Purification and characterization of human skin mast cells. Evidence for human mast cell heterogeneity
Our previous studies of human lung and intestinal mast cells failed to show the heterogeneity found among mast cells in murine species. Recently, we and others have developed techniques for the enzymatic dispersion of human neonatal skin mast cells. In addition, we are now able to make single cell suspensions of mast cells from adult skin and to purify these cells to near homogeneity. Comparative studies of mast cells from these several sources have uncovered several major differences among them. Adult and neonatal skin mast cells themselves differ in that the former are 10-fold less sensitive to goat anti-human IgE, with maximal release occurring at 3.0 and 0.3 microgram/ml, respectively. Skin mast cells also differ in optimal temperature for release: adult mast cells respond maximally at 23 to 30 degrees C and neonatal cells at 37 degrees C. Skin mast cells from both sources are dramatically different from lung and intestinal mast cells in two aspects. First, skin mast cells are quite responsive to several stimuli--morphine sulfate (10(-4) to 10(-6) M), substance P (10(-5) to 10(-7) M), compound 48/80 (10 to 0.1 microgram/ml), f-Met peptide (10(-6) M), and C5a (10(-8) M)--to which the other mast cells fail to respond. Second, although stimulated skin mast cells produce prostaglandin D2, little leikotriene C4, if any, is generated, unlike lung or intestinal mast cells. These differences in inflammatory potential among human mast cells from various sites have important implications for the management of allergic and inflammatory responses.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergic reactions can in severe cases induce a state of circulatory shock referred to as anaphylaxis. Histamine, the primary mediator of this condition, is released from immune cells, and, therefore, anaphylaxis has so far been considered an immune system disorder. However, we here show that the glutamatergic receptor mGluR7, expressed on a subpopulation of both peripheral and spinal cord neurons, controls histamine-induced communication through calcium-dependent autoinhibition with implications for anaphylaxis. Genetic ablation of mGluR7, and thus altered regulation of histamine-sensing neurons, caused an anaphylaxis-like state in mGluR7(-/-) mice, which could be reversed by antagonizing signaling between neurons and mast cells but not by antagonizing a central itch pathway. Our findings demonstrate the vital role of nervous system control by mGluR7 in anaphylaxis and open up possibilities for preventive strategies for this life-threatening condition.
- "Histamine acts on local small diameter primary afferent neurons (Hä germark et al., 1979; Han et al., 2006; Schmelz et al., 1997 ), which release neurotransmitters from their central and peripheral terminals, to both relay pruritic information to the CNS and to involve the immune system in host defense. Peripheral release of neurotransmitters also leads to additional histamine discharge from nearby mast cells (Alving et al., 1991; Lawrence et al., 1987), which could potentially escalate an initially modest allergic reaction into a life-threatening systemic anaphylactic shock. Anaphylaxis is, however, an infrequent condition; the lifetime prevalence is estimated to 0.05%–2.0% "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current clinical and translational studies have shown that mast cell plays a pivotal role in multiple fibrotic diseases including scleroderma. However, the lack of mature human mast cell culture model exhibits a major obstacle for further dissection of cytokines and signaling molecules required for mast cell mediated fibrosis in various diseases. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor is a mast cell released pro-inflammatory cytokine which is deregulated in scleroderma patients and is also involved in non-scleroderma related fibrosis. In the current study, we successfully generated a practical and reliable human mast cell culture system with bone marrow CD34+ hematopietic precursors. The derivative mast cell is normal in terms of both morphology and function as manifested by normal degranulation. More importantly, we were able to show mast cell conditioned medium as well as MIF supplementation augments fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. This positive regulatory effect of mast cell conditioned medium can be dampened by MIF antibody. In addition, MIF-knockdown significantly inhibits pro-fibrotic activities of CD34+ hematopietic precursor derived mast cells. These data strongly suggest that mast cell released MIF is required for mast cell mediated fibrogenic activities. The current manuscript seems to be the first mechanistic report showing the significance of MIF in mast cell mediated fibrosis, which may pave the way for the development of potential MIF-targeted therapy for fibrotic diseases to a further extent. Moreover, we strongly believe mast cell culture and differentiation model as well as corresponding genetic manipulation methodology will be helpful in characterizing novel mast cell based therapeutic targets.
- "Thus adoption of novel human mast cell culture system seems to be imperative. Classically, human mast cells can be isolated from human skin, lung and peripheral blood484950. However, mast cell from these resources cannot be cultured indefinitely and genetic manipulation on mature mast cells is never easy. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Work on mast cells and basophils began with their identification by Paul Ehrlich at the end of the 19th century. Mast cells and basophils were immediately perceived as closely linked cells and early nomenclature formulated by Ehrlich himself, i.e., tissue "Mastzellen" and blood "Mastzellen", reflected this unifying viewpoint. With time, important functional affinities but also substantial diversities were recognized. This review article focuses on the historical development of the concept of mast cell/basophil specificity, from the initial identification of these cells to current studies.
- "Some difference in the granule structure was recognized. Lung, skin and synovial mast cells were detected to contain approximately 4 pg of histamine per cell, whereas the amount of histamine in basophils was about 1 pg per cell404142. Human lung mast cells contained a mixture of both heparin and chondroitin sulphate E, whereas chondroitin sulphate A was recognized as the dominant proteoglycan in basophil granules [43,44]. "