Physical training and copper, iron, and zinc status of swimmers

US Department of Agriculture, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, ND 58202.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 07/1990; 51(6):1093-9.
Source: PubMed


The influence of physical training on copper, iron, and zinc nutriture was studied before and at the end of a competitive season in 16 female and 13 male swimmers and in 13 female and 15 nontraining control subjects. Mean daily energy, protein, and carbohydrate intakes increased (p less than 0.05) in the swimmers. Estimated copper, iron, and zinc intakes increased (p less than 0.05) in the male swimmers. Hematocrit and hemoglobin did not change but ferritin increased (p less than 0.05) in male swimmers. Plasma copper, iron and zinc were within the ranges of normal values and did not change. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased (p less than 0.01) after training. The findings indicate that copper, iron, and zinc nutriture is not adversely affected by physical training when dietary intakes are adequate, and that increases in red blood cell SOD activity without an increase in dietary copper are a functional adaptation of copper metabolism to aerobic training.

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    • "Acute exercise was also shown to induce a decrease in plasma copper (Bordin et al., 1993). At the same time, the examination o f swimmers has indicated that physical training does not affect plasma copper concentration when dietary intakes are adequate (Lukaski et al., 1990). Oppositely, a n excellent study by Rodriguez Tuya et al. (1996) has shown an increase in plasma copper levels i n professional sportsmen (Rodriguez Tuya et al., 1996). "
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    • "However, the degree of change appears to be limited by the slow rate of erythrocyte turnover . Intense physical exercise also may elevate the amount of SOD protein in erythrocytes (Lukaski et al. 1990). Milne (1994) favours the use of CCO activity in platelets and leucocytes as a marker, since these cells have short lifetimes and may better reflect the metabolically-active pool of endogenous Cu. "
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