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Changes in the behavior of dogs after castration

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This study is based upon a written survey of keepers of neutered dogs about the behaviour of 209 male and 382 female dogs. The main findings are: Male dogs show behavioural changes after castration more often and more distinctly than female dogs after neutering. Behavioural problems in most cases are reduced or have even disappeared after neutering (male dogs 74%, female dogs 59%). At best, hypersexuality and connected problems are changed as expected. 49 of 80 aggressive male dogs and 25 of 47 female dogs are more gentle after neutering. 10 bitches appeared to be aggressive only after being neutered. Particularly feeding behaviour changes in 42% of the male dogs and 32% of the female dogs towards an increased intake of food, which also leads to an increase in body weight. This corresponds to decreasing activity, which is indicated by increasing time of rest (male dogs 36%, female dogs 18%) and decreasing motivation to move. Motivation for playing, watchfulness and perseverance change more seldomly and sometimes increase. The character of the neutered animals is predominantly described as "devoted, friendly and kind". Changes of behaviour following neutering depend on many influencing factors. Above all effective obedience training, but also the family situation of the owner, time factors, conditions of keeping and contact with other dogs have different impacts on the control of the individual behavioural problems.

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... Dogs' reproductive status can affect a variety of behaviors, including marking, mating, aggression, and activity levels. However, some findings contradict each other, which suggest that the age of spaying has a confounding effect (Heidenberger & Unshelm, 1990;Le Boeuf, 1970;Lisberg & Snowdon, 2011;Salmeri et al., 1991). According to Heidenberger and Unshelm (1990), in neutered dogs, social activity, specifically play behavior and persistence, increases, whereas general activity was found to decrease as indicated by increased resting time and lower motivation to move. ...
... However, some findings contradict each other, which suggest that the age of spaying has a confounding effect (Heidenberger & Unshelm, 1990;Le Boeuf, 1970;Lisberg & Snowdon, 2011;Salmeri et al., 1991). According to Heidenberger and Unshelm (1990), in neutered dogs, social activity, specifically play behavior and persistence, increases, whereas general activity was found to decrease as indicated by increased resting time and lower motivation to move. ...
... Spaying/neutering (or gonadectomy) influences the behavior of animals through complex interactions with their endocrine hormonal systems. To date, in dogs, there is evidence for changes in marking behavior (Lisberg & Snowdon, 2011), sexual behavior, and aggression (Heidenberger & Unshelm, 1990;Le Boeuf, 1970), as well as levels of activity/locomotion (Heidenberger & Unshelm, 1990;Salmeri et al., 1991). ...
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to explore spontaneous social interactions between dyads of unfamiliar adult dogs. Although intraspecific encounters are frequent events in the life of pet dogs, the factors that might influence encounters, such as sex, dyad composition, reproductive status, age, and state of cohabitation (keeping the dogs singly or in groups), remained unexplored. Methods: In this study, we assigned unfamiliar, non-aggressive dogs to three types of dyads defined by sex and size. We observed their unrestrained, spontaneous behaviors in an unfamiliar dog park, where only the two dogs, the owners, and experimenter were present. Results: We found that the dogs, on average, spent only 17% of the time (less than 1 min) in proximity. Sex, dyad composition, reproductive status, and age influenced different aspects of the interactions in dyads. Female dogs were more likely to initiate the first contact in their dyad but later approached the partner less frequently, were less likely to move apart, and displayed less scent marking. Following and moving apart were more frequent in male-male interactions. Neutered dogs spent more time following the other dog and sniffed other dogs more frequently. The time companion dogs spent in proximity and number of approaches decreased with age. Conclusion: The study provides guidance for dog owners about the outcomes of intraspecific encounters based on the dog's age, sex, and reproductive status, as well as the sex of the interacting partner.
... There are multiple studies from a wide variety of geographic areas linking desexing to an increased risk of obesity in dogs. These studies include dog populations from the US, the UK, Continental Europe, Australia, China, and Japan [116,[183][184][185][186][187][188][189][190][191]. While one recent study performed in Danish dogs found an increased obesity risk associated with desexing that was limited to male dogs [189], most other available studies find that the effect is present in both sexes. ...
... Most studies on behavioral changes associated with desexing published thus far have been specific to male dogs, while comparably few of them have also included or focused on behavior in gonadectomized female dogs. In studies that differentiated between effects in males and females, the behavioral effects of desexing were generally found to be more pronounced in males than they were in females [190]. ...
... Male-pattern urinary marking is a testosterone-dependent behavior that is initiated during puberty [210,211], but which contrary to mounting and copulatory behavior does not depend on testosterone effects in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamus [201]. The majority of studies of desexing found a significant decrease in urinary marking behavior in desexed male dogs regardless of age at desexing [5,190,191,203,204], while one study found an influence of age at desexing, with later ages being associated with a less pronounced decrease in marking following desexing [205]. In contrast, female dogs do not generally show urinary marking, and urinary behavior is not generally affected by desexing in female dogs [212]. ...
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Simple Summary: Desexing is a general term for interventions suppressing fertility in dogs, most commonly by surgically removing the testes or ovaries ("gonadectomy"). Desexing is promoted for population control, health benefits, and behavior modification. Surprisingly, the existing evidence shows no effect of desexing on population size in companion or shelter dogs; however, an effect has been shown for desexing female free-roaming dogs. Desexing has consistently been shown to change various health risks, including a reduction in pyometra and mammary tumor risk, as well as an increased risk of cranial cruciate ligament rupture, several forms of cancer, and obesity in both sexes. Other health effects vary considerably between breeds and sexes. A lifespan advantage in desexed dogs has consistently been shown in females, while the evidence is inconsistent in males, and the effect is smaller in studies that found one. There is more literature on behavioral effects in males than in females, and the evidence suggests reduced libido, roaming, conspecific mounting, and urinary marking in a large percentage of gonadectomized males, and reduced male dog aggression in a majority of males gonadectomized because of behavioral problems. The decision whether to desex dogs needs to be individualized based on the available evidence. Abstract: Background: Desexing dogs is promoted for population control, preventative healthcare, and behavior modification. Common methods are orchiectomy and ovariectomy/ovariohysterectomy. GnRH superagonist implants are available in some areas. Alternative methods like vasectomy and salpingectomy/hysterectomy are uncommon. The terminology used to describe desexing is inconsistent and contradictory, showing a need for the adaption of standardized terminology. Population Control: Surprisingly, empirical studies show no effects of desexing on population control in companion and shelter dogs despite desexing being consistently recommended in the literature. There is evidence for a population control effect in free-roaming dogs, where desexing also has benefits on zoonotic disease and bite risk. Population control in free-roaming dogs is mostly correlated with female, not male desexing. Health and Lifespan: Desexing affects numerous disease risks, but studies commonly neglect age at diagnosis and overall lifespan, age being by far the most important risk factor for most diseases. We argue that lifespan is a more important outcome than ultimate cause of death. A beneficial effect of desexing on lifespan is consistently demonstrated in females, while evidence for a beneficial effect in males is inconsistent. Studies are likely biased in desexing being a proxy for better care and desexed dogs having already lived to the age of desexing. Desexing reduces or eliminates common life-limiting diseases of the female reproductive system such as pyometra and mammary tumors, while no analogous effect exists in males. Disease risks increases across sexes and breeds include cruciate ligament rupture, various cancers, and obesity. Urinary incontinence risk is increased in females only. Various other disease risk changes show considerable variability between breeds and sexes. Behavioral Effects: Desexed males show reduced libido, roaming, conspecific mounting, and urinary marking frequency, as well as reduced male dog-directed aggression in a majority of males desexed for behavioral reasons. There is a detrimental effect on the risk and progression of age-related cognitive dysfunction. Desexed dogs may be less likely to cause bite injuries across sexes. The evidence for other effects such as human-directed aggression, human or object mounting, resource Animals 2019, 9, 1086 2 of 28 guarding, or shyness and anxiety is inconsistent and contradictory. There are few studies specific to females or individual breeds. Conclusions: The evidence for a beneficial effect of desexing is stronger in female than in male dogs; however, there is significant variation between breeds and sexes, and more research is needed to further elucidate these differences and to arrive at individualized evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice.
... In an increasing number of circumstances, gonadectomy is requested to attempt to eliminate objectionable behaviors [14][15][16]. ...
... In the literature, several authors already investigated the behavioral effects of gonadectomy by interviews, but the methodology applied in their studies suggests caution in interpreting the results. Some interviews took place too long after the gonadectomy (between two and eight years), and others were conducted non-randomly [14,15,42]. To prevent these errors in the present investigation, the authors used a reliable interview form, a randomly enrolled population, and a time limit of nine months postorchiectomy and after the last interview. ...
... In our sample, no body weight or eating behavioral changes were found in both genders and groups of dogs. In accordance with our study, Fazio et al. [43] found no significant body weight increases in ovariohysterectomized bitches two months after the intervention, but other authors reported that castrated dogs are more often obese than intact dogs [15,24,27]. There is conflicting information regarding this topic in the literature since obesity is not uniquely reported as a consequence of gonadectomy [4]. ...
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Due to the lack of unequivocal scientific evidence, gonadectomy’s effects on dogs’ behavior are still debated. Since veterinarians differ in their opinion, there may be considerable diversity in the advice received by owners. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of gonadectomy on dog behavior across time. Ninety-six dog owners (48 control dogs and 48 experimental dogs) were interviewed twice (T0 and T1, nine months later) to obtain information about their dog’s behavior. No change was found in the eating behavior or weight of dogs of both groups. Compared to T0, at T1, experimental dogs were reported to show less mounting behavior, pull on the leash, and roaming behaviors. Marking behavior did not vary across time for both groups of dogs. A tendency to reduce owner-directed aggression was observed at T1 for experimental male dogs, while no change was observed for male controls. The literature reports conflicting information about the effect of gonadectomy on behavior, suggesting that further studies about this topic should be undertaken.
... Meanwhile, tests of spatial learning, memory and reversal learning tasks using a T-maze showed that 81% of entire females successfully completed the whole procedure compared to 56% of spayed females, 62% of entire males and 50% of castrated males [27]. Reports from owners of 209 male and 382 female dogs revealed that, after gonadectomy, male dogs showed behavioural changes more often and more distinctly than female dogs [28]. For 49 of 80 (61%) aggressive male dogs and 25 of 47 (53%) female dogs, these reports described dogs becoming more gentle after gonadectomy [29]. ...
... Notably, increased voluntary food intake emerged in 42% of male dogs and 32% of female dogs. Weight gain and resultant lethargy are expected in many gonadectomised dogs [28] and owners should be counselled on how to prevent these outcomes [12]. Calorie-restriction may increase the perceived value of rations to gonadectomised dogs and lead to food-guarding [12], but associations between gonadectomy and food-related aggression have been challenged [1]. ...
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Castration of dogs is a widespread practise with clear justification in population control and knock-on benefits for animal welfare. Deleterious behavioural consequences of castration are believed to be negligible. Gonadectomy is widely recommended as part of a multi-facto-rial approach to prevent problems including aggression in dogs. However, the consequences of early castration on health are still being debated. The current study focused on the reported behaviour of 6,235 male dogs castrated before 520 weeks of life for reasons other than behavioural management, and calculated their percentage lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones (PLGH) as a proportion of their age at the time of being reported to the online Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). Forty behaviors differed between entire and castrated dogs, of which 25 were associated with PLGH and 14 with age-at-castration (AAC). Only 2 behaviours, indoor urine marking and howling when left alone, were significantly more likely in dogs with longer PLGH. In contrast, longer PLGH was associated with significantly reduced reporting of 26 (mostly unwelcome) behaviours. Of these, 8 related to fearfulness and 7 to aggression. The current data suggest that dogs' tendency to show numerous behaviours can be influenced by the timing of castra-tion. They indicate how dog behaviour matures when gonadal hormones are allowed to have their effect. The differences reported here between undesirable behaviours of castrated and intact dogs were in the range of 5.04% and 12.31%
... We therefore anticipated our combined mortality and losses to follow-up to be about 40% for all dogs in our study, resulting in a final sample size of 30 or more per group. Based on previous literature, we expected that approximately 40-60% of the surgically castrated dogs would show changes in behavior (Neilson et al., 1997;Maarschalkerweerd et al., 1997;Heidenberger and Unshelm, 1990). Therefore, even with the 40% expected losses due to high mortality rates in free roaming dogs along with loss to follow-up, we anticipated that 12-18 out of 30 dogs would show a change in at least one area of behavior. ...
... To date, there are no previous studies of the behavioral effects of sterilization in free-roaming male dogs, so we were unable to use prior studies to assist in determination of an appropriate sample size to detect behavioral changes. However other studies that reported significant changes in the behavior of confined dogs post-castration included between 42 and 209 male dogs (Hopkins et al., 1976;Heidenberger and Unshelm, 1990;Neilson et al., 1997;Maarschalkerweerd et al., 1997) (n = 42, 209, 57 and 122 respectively), and our final group sample sizes fall within this range. ...
Article
Population management of free-roaming domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) is of interest due to the threat these animals pose to people, other animals and the environment. Current sterilization procedures for male dogs include surgical and chemical methods. However, little is known about how these procedures affect their behavior. The primary objective of this study was to investigate changes in selected behaviors following chemical and surgical sterilization in a male free-roaming dog (FRD) population in southern Chile. We also examined the association between serum testosterone levels and behaviors thought to be influenced by circulating androgens. A total of 174 dogs were randomly assigned to either a surgical or chemical sterilization group, or a control group. At the onset of the intervention period, 119 dogs remained and 102 dogs successfully completed the study. Each dog was monitored pre- and post-intervention using video recordings, GPS collars, and blood samples for the measurement of testosterone. Analysis of behavior revealed that surgically castrated dogs showed no reduction of sexual activity or aggression when compared to their pre-intervention behavior. Chemically sterilized dogs showed a statistically significant increase in dog-directed aggression, but no change in sexual activity. There was no change in home range size in any groups between the pre- and post-intervention measurement. We found no consistent association between levels of serum testosterone concentration and behavioral changes in any of the groups. This study presents the first detailed behavioral observations following surgical and chemical sterilization in male FRDs. The information generated is highly relevant to communities struggling with the control of FRDs. Complementary studies to further our understanding of the effects of male sterilization on the behavioral and reproductive dynamics of FRD populations are needed.
... Neutering seems to decrease boldness in females . Although some females may show increased aggression, behavioural problems are generally reduced or disappear after neutering (74% in males, 59% in females; see Heidenberger & Unshelm, 1990). Activity is also decreased in 20%-40% of neutered dogs (Heidenberger & Unshelm, 1990). ...
... Although some females may show increased aggression, behavioural problems are generally reduced or disappear after neutering (74% in males, 59% in females; see Heidenberger & Unshelm, 1990). Activity is also decreased in 20%-40% of neutered dogs (Heidenberger & Unshelm, 1990). ...
... Male dog castration continues to be a popular method of controlling dog populations and reducing aggressiveness and some sexual behaviors (Heidenberger and Unshelm, 1990;Root, 2010). Castration has also been found to reduce the incidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis and testicular tumors (Moulton, 1990;Johnston, 1991). ...
... The castrated dogs accumulated additional body fat causing the BCS increase (Kobayashi et al., 2014). Moreover, the castrated dogs also ate more and spent longer periods resting and relaxing and were less active (Heidenberger and Unshelm, 1990). These factors induced a propensity to become fat after castration which could potentially result in cardiac and circulatory system problems. ...
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Low testosterone levels in humans is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A previous study reported that low testosterone can induce left ventricular dysfunction and cardiac mitochondrial impairment as well as increase the risk of ischemic heart disease. The effect of testosterone deprivation on cardiac function in dogs, however, has never been investigated. The present study tested the hypothesis that testosterone deprivation induces impairment of cardiac function in healthy castrated male dogs. In this study, twenty-three healthy male dogs were divided into two groups: an intact group (n = 15) and a castrated group which had been castrated at least 12 months (n = 8). Metabolic parameters, blood pressure, and cardiac function using electrocardiography and echocardiography were investigated. We found that although the testosterone level in the castrated group (0.48 ng/mL) was significantly lower than the intact group (5.88 ng/mL) (P < 0.05), metabolic parameters, blood pressure, and cardiac function were not different in the two groups. Castrated dogs did, however, have a higher body condition score than intact dogs. These findings suggest that testosterone deprivation in male dogs can induce obesity but that it does not induce impairment of cardiac function.
... For example, gonadectomised dogs of both sexes have been reported to be marginally more prone to aggression towards unfamiliar humans than entire dogs [24]. Weight gain and related lethargy are seen in many gonadectomised dogs [68], and a metanalysis of studies designed to determine the maintenance energy requirements of dogs found that maintenance energy requirements were much less in neutered dogs [62]. Owners should be counselled to avoid these outcomes [69] e.g., by feeding low-energy diets. ...
... In this study, the risk was found to be greatest in puppies under twelve months old at the age of neutering, who were already displaying aggression. Reports from owners of 209 male and 382 female dogs revealed that, after gonadectomy, male dogs more often showed distinct behavioural changes than female dogs [68]. For 49 of 80 (61%) aggressive male dogs and 25 of 47 (53%) female dogs were reported to be more gentle after gonadectomy [71]. ...
Article
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Spaying of female dogs is a widespread practice, performed primarily for population control. While the consequences of early spaying for health are still being debated, the consequences for behaviour are believed to be negligible. The current study focused on the reported behaviour of 8981 female dogs spayed before 520 weeks (ten years) of life for reasons other than behavioural management, and calculated their percentage lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones (PLGH) as a proportion of their age at the time of being reported to the online Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). We found that 23 behaviours differed between entire and spayed dogs, of which 12 were associated with PLGH and 5 with age-at-spay (AAS). Two behaviours, chewing and howling, were significantly more likely in dogs with longer PLGH. In contrast, longer PLGH was associated with significantly reduced reporting of 10 (mostly unwelcome) behaviours. Of these, one related to fearfulness and three to aggression. The current data suggest that dogs’ tendency to show numerous behaviours can be influenced by the timing of spaying. They indicate how female dog behaviour matures when gonadal hormones are allowed to have their effect. The differences reported here between undesirable behaviours of spayed and entire dogs were in the range of 5.33% and 7.22%, suggesting that, for some dogs, partial or complete denial of maturation may reduce howling and chewing and improve retrieval and recall, but have other undesirable consequences. Veterinarians may take these data into account to discuss the risks and benefits of spaying with clients, and the timing of the procedure.
... Neutering seems to decrease boldness in females . Although some females may show increased aggression, behavioural problems are generally reduced or disappear after neutering (74% in males, 59% in females; see Heidenberger & Unshelm, 1990). Activity is also decreased in 20%-40% of neutered dogs (Heidenberger & Unshelm, 1990). ...
... Although some females may show increased aggression, behavioural problems are generally reduced or disappear after neutering (74% in males, 59% in females; see Heidenberger & Unshelm, 1990). Activity is also decreased in 20%-40% of neutered dogs (Heidenberger & Unshelm, 1990). ...
Article
The study of dog personality has a long history. In this chapter, we present an overview of the concepts and methods applied to dog personality by reviewing the most recent experimental investigations. Several genetic and environmental factors have been identified that influence dogs' personality. Understanding the underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms of the dog as a natural animal model for human social behaviour broadens our possibilities to rely on an experimental approach to personality. The research on genetic effects and gene-environment interaction may enable owners and trainers to choose genetically suitable individuals for specific environments.
... It is interesting that aggression levels did not significantly differ between autumn and spring; nevertheless, any strong conclusions derived from these data would be premature given that the male subjects were neutered before the start of spring observations. Reduced intermale aggression has been reported by caregivers of domestic dogs following gonadectomy (Heidenberger & Unshelm, 1990;Neilson, Eckstein, & Hart, 1997); however, an effect of neutering to lower aggression levels has yet to be demonstrated experimentally in domestic dogs (LeBoeuf, 1970), wolves, and wolf-dog crosses. Nonetheless, it is possible that neutering the males in the pack led to significant reductions in aggression during the spring season, and it cannot be assumed that the low levels of aggression observed during the spring were due to seasonality alone. ...
Article
Mixed-species exhibits are becoming increasingly common in the captive management of a wide range of species. Systematic evaluations of enclosures consisting of multiple subspecies, however, are relatively infrequent. The aim of this study was to measure seasonal trends in aggressive behaviors within a captive pack of wolves and wolf-dog crosses in a sanctuary setting. The frequency of intrapack social behaviors occurring within scan-sampling intervals was recorded for wolves and wolf-dog crosses during autumn, winter, and spring (2008-2009). Both subspecies displayed distinct seasonal trends in aggression. Wolf-dog crosses exhibited overall higher levels of aggression than wolves, although these instances were mostly noncontact and no significant differences were observed in the relative frequencies of aggressive behaviors between subspecies during any season. These findings suggest that wolves and wolf-dog crosses may be housed successfully given continuous behavioral monitoring, and these findings represent the first empirical account of wolf-dog cross behavior directly compared to wolves. Future studies should be conducted with similar packs to determine if this dynamic is universal. Such research will aid in the development of management and welfare strategies for captive facilities that provide permanent residences for wolves and wolf-dog crosses.
... In allen Fällen gaben deutlich mehr Besitzer von präpubertär kastrierten Hunden an, Probleme mit ihrem Tier zu haben, als solche von Frühkastraten (vor der 12. Lebenswoche). Beim Vergleich präpubertär gonadektomierter Tiere mit später operierten, fandenHOWE et al. (2001) unter 269 Hunden beiden Geschlechts bei den präpubertär kastrierten während der folgenden 4 Jahre post castrationem keine höhere Inzidenz an Verhaltensproblemen. Nach Kastration männlicher Tiere im postpubertären Alter fanden HEIDENBERGER u.UNSHELM (1990), daß Hypersexualität und Streunen am besten eliminiert werden konnten. ...
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This article reviews studies on the gonadectomy of juvenile and prepubertal dog and cat puppies and discusses the following results: juvenile dog and cat puppies are pre-disposed for infections after neutering, if they have a bad constitution and insufficient immunisation. During castration, juvenile puppies are at higher risk for injuries than preor postpubertal animals due to high fragility of the tissues. In both male and female dog and cat puppies, gonadectomy before puberty delays growth plate closure of the radius and ulna. In female dogs, juvenile and prepubertal gonadectomy may be the cause for the early development of perivulvar dermatitis, and in addition, the occurrence of persistent juvenile vaginitis. In comparision to non-gonadectomized animals, the incidence of urinary incontinence in prepubertal castrated dogs is lower, but the clinical symptoms are more severe. The causes for mammary tumors are manifold, but some authors describe that juvenile neutering, and others that gonadectomy until the age of 2.5 years, decreases the risk of the development of mammary tumors markedly. In the dog, food intake, body mass gain, back-fat depth and subcutaneous fat distribution are not influenced by gonadectomy, irrespective of the animal's age at castration. With diet and exercise obesity can be prevented. In contrast, both male and female cats are pre-disposed for postoperative body mass gain, strict diet is preventive in female animals only. Castration of tom cats before puberty does not influence the incidence of urine spraying and aggressive behaviour.
... A comparative study between dogs/cats kept by owners or living in shelters, showed that the relinquished animals were more likely to be intact (New et al., 2000). There are similar indications in our results compared to investigations done on the behavioral changes in dogs after castrationit was also found that the behavior of male dogs changed to a larger extentfor example they become more friendly with people (Heidenberger and Unshelm, 1990). For the trait 'Allorubbing and easygoing', mouser cats scored higher than cats with the single role of companion. ...
Article
Although domestic cats are among the most common companion animals, we still know very little about the details of the cat-human relationship. With a questionnaire, we asked 157 Hungarian cat owners about their pet's behavior, cognitive abilities and social interactions. We analyzed the responses with PCA resulting in 11 traits. The effect of cats’ and owners’ demographic variables on the main components was further analyzed with GLM. The results showed strong similarity to the surveys performed with companion dogs, but we also found features that were mainly cat-specific. We found that women considered their cats to be more communicative and empathetic, than men did (p = 0.000). The higher education owners also considered their cat as being more communicative and empathetic (p = 0.000). We also found that owners use pointing signals more often if the cat is their only pet (p = 0.000), and otherwise they do not give verbal commands often to the cat (P = 0.001). Young owners imitated cat vocalization more often (p = 0.006); while emotional matching of the cat was more commonly reported by elderly owners (p = 0.001). The more an owner initiated playing with his/her cat, the imitation of cat vocalizations was also more common in his/her case (p = 0.001). Owners think that their cat shows stronger emotional matching if otherwise they experience human-like communicative capacity from the cat (p = 0.000). Owners use more pointing signals in the case of those cats that show attention-eliciting signals in more than one modality (p = 0.000). Owners who react to the meows of unfamiliar cats, initiated interactions more often with their own cats (p = 0.000). Owners also think that cats vocalize in every possible context, and this result was not affected significantly by any of the independent factors. Our results show that owners considered their cat as a family member, and they attributed well developed socio-cognitive skills to them. Because cats have an important role as a companion animal, it would be worthy to study cat behavior with similar thoroughness as with dogs. Our questionnaire may provide a good starting point for the empirical research of cat-human communication. The deeper understanding of cats’ socio-cognitive abilities may also help to improve cat welfare.
... Therefore, reduction in the circulating testosterone is associated with reduction in sexual desire (Noakes et al., 2009). Generally, behavioural changes in dogs may also be influenced by some other factors such as environment, time factor and other dogs (Heidenberger & Unshelm 1990). The positive and negative effect of castration on aggression as observed in this study suggests that aggression may be more genetically inclined than the state of the gonads. ...
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Dogs, though a major companion or pet animal in Nigeria house-hold is kept for various reasons ranging from security, breeding business, sports and recreationto hunting as well as source of meat. This study was conducted to i) estimate the prevalence of castration in dogs,ii) determine the influence of breed on the likelihood of castration and iii) evaluate the reasons for castration using the record of dogs presented to two private veterinary practices between January 2006 to December 2010 in Enugu, South-East Nigeria. Three hundred and twenty seven (327) dogs aged between 1 to 36 months out of the 2112 dogs presented for treatment were castrated during the 5- year retrospective study. The Nigeria local dogs accounted for 64% of the total dogs castrated, followed by crossbreed and then German Shepherd with 29% and 5% respectively. Other foreign breeds accounted for 2% of the castrate. The commonest age of castration was 3-6 months (49%) and the least age group castrated was the ‘> 1 year’ age group (8%).The most favoured reason of castration was to increase the body weight (36%), followed by reduction in the straying ability or roaming (24%) and then for increase or decrease in aggression with14% and 10% respectively. Only 16% of the dogs were castrated for the purpose of preventing in-breeding. In-breeding prevention was achieved in 100% of dogs castrated for this purpose. 87% of dogs had increase in body weight, while roaming and aggression were reduced in 79% and 50% respectively. Increased aggression was seen in 29% of dogs castrated for this purpose. The study showed that breed had a significant (P<0.05) effect on the likelihood of the dog being castrated. It also underscored the need for educating dogs’ owners about the concept of castration. It is concluded that castration may be one of the strategies to control dogs’ population vis-à-vis prevention of rabies transmission to human usually associated with dogs’ bites in Nigeria.
... Neutering refers sterilization of males usually by removal of testes and females ovaries and uterus for avoiding the overpopulation in some countries. Neutering reduces hypersexuality in male dogs 17 . ...
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Most dogs in Bangladesh are street dogs resemble with Basenji dog of mid Africa, Congo. Sometimes with these dogs some cross breeds are there. The longevity of these dogs is very few for taking rotten wastage from anywhere. It affected various diseases and injured by people like hot water thrown, leg cut and severe attack. Dogs' mouth is the reservoir of rabies virus. Normally this virus not affected dogs. In leisure time dogs lick its leg by mouth and tongue so tha scratching with claws is responsible for rabies attack to human. Especially children irritate the dogs when it takes rest or sleep on sand on in front of restaurant or in breeding season. Due to winte (October-December) at night the environment is not gathered with people. So, dogs' mating is happened smoothly. Dogs are very useful for natural scavenging and house guard. Dogs are carnivorous and ferocious animal so need to careful handling throughout its life. Moreover, we should count our street dogs which is called dog census and pre-exposure is must for rabies attack.
... Castration of male dogs is mainly carried out to decimate overpopulation, which is a problem in many countries [9]. Furthermore, male dogs are often castrated because of undesired behavior [10]. For supressing the sexual hormons in male dogs, castration is a beneficial opportunity [11] and is therefore carried out as adjuvant treatment of prostatic diseases like BPH, prostatic cysts or prostatitis [12][13][14][15]. ...
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Background: Aim was to investigate age-dependent changes in the prostate of castrated dogs in computed tomographic (CT) examination. Thirty-six canine prostates were evaluated in pre- and post-contrast CT scans. Dogs were divided in groups with homogenous prostatic tissue (25/36) and with tissue alterations (11/36). Prostatic attenuation in Hounsfield Units (HU) and prostatic size were measured and a ratio of the prostatic size to the sixth lumbar vertebra was calculated. Additionally, the CT images of the prostate were compared with ultrasound examination. Results: In pre-contrast CT scans no significant differences were found in prostatic size between homogenous and altered prostatic tissue groups whereas prostatic attenuation differed significantly in post-contrast CT between these groups. The homogenous tissue pattern of homogeneous prostates could be confirmed in CT images and in ultrasound examination. Concerning prostates with alterations, the results differed between ultrasound and CT examination in four cases of 11 dogs with tissue alterations. Conclusions: CT is beneficial to examine the prostate of castrated dogs. The prostatic attenuation is characteristic for the prostatic morphology, which can vary due to ageing processes. Differences in attenuation and size can be found between prostates of castrated and intact dogs. Using contrast agent, CT can visualize prostatic alterations, which were not seen in ultrasound. The presented results should be considered preliminary until a study with larger sample size and histologic examination of the prostates is performed.
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One hundred and twenty-two dog owners were interviewed to obtain information about the effects of orchiectomy on the behaviour, unwanted side effects, and testosterone-dependent disease processes in their dogs. Behavioural problems were the main reason for orchiectomy, unwanted sexual behaviour being the most common, together with roaming, aggression, and abnormal urination behaviour. Objectionable sexual behaviour, inter-male aggression, roaming, and abnormalurination were reduced after orchiectomy in approximately 60 per cent of the dogs. The side effects of orchiectomy included increased bodyweight, increased appetite and decreased activity in less than 50 per cent of the dogs, and there was a significant relationship between increased appetite and bodyweight. The clinical signs of testosterone-dependent disease in most of the dogs either decreased or disappeared after orchiectomy.
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