ArticlePDF Available

Reliability of the Parental Bonding Instrument and Intimate Bond Measure Scales

Authors:

Abstract

The long-term reliability of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and of the Intimate Bond Measure (IBM) are examined in a non-clinical group, with data being examined over eleven and five years for the two respective measures. Such reliability data are compared with reliability data on a number of personality measures within the same cohort. Results demonstrate considerable stability in the PBI over an extended period and moderate stability in IBM scores.
RELIABILITY
OF
THE PARENTAL
BONDING INSTRUMENT AND INTIMATE
BOND MEASURE SCALES
Kay Wilhelm and Gordon Parker
The long-term reliability
of
the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and
of
the
Intimate Bond Measure (IBM) are examined in a non-clinical group, with data
being examined over eleven and five years for the two respective measures.
Such reliability data are compared with reliability data on a number
of
per-
sonality measures within the same cohort. Results demonstrate considerable
stability in the PBI over an extended period and moderate stability in
IBM
scores.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 1990; 24:199-202
The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) was
developed to measure fundamental parental dimen-
sions of care and protection (control) and to allow
quantification of any parental contribution to sub-
sequent psychiatric disorder. Reliability aspects (inter-
nal consistency and short-term test-retest reliability)
were examined in the initial paper
[
11
and its validity,
both as a measure of perceived and actual parenting,
has been examined in several studies
[2].
If
the PBI is a reliable and valid measure of subjects’
retrospective memories of their parents in their first
sixteen years, then adult subjects should return consis-
tent scores over time (ie show high test-retest
reliability).
The short-term reliability of the PBI has been ex-
amined in several studies.
In
the initial development
paper
[
11,
test-retest reliability in a non-clinical sample
was 0.76 for the care scale and 0.63 for the protection
scale over a three-week interval. Subsequently, in
a
sample of depressives initially depressed and then
Division
of
Psychiatry, Prince Henry Hospital, Little Bay,
NSW
Kay Wilhelm, FRANZCP, Staff Psychiatrist
Gordon Parker,
MD,
PhD,
FRANZCP, Professor
of
Psychiatry
Correspond with
Dr
Wilhelm
significantly improved, much higher correlation coef-
ficients (ranging from 0.87 to 0.92) were returned over
a nine-weekinterval
[2].
The higher coefficients in this
group, compared to the initial sample, were judged to
reflect the greater motivation
of
patients (in com-
parison to volunteer or importuned non-clinical
groups) to return questionnaire data conscientiously.
Subsequently, in a
US
study [3] of depressed out-
patients attending the Yale Depression Research unit,
48
depressives scored the PBI when depressed and
some four-six weeks later when significantly im-
proved. PBI scores showed
no
significant change over
time and the coefficients of agreement ranged from
0.90 to 0.96 across the four scales, slightly superior to
the Australian depressed sample. Test-retest reliability
in a group of patients with schizophrenia has been
examined [4] when the coefficients of agreement
ranged from 0.58 to 0.77. This less impressive result
was judged to be a reflection of the sample initially
scoring the PBI shortly after admission to hospital with
an exacerbation of their schizophrenia, with their
judgement and ability to complete the self-report ques-
tionnaire impaired. This interpretation is supported by
an
American study
[5]
of
26
subjects with
schizophrenia who completed the PBI form
on
two
occasions a few weeks apart, with correlation coeffi-
Aust NZ J Psychiatry Downloaded from informahealthcare.com by University New South Wales on 12/10/13
For personal use only.
200
RELIABILITY OF THE PBI
AND
IBM SCALES
cients ranging from 0.79 to 0.88, with this sample
being distinguished by the sample being selected from
those attending a community mental health centre, and
not assessed during a relapse.
Medium-term reliability data have been provided
[6], with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.79 to
0.81
on
the PBI for a non-clinical
U.S.
sample tested
seven months apart. In the only published study [7] of
the long-term reliability of the PBI, women were
studied in the post-partum period and then two to four
years (mean
30
months) later. Only the maternal PBI
form was completed by subjects, and the authors
reported that PBI scores were “remarkably stable over
time” for different sub-groups of mothers who were
either depressed on both occasions of testing, initially
depressed and then recovered, or not depressed on
either occasion.
In this paper we examine the test-retest reliability of
the PBI over a decade. The sample has been described
elsewhere [8] and
so
details only will be summarized
here. In September 1978,380 students who had under-
taken a basic Arts or Science university course, and
who were then completing a one-year training
programme at the Sydney Teachers’ College were
approached in class and invited to participate in a
longitudinal study. While our key objective was to
examine for sex differences in depressive experience
over time, the students were not informed about the
specific hypothesis, but were given details on the
range of topics (including depression) and develop-
mental issues that would be assessed longitudinally.
Those subjects completed PBI data and 170 agreed to
take part in the longitudinal study, and
so
formed the
study cohort, then having a mean age of 23.1 years.
Those taking part and those declining did not differ in
PBI scores returned for each parent. Subsequently, we
sought to interview the cohort serially, and self-report
data were obtained from 164 in 1983 and 163 in 1988.
On
each occasion the subjects were requested to com-
plete the orthodox PBI forms (assessing parenting over
the first 16 years), allowing
us
to compare PBI data
collected over extended periods.
The authors have also developed a measure of fun-
damental dimensions underlying adult intimate
relationships [9]. The test-retest reliability of that self-
report, the Intimate Bond Measure (or IBM) was as-
sessed in the initial paper, with a non-clinical sample
returning data on two occasions over a three-six week
interval, with reliability coefficients being very high
at 0.80 and 0.89. That measure was given to our
present cohort in 1983 and in 1988 and we now report
the test-retest reliability over a five-year interval. It
must be kept in mind, however, that subjects would
not necessarily be scoring the same “intimate” on both
occasions,
so
that we report consistency data for the
whole sample and for a sub-sample of those who were
married in 1988 and had rated the same “intimate” in
1983
-
a fairer test of the measure’s reliability. On each
occasion, subjects were asked to score characteristics
of the intimate “in recent times”, the IBM being more
a measure of state or current characteristics.
We also take the opportunity to report test-retest
reliability over the same extended period for a number
of other measures. We do that for several reasons.
Firstly, such reports are rare and, more importantly,
those data provide some basis for comparison against
the PBI and IBM. It is generally suggested that per-
sonality is constant and we might therefore expect that
high test-retest reliability would be demonstrated for
personality measures and give a base quantitative es-
timate of reliability against which we could judge PBI
data, in particular. That is, if personality
is
immutable,
then self-report measures of personality should show
a high level of constancy, being weakened only by
response biases and state effects (eg depression) which
are generally accepted to influence self-report scoring.
Thus, we would expect that if the PBI is a reliable
measure, reliability coefficients should be similar to
those returned on personality measures. The per-
sonality measures considered were the Eysenck Per-
sonality Inventory neuroticism scale
[
101, the
Rosenberg self-esteem scale,
[
111 the dependency
scale from the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire
[
121, the Costello-Comrey trait depression scale
[
131
which was designed to measure a “person’s tendency
to experience a depressive mood”, and the Bem sex
role inventory
[
141 (with masculinity, femininity and
social desirability sub-scales), the last being ad-
ministered in 1983 and 1988 only. Finally, we report
data on the Wilson-Lovibond state measure of depres-
sion
[
151 to again allow comparison against the “trait”
measures, anticipating that much lower levels of
agreement should be demonstrated on a state measure
over time.
Results
Table 1 reports the mean data returned for the
several measures, and the level of constancy over time,
with three intervals (1978-1983, 1983-1988, and
Aust NZ J Psychiatry Downloaded from informahealthcare.com by University New South Wales on 12/10/13
For personal use only.
KAY
WILHELM
AND GORDON PARKER
20
1
Table
I.
Consistency in scores examined
over time
Mean score Consistency
coefficients (r)
1978 1983 1988
A
0
A
with with with
(A)
(6)
(C)
c
c
PBI
Aaternal care
26.3 26.2 26.3 0.72 0.82 0.6:
inaternal protection
14.8 13.8 13.8 0.74 0.76 0.61
’aternal care
21.9 21.7 21.4
0.80
0.82 0.7;
'sternal
protection
13.0 12.1 11.9 0.69 0.67
05
BM
ntimate care
wholegroup)
N/A* 30.6 29.5 N/A
0.50
N/A
ntimate control
wholegroup)
N/A 6.7 6.9 N/A 0.49 N/A
ntirnate care
sub-group)”
N/A 31.5 30.2 N/A 0.48 N/A
ntimate control
sub-group)
N/A 6.5 7.0 N/A 0.49 N/A
Personality
qeuroticism
9.0 8.7 8.7 0.54 0.68
0.5
Self-esteem’”*
1.6 1.0 0.9 0.43 0.61 0.4
lependency
52.6 52.8 53.7 0.64 0.64 0.5
rraitdepression
31.3 31.2 29.4 0.64 0.65 0.4
Sex role Inventory
Masculinity
N/A 4.6 4.7 N/A 0.56 NII
Femininity
N/A 4.7 4.8 N/A 0.62 N/I
Socialdesirability
N/A 5.2 5.3 N/A
0.57
N/I
Statedepression
57.0
55.2
55.3 0.25 0.23 0.1
N/A
=
not assessed
’*
’**
Higher scores indicate lower self-esteem
Those nominating the same intimate in
1983
and
1988
(N=96)
1978- 1988) being examined. Mean scale scores were
generally stable for most measures apart from self-es-
teem, which showed a distinct improvement from
1978 to 1983 (t
=
4.80, P<O.OOI) and from 1978 to
1988 (t
=
5.82,
P<
0.001)
but
no
change from 1983 to
1988 (t
=
0.87,
ns).
In
a similar, but less distinct
fashion, depression scores decreased from 1978 to
1988, both
on
the trait (t
=
2.03, PcO.05) and state
(t
=
2.21, P<0.05) measures.
Presumably because of the large sample size (for
mean scores were very similar), two significant dif-
ferences were established for the PBI and the IBM
measures. Thus paternal protection scores dropped
from 1978 to 1988 (t
=
2.12, p<0.05) while IBM care
scores decreased from 1983 to 1988 (t=2.86,
p<0.05).
Scores were generally more consistent in the interval
1983-1988, when the cohort had left university and
most were in full-time employment. The data for the
1
I-year interval (1978-1988) show slightly less con-
sistency, presumably reflecting changes in attitudes
over the lengthier assessment period. The test-retest
consistency in PBI scores is extremely impressive for
all three test intervals. Thus, the mean correlation
coefficients were 0.74 (1978-1983), 0.77 (1983-1988)
and
0.65
(1978-1988), contrasting with the four per-
sonality measures which returned mean correlations of
0.56,
0.64
and
0.50
respectively. Additionally, the
correlation coefficients for the PBI were superior to
each individual personality test. Stability in IBM
scores (both for the whole sample and for the sub-
group scoring the same partner) was moderate from
1983 to 1988 and clearly less stable than PBI scores,
as might be anticipated for a state measure. Finally, the
test-retest reliability of the state depression measure
was low, as anticipated.
Discussion
The sample allows a “best estimate”
of
reliability,
in that it involved a non-clinical group, comprising
volunteers who were prepared to take part in a
lon-
gitudinal study and who were, at each review period,
judged to be generous in giving their time for extended
interviews and open in their discussion with the inter-
viewers. Thus, we judge that sample members were
likely to have completed self-report measures con-
scientiously and as accurately as possible. Additional-
ly, being a non-clinical sample, it is unlikely that mood
disturbance
or
related factors weakening reliability
estimates would have been over-represented in the
sample. The data set therefore offers a “best estimate”
potential for any examination of reliability and
it
would be unlikely that non-volunteer or certain clini-
cal groups would return such high levels of agreement.
Thus, we acknowledge the unique characteristics of
Aust NZ J Psychiatry Downloaded from informahealthcare.com by University New South Wales on 12/10/13
For personal use only.
202 RELIABILITY OF THE PBI AND IBM SCALES
the cohort but suggest that such a group is the ap-
propriate one for such an examination.
The test-retest reliability of the PBI is clearly im-
pressive, both intrinsically when the correlation coef-
ficients are examined and, secondly, in comparison to
the “personality” tests which we used as our compara-
tive base.
Jorm
[
161 considered the test-retest consis-
tency of trait anxiety/neuroticism measures, and
referenced work giving a correlation
of
0.54
over the
four-six years and
0.40
over
30
years, with lower
levels for state measures of anxiety. Those data are
compatible with our neuroticism score data, and there-
fore support the likely accuracy of the latter.
The test-retest data for the IBM are somewhat less
impressive and, as we undertook a separate analysis
on
those in stable relationships with similar results,
findings cannot reflect a sub-sample scoring different
intimates over time.
As
the IBM is a measure of current
intimate relationships, some change in
the
perception
of the spouse or intimate would be anticipated over
time, particularly in such a sample of young adults.
While change in parenting over the years might also
be theoretically anticipated, the PBI, by contrast, is
designed deliberately to obtain an overall gestalt of the
parent or “product moment of innumerable experien-
ces”
so
that the instructions effectively force some
overall judgement in an attempt to minimise variation
at different developmental stages.
Each
of
the “personality” measures returned similar
levels
of
consistency over time despite some of them
(eg trait depression) conceivably being more likely to
be influenced by mood state and therefore potentially
unstable over an extended period. The extent to which
they necessarily reflect intrinsic personality, however,
cannot be addressed by such a study design.
We conclude then
that
the PBI is a highly reliable
measure over an extended period, supporting its claim
to be accurate measure of perceived parenting, and
so
useful in quantifying any parental risk to subsequent
psychiatric disorder in adulthood.
We thank our colleagues at the Mood Disorders Unit
for comments on this paper, the
NH
&
MRC
and NSW
Institute of Psychiatry for funding the cohort study,
and
Mrs
Sandra Evans for typing of the manuscript.
I.
Parker
G.
A parental bonding instrument. British Journal of Medi-
cal Psychology 1979;52:1-10.
2. Parker
G.
Parental overprotection: a risk factor in psychosocial
development. New York: Grune
&
Stratton, 1983.
3. Plantes
MM,
Prusoff BA, Brennan J, and Parker
G.
Parental repre-
sentations
of
depressed outpatients from a U.S. sample. Journal of
Affective Disorders
1988;
15:
149-155.
4. Parker G, Fairley M, Greenwood J, Jurd
S,
and Silove D. Parental
representations of schizophrenics and their association with
onset
and course of schizophrenia. British Journal
of
Psychiatry
1982; 141573-581.
schizophrenic patients’ perceptions of their parents and the course
of their illness. British Journal of Psychiatry 1988; 153:344-353.
depressive mood over time: Effects of internalized childhood at-
tachments. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1987; 175:703-
712.
7. Gotlib
IH,
Mount
JH,
Cordy NI and Whiffen VE. Depression and
perceptions of early parenting: A longitudinal investigation.
British Journal
of
Psychiatry 1988; 152:24-27.
8.
Wilhelm
K
and Parker G. Are
sex
differences in depression really
necessary? Psychological Medicine 1989;19:401-414..
9. Wilhelm
K
and Parker G. The development of a measure of in-
timate bonds. Psychological Medicine 1988; 18:225-234.
10.
Eysenck HJ and Eysenck SB. Manual of the Eysenck Personality
Inventory. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1964.
11. Rosenberg M.
The
measurement of self-esteem. Society and the
adolescent self-image. New Jersey: Princeton University Press,
1965.
12. Blatt SJ, D’Affliti JP and Quinlan DM. Depressive Experiences
Questionnaire. Unpublished report, Department of Psychology,
Yale University, 1975.
13.
Costello
CG
and Comrey AL. Scales
for
measuring depression
and anxiety. Journal of Psychology 1967;66:303-3 13.
14. Bern
SL.
The measurement
of
psychological androgyny. Journal
of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1974;42: 155-162.
15. Wilson PH. Behavioural and pharmacological treatment of
depression. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of New South
Wales, 1979.
16. Jorm AF. Modifiability of trait anxiety and neuroticism: A meta-
analysis of the literature. Australian and
New
Zealand Journal
of
Psychiatry 1989;23:21-29.
5.
Warner R, and Atkinson
M.
The relationship between
6.
Richman, JA, and Flaherty JA. Adult psychosocial assets and
Aust NZ J Psychiatry Downloaded from informahealthcare.com by University New South Wales on 12/10/13
For personal use only.
... Three self-report tests will also be administered, the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) [34,35], the Big Five Inventory-20 (BFI-20) [36,37], and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) [38,39] [34,35]. The RSA has been used to predict psychiatric symptoms during adjustment to stressful life events [34,35]. ...
... The PBI [38,39] is aimed at measuring parental behavior as experienced by the child and thus the parental contribution to the paren. child-attachment [bonding] and the child's mental health. ...
... In comparison with scores reported in the literature for non-homeless samples Wilhelm et al., 2005;Wilhelm & Parker, 1990) overall mean PBI subscale scores were found to generally be several points lower with respect to maternal and paternal care subscales and several points higher for maternal and paternal control subscales, congruent with the large proportion of scores falling within the category of 'affectionless control'. In the absence of more detailed data from these studies, the magnitude of these differences may not be properly assessed, but the findings of this study would appear to echo the trend found within previous studies for homeless samples to report lower levels of parental care (Tavecchio et al., 1999) and higher levels of parental control . ...
Thesis
p>Homelessness continues to be a problem within society and over recent decades research into factors implicated in homelessness has featured in the literature. Within the literature a conceptual distinction is generally made between macro:level factors such as poverty and the limited availability of low-cost housing which explain the existence of homelessness within society, and micro-level factors, the focus of the current thesis, which influence individual vulnerability to becoming or remaining homeless. Initially, the literature regarding micro-level vulnerability factors for homelessness is reviewed, with five particular areas being selected for in-depth review. Models of the interrelationships between vulnerability factors are then described and discussed. Particularly strong evidence is found for childhood risk factors and substance use disorders constituting micro-level vulnerability factors for homelessness. It is also noted that empirical studies investigating the relationships between micro-level vulnerability factors for homelessness are limited in number and fail to consider the psychological processes which might mediate these relationships. On these grounds the present study sought to determine whether experiential avoidance mediates the relationship between poor childhood attachment and alcohol dependence in a sample of sixty homeless individuals. Somewhat surprisingly in the light of previous research linking childhood attachment and alcohol dependence, no significant association was found, suggesting that if these factors increase risk for homelessness, they do so independently. Significant predictive relationships were found, however, with regard to childhood attachment</p
... Because a number of previous studies have questioned the originally proposed two-factor structure of the PBI and have instead reported results indicating that a three-factor structure is more appropriate (Cox et al., 2000;Cubis et al., 1989;Gómez-Beneyto et al., 1993;Kendler, 1996;Murphy et al., 1997;Terra et al., 2009;Xu et al., 2018), we decided to perform a Factor Analysis (FA) on the PBI items for this sample to assess which factor structure best reflects the data, and subsequently, to decide how to construct the PBI subscales. The long-term stability (i.e., up to 20 years) of the PBI scores has been reported as being high, when the first assessment was either in adulthood or in childhood (Lizardi & Klein, 2005;Murphy et al., 2010;Wilhelm & Parker, 1990). ...
Article
Parents are known to provide a lasting basis for their children's social development. Understanding parent-driven socialization is particularly relevant in adolescence, as an increasing social independence is developed. However, the relationship between key parenting styles of care and control and the microlevel expression of daily-life social interactions has been insufficiently studied. Adolescent and young adult twins and their nontwin siblings (N = 635; mean age = 16.6; age range = 14.2-21.9; 58.6% female; 79.5% in or having completed higher secondary/tertiary education; 2.8% speaking language other than Dutch at home) completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) on parental care and control. Participants also completed a 6-day experience sampling period (10 daily beeps, mean compliance = 68.0%) to assess daily-life social interactions. Higher overall parental bonding quality (of both parents) related to more positive social experiences in daily life (e.g., belonging in company), but not to more social behaviors (e.g., being with others). Factor analysis indicated a three-factor structure of the PBI, with care, denial of psychological autonomy, and encouragement of behavioral freedom. Paternal care was uniquely predictive of better social experiences. These findings demonstrate how parenting styles may be uniquely associated with how adolescents experience their social world, with a potentially important role for fathers in particular. This complements the long-held idea of socialization through parenting by bringing it into the context of daily life and implies how both conceptualizations of social functioning and interventions aimed at alleviating social dysfunction might benefit from a stronger consideration of day-to-day social experiences. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... As a number of previous studies have questioned the originally proposed two-factor structure of the PBI and have instead reported results indicating that a three-factor structure is more appropriate (Cox et al., 2000;Cubis et al., 1989;Gómez-Beneyto et al., 1993;Kendler, 1996;Murphy et al., 1997;Terra et al., 2009;Xu et al., 2018), we decided to perform a Factor Analysis (FA) on the PBI items for this sample to assess which factor structure best reflects the data, and subsequently, to decide how to construct the PBI subscales. The long-term stability (i.e., up to 20 years) of the PBI scores has been reported as being high, when the first assessment was either in adulthood or in childhood (Lizardi & Klein, 2005;Murphy et al., 2010;Wilhelm & Parker, 1990). ...
Full-text available
Preprint
To better understand the development of mental health problems, it is of fundamental importance to focus on both adolescence – as this is the age period where most psychopathology develops – and social processes – as psychological distress is largely interpersonal in nature. In addition, certain parenting styles are strong predictors of both social and mental health outcomes. However, relatively little is known about how these different factors interrelate in adolescent day-to-day life. Within this dissertation, we draw on data collected with the Experience Sampling Method to gain a greater, more ecologically valid insight into the relationship between parenting, social processes, and psychopathology in adolescents.In Chapter 3, we present the case for why assessments of social processes require a greater consideration of ecological validity – and of daily life. Social cognition assessments in psychosis are discussed, but the arguments posited here are relevant for all types of social assessments in mental health research.In Chapters 4 to 6, the interrelationships between parenting, psychopathology, and daily-life social interactions are studied in three empirical studies using two large adolescent experience sampling data sets. In Chapter 4, we find how parental care and control are largely related to the experienced quality of daily-life social interactions rather than to its quantity. A similar finding is reported in Chapter 5, where we see consistent associations between the quality of daily-life social interactions and mean psychopathology level – and less consistent relationships between the quantity of social interactions and psychopathology. Finally, in Chapter 6, these relationships are investigated in one comprehensive model, including more specific parenting styles, and daily social interactions in different companies. In this model, paternal autonomy support and an altered quality of daily social interactions have unique associations with psychopathology levels. Taken together, these findings indicate a particular relevance of the quality of day-to-day social interactions for better understanding psychopathological development. As the social lives of contemporary adolescents are happening largely online as well as offline, in Chapter 7, we assess how adolescents experience online vs. face-to-face social interactions at the moment that they engage in them. We find how participants report more affective benefits when engaging in face-to-face interactions compared to online interactions, and, in contrast to our hypotheses, we report no moderating effects of social resources on the strength of these benefits. The investigation of adolescents` social lives and their relation with mental health became much more relevant as COVID-19 hit, when restrictions prevented people from interacting with each other. In the last study, presented in Chapter 8, we investigate differences in young people’s mental health and day-to-day social interactions, from before the pandemic to early in the pandemic (May 2020). We find how face-to-face interactions decreased and online interactions increased, but more surprisingly, that general psychopathology levels were lower than expected and that anxiety levels had even decreased. Moreover, the relationship between the quality of social interactions and psychopathology had become stronger during the pandemic, indicating the relevance of high-quality social interaction during times of social deprivation. In sum, in this thesis, I target the uniquely relevant momentary social interaction to better understand the social development of young people – and to assess when this might go awry. Across all studies, the quality of social interactions seems fundamentally important. Cross-level relationships seem to exist between general parenting perceptions and how social interactions are experienced in the moment, and between those daily-life social experiences and psychopathology levels. Future research should further disentangle these processes longitudinally to gain greater insight into the temporal ordering of these relationships. Finally, for the development of momentary interventions aimed at relieving social distress, a focus on the quality rather than the quantity of social behaviors is likely most helpful.
Full-text available
Article
Emotional distress (depression, anxiety, and PTS) and unhealthy lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, limited physical activity, medication adherence) are common in hemorrhagic stroke (HS) survivors and may increase risk for recurrence, morbidity, and mortality. Emotional distress and unhealthy lifestyle factors tend to be interdependent between survivors and their informal caregivers (e.g., family and friends who provide unpaid care; together called dyads), such that one partner’s lifestyle and coping behaviors influence the other’s behaviors, yet no research has closely examined this relationship in HS dyads over time. We will conduct a mixed methods study to quantitatively and qualitatively understand the longitudinal relationship between emotional distress and lifestyle factors across time in this population (HS dyads) to identify treatment targets to prevent emotional distress chronicity and stroke recurrence. In aim 1, we will assess emotional distress (i.e., depression, anxiety, and PTS) and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, limited physical activity medication adherence/blood pressure control) in dyads of survivors of HS and their caregivers (N = 80), at three separate time points (hospitalization in the Neuro-ICU, 1, and 3 months later). We hypothesize that 1) lifestyle factors and emotional distress will be interrelated within and across time for both survivors and caregivers, and 2) lifestyle factors and emotional distress will be interdependent between survivors and caregivers. We also aim to explore the nuanced interplay between lifestyle factors and emotional distress and gain in depth information on barriers and facilitators for a dyadic intervention to optimize lifestyle behaviors and emotional functioning in HS dyads. Eligible patients will be adults who have a caregiver also willing to participate. Patients will be referred for study participation by the nursing team who will ensure that they are cognitively able to meaningfully participate. Multilevel dyadic modeling (i.e., actor-partner interdependence model; APIM) with distinguishable dyads will be used to determine influences of these factors onto each other over time. In Aim 2, we will conduct live video qualitative dyadic interviews (N = 20 or until theme saturation) at all time points from the same participants with and without emotional distress and at least one lifestyle risk factor, to understand the nuanced relationships between emotional distress and lifestyle behaviors, and barriers and facilitators to engagement in a skills-based psychosocial intervention. Interviews will be analyzed using inductive and deductive approaches. The present study is currently ongoing. So far, we enrolled 2 participants. Recruitment will end October 2022 with plans to analyze data by December 2022. The findings from this study will be used to further develop psychosocial interventions and inform novel treatments for survivors of HS and their informal caregivers.
Full-text available
Article
Background: Research has found that parental failures of care during childhood and insecure attachment styles are positively associated with problematic gaming. From a developmental framework, it is possible to hypothesize that attachment styles mediate the relationship between parental bonding and problematic gaming. Methods: This hypothesis was tested in a sample of 598 videogame players (410 males, 68.56%) aged between 18 and 61 years old (M = 26.68, SD = 7.23). Participants were recruited through an online survey. Self-report instruments were administered to assess problematic gaming, parental bonding, and adult attachment styles. Results: Positive paternal care was a direct and negative predictor of problematic gaming, whereas maternal overprotection indirectly predicted problematic gaming through preoccupied attachment. Conclusions: These findings suggest that positive paternal care represents a protective factor for problematic gaming; in contrast, maternal overprotection might foster a negative view of the self in the child, which increases the risk to excessively use videogames, perhaps as a maladaptive coping strategy to regulate negative feelings. Prevention programs might be aimed to improve the responsiveness of parents towards the child’s emotional needs, to prevent the development of problematic gaming. Also, clinical intervention with problematic gamers might foster their feelings of security toward relationships, to promote both a healthier use of videogames and a better quality of life.
Article
Aim Although poor childhood rearing environment is known to negatively impact late-life cognitive function, there is a scarcity of evidence on the contribution of positive parenting behaviors. The present study investigates the association between parental involvement in childhood and late-life cognitive function. Methods A total of 266 older adults aged between 65 and 88 years living in Wakuya City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, without indication of mild cognitive impairment or dementia, participated in a survey. Parental involvement in childhood was assessed by a questionnaire, and late-life cognitive function was measured by the Japanese version of the Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (QMCI) screening test (range: 0–100). Multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the association, adjusting for potential confounders and mediators. Results After adjusting for age, sex, other child-rearing environment, and academic performance in grade 6, older adults with a high level of positive parental involvement in childhood scored 6.00 (95% CI: 2.39, 9.61) points higher for the QMCI total score than those without. Parental involvement in childhood showed significant dose–response positive associations with the QMCI total score (P < 0.001), clock-drawing test score (P < 0.05), and verbal fluency score (P < 0.001). Among the six types of positive parental involvement, book reading showed a significant independent positive association with QMCI total score (P < 0.01) and logical memory score (P < 0.01). Conclusions Greater parental involvement in childhood, particularly book reading, was associated with better late-life cognitive function. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; ••: ••–••.
Article
Childhood trauma (CT) and parental bonding (PB) have been correlated with later antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Aiming to better understand this complex interaction we analyzed the data from a cross-sectional study that evaluated 346 male inpatient cocaine users, using both traditional statistical analysis and machine learning (ML) approaches. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) were applied. We found a markedly higher prevalence of mental illness in the ASPD group. The ML method and the traditional analysis showed that emotional and physical abuse were the factors with the strongest relationship with ASPD. Also, there were discrepancies between the findings of both methods regarding physical neglect and paternal care. Although this study does not allow definitive answers in this matter, we do propose that these two methods can aid in better comprehending how multiple variables interact with each other in the development of psychological disorders.
Thesis
This study was an exploratory investigation of the impact of therapists' self- reported attachment styles and parental bonds on the way in which they resolve ruptures within the therapeutic alliance. The study used an analogue of the therapy situation. Seventy-seven Clinical Psychologists in Training from University College London, taken from three consecutive years, participated in the study. Their attachment style was measured by means of the Relationship Scales Questionnaire and their parental bonds by means of the Parental Bonding Instrument. Participants also watched four video clips of hypothetical patients interacting with their therapist. Patients were meant to display one of four attachment styles (one secure and three insecure). The role-played therapy sessions exemplified a strain or 'rupture' in the therapeutic alliance and ended with the patient making a statement, which participants were asked to respond to. Participants' responses were tape-recorded and followed by a brief exploratory interview adapted from Interpersonal Process Recall. It was predicted that securely attached participants would respond overall more deeply and more empathically than insecure participants. It was also predicted that insecure participants would respond less deeply and less empathically to patients whose attachment style was similar to their own. The responses produced by first year trainees were also compared to those produced by second and third year trainees, with a view to exploring whether training moderated the impact of attachment styles and parental bonds on their responses. Participants clustered into two groups: 1) the 'secure group', characterised by optimal parenting (i.e. high parental care and low paternal protection), high security, low fearfulness and low preoccupation and 2) the 'insecure group', characterised by less positive parenting (i.e. lower parental care and higher protection), lower security, higher fearfulness and higher preoccupation. The results provided some evidence for the first prediction, in that there was a trend for the secure group to respond more empathically than the insecure group, although the null hypothesis could not be rejected with confidence. There was also some evidence for the second prediction, in that the insecure group responded less empathically than the secure one to the fearful patient. As the insecure group was high on fearfulness, there seemed to be some patient-therapist match effects in the predicted direction. As insecure third years responded overall more deeply than insecure second and first years, training seemed to moderate the effects of insecure participants' attachment styles on their responses. These results have implications for the training of Clinical Psychologists and also highlight the importance for therapists to be aware of and reflect on their own conflicts, as these may affect the quality of their clinical work.
Full-text available
Article
Synopsis To isolate and quantify possible determinants of any increased prevalence of depressive disorders in women we studied a select group of men and women, initially similar in terms of a number of putative social determinants of depression, and reviewed the sample five years later when social role diversity was anticipated. We used the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) to generate DSM-III and RDC diagnoses to estimate lifetime depressive disorders, and established (via corroborative reports) the likely accuracy of those data. Despite lifetime depression being a relatively common experience, no significant sex differences in depressive episodes were demonstrated, suggesting the possible irrelevance of biological factors in determining any sex difference. As there was not major social role divergence over the five year study, we interpret the lack of a sex difference as a consequence, and suggest that findings support the view that social factors are of key relevance in determining any female preponderance in depression described in general population studies.
Article
The view that those with obsessive compulsive disorder or obsessional personality have been exposed to overcontrolling and overcritical parenting is examined. Two measures of obsessionality (the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory and the Leyton Obsessionality Inventory) were completed by 344 nonclinical subjects. They also scored their parents on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), a measure assessing perceived levels of parental care and overprotection, before and after controlling for levels of state depression, trait anxiety and neuroticism in the analyses. Those scoring as more obsessional returned higher PBI protection scale scores. Links with PBI care scale scores were less clear, essentially restricted to the Maudsley Inventory, and variably influenced by controlling other variables.
Book
There are few topics so fascinating both to the research investigator and the research subject as the self-image. It is distinctively characteristic of the human animal that he is able to stand outside himself and to describe, judge, and evaluate the person he is. He is at once the observer and the observed, the judge and the judged, the evaluator and the evaluated. Since the self is probably the most important thing in the world to him, the question of what he is like and how he feels about himself engrosses him deeply. This is especially true during the adolescent stage of development.
Article
It is argued that personality scales of neuroticism and anxiety are tapping the same personality trait and that this is a risk factor for neurotic disorders. To see whether this trait is modifiable, a meta-analysis was carried out of therapy outcome studies which included a measure of trait anxiety or neuroticism as a dependent measure. This meta-analysis showed that all psychological therapies are to some extent effective. However, rational-emotive and related therapies produced particularly large reductions in trait anxiety/neuroticism (around 1.25 standard deviations). The possibility that rational-emotive education programmes could be used to lower trait anxiety/neuroticism as a preventive measure is discussed.
Article
A case-control study of adult depressed outpatients derived from a U.S. sample confirmed previous Australian reports of a significantly greater likelihood for depressives to report an earlier lack of parental care as well as parental overprotection. Only 32% of the patients, as against 62% of the non-psychiatric controls, reported 'optimal bonding', as defined by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), from one or both parents. By contrast 62% of the depressives and 27% of the controls reported exposure to PBI-defined 'affectionless control' from one or both parents. As in previous studies, a raw PBI care score of less than 10 was highly discriminating, being reported by 32% of the depressives and only 3% of the controls.