.
Article
Evidence is reviewed that measures of motive strength, as measured through content analysis of associative thought, are related to physiological systems, the functioning of which affect health outcomes. Studies show that affiliative and power motive syndromes assessed in associative thought are associated with health and illness. A relaxed or easygoing affiliative motive syndrome characterizes insulin dependent Type I diabetics and can, if aroused, lead to poorer blood sugar control in such diabetics. A stressed power motive syndrome is associated with sympathetic activation, release of stress hormones, depressed immune functions, and greater susceptibility to infectious diseases. Affiliative trust and a greater sense of agency as measured in associative thought content are associated with better health. An intervention study and a longitudinal study have demonstrated that differences in the levels of these motivational variables are not simply the result of illness but lead to alterations in subsequent health status.
Article
We tested the impact of stress management training on sexual behavior and immune functioning in 64 gay men infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Subjects randomized to the stress management group met for eight two-hour sessions and one all day retreat to learn systematic relaxation, health behavior change, and stress management skills. Compared to those randomized to a wait list control, treatment subjects reported significantly fewer sexual partners in the prior month at post-test (1.10 vs 2.29 for controls). There were no differences between groups in lymphocyte numbers and function.
This current study is concerned with the identification of the incidence of persistently low natural killer (NK) cell activity in an essentially healthy population of young adults, and the characterization of the psychological profile associated with this pattern of NK activity. Eighty-eight individuals, between the ages of 18 and 44 years, were accrued to this project. Subjects were tested serially, at baseline induction into the study, and at 2 and 4 weeks follow-up. Baseline assessment included a complete physical examination and laboratory work-up in order to exclude anyone ill at the time of enrollment, and to have complete physical status information on all subjects at the time of accrual. NK activity, urinary catecholamine levels and psychological status were also assessed at baseline, and at the specified follow-up intervals. Individuals with low NK activity were operationally defined as those having NK function either below the group mean, or below the group lowest quartile, at baseline and at two follow-up assessments. Results showed that in both univariate analyses, as well as in logistic regression models, age and the perception of environmental stressors or 'hassles' predicted persistently low NK activity. Younger subjects, who perceived environmental events to which they were exposed as more serious in nature, were more likely to exhibit a persistently low NK profile over time than older individuals who perceived daily events as less important to them.