Priming and Human Memory Systems

Article (PDF Available)inScience 247(4940):301-6 · February 1990with 2,087 Reads 
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DOI: 10.1126/science.2296719 · Source: PubMed
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Abstract
Priming is a nonconscious form of human memory, which is concerned with perceptual identification of words and objects and which has only recently been recognized as separate from other forms of memory or memory systems. It is currently under intense experimental scrutiny. Evidence is converging for the proposition that priming is an expression of a perceptual representation system that operates at a pre-semantic level; it emerges early in development, and access to it lacks the kind of flexibility characteristic of other cognitive memory systems. Conceptual priming, however, seems to be based on the operations of semantic memory.
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  • ... Different theorists classify components of long term memory in very different ways. A useful classification is that of Tulving and Schacter (1990) which distinguishes episodic, semantic, procedural and PRS (Perceptual Representation System). ...
    ... Implicit memory is what is learned while not being consciously aware (Tulving and Schacter 1990). Priming abilities, which have been described as 'the facilitation of a particular response to a cue by an earlier stimulus' (Kopelman 1995), have frequently been cited as an index of implicit memory . ...
    ... Other researchers have reported similar findings, with a range of priming tasks (e.g. Tulving and Schacter 1990, Shimamura 1986, Schacter and Graf 1986. ...
    Thesis
    People with organic amnesia can show intact performance on implicit tests of memory despite profoundly impaired performance on explicit tests. There is some recent preliminary evidence suggesting that amnesics may also have a degree of preserved memory function for emotionally valent material as compared with their impaired function for neutral material. The study reported in this thesis aimed to explore whether people with Korsakoff syndrome remembered emotionally valent information more than neutral information. It also aimed to determine whether emotional / neutral differences depended on how memory was assessed. The performance of 6 Korsakoff subjects was compared with that of 12 age-matched controls on four main memory tasks. All participants were assessed at two time points. Results suggested that the superiority of emotional memory depended on how memory was assessed. On tasks requiring explicit memory for novel information emotional material enhanced the performance of control participants, but not Korsakoff participants. The exception to this was enhanced performance on cued recall of positive information in the Korsakoff group (as also seen in the control group). However on a test of autobiographical memory assessing memories in response to positive, negative and neutral cuewords, although the Korsakoff group produced less specific memories overall than the control group, scores were very similar between the two groups in response to negative cuewords. This was interpreted as a superiority of memory for negative autobiographical experiences in the Korsakoff group. When memory was tested in an implicit priming task, the performance of the Korsakoff group and the control group did not differ and the effect of the emotional material was the same for both groups. These findings are discussed in the context of the literature on emotional memory in both amnesic and normal subjects. Areas for further research are suggested and the possible clinical implications of the results are drawn out.
  • ... previously presented (See, Berry, Shanks, Speekenbrink and Henson, 2012;Cox & Shiffrin, 2017). Frequent reports of conscious target recognition, i.e., "explicit" attempts to recall the prime, led Schacter (1990Schacter ( , 1992, Tulving, Schacter and Stark (1984), and Tulving and Schacter (1990) to propose that independent memory "systems" were required to account for explicit and implicit repetition priming. A major debate asked whether repetition priming can be produced in the absence of conscious recall. ...
    ... Lexical recognition is an intermediate, but not the final step of word recognition. The final step in word "recognition" is the re-activation the conceptual-cognitive features of a word --the activation of some abstract semantic, syntactic and other conceptual feature representations previously associated with the target word in contexts similar to the present context (See, Bergerbest et al., 2004;Henson, 2003;Maccotta et al., 2004;Schacter, 1992Tulving et al., 1990). We assume that these frontal and prefrontal representations interact with each other and send activation back through the hub pathway to the ATL hub (Hoffman et al., 2018) thereby lowering the word's lexical recognition threshold (Buckner et al., 2000) as well as activating its acoustic and articulatory word cousins, which will further support the associated frontal and prefrontal recurrent networks. ...
    Preprint
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    Recognition of every word is accomplished by close collaboration of bottom-up sub-word and word recognition neural networks with top-down cognitive word context expectations. The utility of this context appropriate collaboration is substantial savings in recognition time, accuracy and cortical neural processing resources. Repetition priming, the simplest form of context facilitation, has been studied extensively, but behavioral and cognitive neuroscience research has failed to produce a common shared model. Facilitation is attributed to temporary lowered word recognition thresholds. Recent fMRI evidence identifies frontal, prefrontal, left temporal cortex interactions as the source of this priming bias. Five experiments presented here clearly demonstrate that word recognition facilitation is a bias effect. Context-Biased Fast Accurate Recognition, a recurrent neural network model, shows how this anticipatory bias is accomplished by interactions among top-down conceptual cognitive networks and bottom-up lexical word recognition networks. Signal detection theory says that this facilitation bias is offset by the cost of miss-recognizing similar, but different words. However, the prime typically creates a temporary time-space recognition window within which probability of prime recurrence is substantially raised paradoxically transforming bias into sensitivity.
  • ... A framework was proposed (Gardiner & Java, 1993 a) in which Remember responses were influenced by conceptual and attentional factors whereas perceptual or data-driven factors influenced Know responses arising from the presemantic perceptual-representation systems that have been proposed to account for priming (Tulving & Schacter, 1990). However, it was later argued that Know responses express too high a level o f awareness to be dependent on these systems, and that they are in fact an expression o f conscious memory (Richardson-Klavehn, Gardiner, & Java, 1996). ...
    Thesis
    Five experiments employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate dual-process models of recognition memory. Each experiment consisted of a three phase design in which two lists of words were presented in two temporally segregated study tasks. During the third, 'test', phase, subjects were required to respond on one key to old items from a specified study phase, and to respond on another key both to old items from the alternate study phase and to new items. As recognised items require differential responding depending on their source, it is argued that recollection-based recognition of a studied item allows subjects to respond accurately whereas familiarity-based recognition does not. Four principal patterns of neural activity were observed throughout the course of the five experiments. Items recognised on the basis of familiarity elicited greater positivity than new items at frontal sites between 300-600 msec. Recollected items were associated with a second phase of positivity between 500-800 msec, maximal at parietal sites. The finding that these two patterns of neural activity were qualitatively distinct supports dual-process models of recognition memory which state that recollection and familiarity are independent. Recognised items also elicited greater positivity than new items over right frontal and frontopolar sites from 800 msec until the end of the recording epoch (approximately 1400 msec). It is argued that this ERP effect reflects processes that evaluate and monitor the products of retrieval. Finally, a fourth pattern of neural activity is reported in which ERPs associated with studied items are more negative going than those associated with new items, maximal at mid and right parietal sites between 800-1400 msec. It is suggested that this ERP effect may reflect the response conflict experienced when recognition does not determine the response. The implications of these findings for models of recognition memory are discussed.
  • ... This result should be considered alongside related work on other neurological conditions which also appear to involve spared residual function in the absence of awareness. For instance, based on an apparent dissociations between explicit (e.g., 'old/new') and implicit (e.g., repetition priming) recognition in amnesia, theorists have postulated separable explicit and implicit longterm memory systems (e.g., Tulving & Schacter, 1990;Squire, 2009). Similarly, apparent dissociations between covert and overt face recognition in prosopagnosia have been interpreted variously as evidence of separable overt and covert face recognition systems (Bauer, 1984), or as evidence of the disconnection of the facial recognition system from conscious awareness (e.g., de Haan et al., 1987Haan et al., , 1992Schachter et al., 1988). ...
    Preprint
    Blindsight is a neuropsychological condition defined by residual visual function following destruction of primary visual cortex. This residual visual function is almost universally held to include capacities for voluntary discrimination in the total absence of awareness. So conceived, blindsight has had an enormous impact on the scientific study of consciousness. It is held to reveal a dramatic disconnect between performance and awareness and used to motivate diverse claims concerning the neural and cognitive basis of consciousness. Here I argue that this orthodox understanding of blindsight is fundamentally mistaken. Drawing on models from signal detection theory in conjunction with a wide range of behavioral and first-person evidence, I contend that blindsight is severely and qualitatively degraded but nonetheless conscious vision,
  • ... The numerous controls that we ran in this study convincingly exclude that the dogs would always perform those actions in those situations and make it less likely that the prior experience of having performed a given action in that context simply increased the probability of that response due to priming 37 . ...
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    We investigated whether dogs remember their spontaneous past actions relying on episodic-like memory. Dogs were trained to repeat a small set of actions upon request. Then we tested them on their ability to repeat other actions produced by themselves, including actions performed spontaneously in everyday situations. Dogs repeated their own actions after delays ranging from a few seconds to 1 hour, with their performance showing a decay typical of episodic memory. The combined evidence of representing own actions and using episodic-like memory to recall them suggests a far more complex representation of a key feature of the self than previously attributed to dogs. Our method is applicable to various species, paving the way for comparative investigations on the evolution and complexity of self-representation.
  • ... Aspect D. is a standard study approach in research on biases because many types of biases can also be experimentally induced, sometimes termed priming Tulving & Schacter (1990); Yonelinas (2002). We thus also study the influence of contextual metaphors, in addition to the cultural bias, from A. Once we have established in this paper 1 IBM Watson IoT Platform https://www.ibm. ...
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    Full-text available
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