Blood Pressure, Fitness, and Fatness in 5- and 6-Year-Old Children

Department of Movement Sciences, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 10/1990; 264(9):1123-7. DOI: 10.1001/jama.264.9.1123
Source: PubMed


Cross-sectional relations among blood pressure (BP), aerobic fitness, body fatness, and fat patterning were studied in 216 primarily Hispanic inner-city 5- and 6-year-olds. Fitness was measured with a submaximal treadmill test, and fatness was measured with five skin folds. Diastolic BP was inversely related to fitness in the boys and girls, and positively related to fatness for the boys. Systolic BP was positively related to fatness for the boys and girls. Using multiple regression and including parental BPs, fatness explained significant proportions of the variance in systolic BP for both the boys and girls and in diastolic BP for the boys. There were tendencies for central skin folds to explain more of the variation in BP than peripheral skin folds only for the boys. Fitness and fatness were inversely related for the boys and girls. Thus, at 5 and 6 years of age children exhibit some of the same risk factors for cardiovascular disease seen in adults.

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    • "A number of studies have demonstrated that there is a positive relationship between body mass index (BMI) and SBP in pre-school children (Gopinath et al., 2011; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents, 2004; Rosner et al., 2008; Shea et al., 1994; Thompson et al., 2007; Zaborskis et al., 2003). Additionally it was also shown that markers of cardiovascular stress have been observed even in pre-school children (Gutin et al., 1990; Mota et al., 2012). For instance, a recent study carried out with pre-schoolers reported that obese children were almost twice as likely to have a high-normal or elevated SBP (Simonetti et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the association between sleeping time (SLT), time spent using screen (ST) and weight status with Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) among pre-school children. Subjects and methods: The sample comprised 628 pre-school children (50% female), aged 3-6 years-old. SLT and ST were reported by parents. BMI values were categorized according to IOTF. SBP cut points were based on SBP percentiles for age, sex and height. ST was dichotomized according to the following criteria: ≤1 hour vs >1 hour and SLT: ≤10.5 hours vs >10.5 hours. Participants were then categorized into one of four category profiles: Low ST/High SLT; High ST/Low SLT; Low ST/Low SLT and High ST/High SLT. Results: Children assigned to the High ST/Low SLT group were 2-times more likely to have high SBP values compared to those who were assigned to the Low ST/High SLT group (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.1-5.1). Furthermore, those who were assigned as overweight and obese were more likely to be classified as having elevated BP (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.1-3.2 for overweight and OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 1.6-5.8 for obese, respectively). Conclusion: The data showed that high ST exposure time and low SLT are associated with enhanced blood pressure in children at pre-school.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Annals of Human Biology
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    • "Several physical performance tests were then carried out. Maximal aerobic capacity was estimated from heart rate recordings during sub-maximal cycle ergometry using the Physical Work Capacity 170 protocol [22]. The sustained back extension test [23] and the number of abdominal curls performed in 3 minutes [24,25] were used to measure trunk muscle performance. "
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    ABSTRACT: Adolescent neck/shoulder pain (NSP) is a common and sometimes debilitating problem. Several risk factors for this condition have been investigated, but no studies have previously evaluated associations between fitness, motor competence, body composition and adolescent NSP. 1608 males and females of mean age 14 years answered questions on their history of NSP (4 measures), and were tested for aerobic fitness, upper and lower limb power, trunk endurance, grip strength, shoulder flexibility, motor competence and anthropometric factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to test for associations between NSP and physical variables. There were significant gender differences for most physical and pain variables. After multivariate analysis, males had lower odds of NSP if they had reduced back endurance [OR: 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46-0.97)], reduced persistent control [0.42 (0.19-0.95], and increased muscle power [0.33 (0.12-0.94)], and higher odds of NSP if they had a higher basketball throw [2.47 (1.22-5.00)] and jump performance [3.47 (1.55-7.74)]. Females had lower odds for NSP if they had a reduced jump performance [0.61(0.41-0.92)], a better basketball throw [0.60(0.40-0.90)], lower shoulder flexibility [0.54 (0.30-0.98)] and a higher aerobic capacity [0.61 (0.40-0.93)], and higher odds for NSP if they had greater abdominal endurance [1.57(1.07-2.31)] and greater bimanual dexterity [1.77(1.18-2.65)]. Females showed a U shaped relationship between NSP and back endurance [low: 2.12 (1.20-3.74); high 2.12 (1.18-3.83)]. Adolescent NSP was associated with fitness and motor competence, although the associations varied with gender, and their strength was limited.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · BMC Public Health
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    • "Longitudinal studies support the findings from cross sectional studies as they demonstrate that baseline fitness and improved fitness after one year follow-up are both associated with lower blood pressure in youth (Gutin et al 1990; Shea et al 1994). Specifically, relative to children who experienced no change in fitness, the age related rise in systolic blood pressure was nearly 40% lower (2.94 vs 5.10 mmHg) in children who experienced the largest improvements in fitness after one-year of follow-up (Shea et al 1994). "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a growing problem in developed countries and is likely a major cause of the increased prevalence of high blood pressure in children. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians and clinical scientists with an overview of the current state of the literature describing the negative influence of obesity on blood pressure and it's determinants in children. In short, we discuss the array of vascular abnormalities seen in overweight children and adolescents, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and insulin resistance. We also discuss the potential role of an increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system in the development of high blood pressure and vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. As there is little consensus regarding the methods to prevent or treat high blood pressure in children, we also provide a summary of the evidence supporting relationship between physical activity and blood pressure in children and adolescents. After reviewing a number of physical activity intervention studies performed in children, it appears as though 40 minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic-based physical activity 3-5 days/week is required to improve vascular function and reduce blood pressure in obese children. Future studies should focus on describing the influence of physical activity on blood pressure control in overweight children.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Vascular Health and Risk Management
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