Article

Neural and humoral factors affecting ventilatory response during exercise

Department of Information Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Japan.
The Japanese Journal of Physiology (Impact Factor: 1.04). 02/1989; 39(2):199-214. DOI: 10.2170/jjphysiol.39.199
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    • "V E in phase 2 responds with first-order kinetics that are only slightly slower than those of ˙ V CO 2 but considerably slower than those for O 2 uptake ( ˙ V O 2 ) for a range of WR forcing functions, such as the step, impulse and sinusoid (e.g. Linnarsson, 1974; Miyamoto, 1989; Whipp & Ward, 1991 "
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    ABSTRACT: Below the lactate threshold ((thetaL)), ventilation (V(E))responds in close proportion to CO(2) output to regulate arterial partial pressure of CO(2) (PaCO2). While ventilatory control models have traditionally included proportional feedback (central and carotid chemosensory) and feedforward (central and peripheral neurogenic) elements, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Regardless, putative control schemes have to accommodate the close dynamic 'coupling' between and V(E) and V(CO2). Above (thetaL), PaCO2 is driven down to constrain the fall of arterial pH by a compensatory hyperventilation, probably of carotid body origin. When V(E) requirements are high (as in highly fit endurance athletes), V(E) can attain limiting proportions. Not only does this impair gas exchange at these work rates, but there may be an associated high metabolic cost for generation of respiratory muscle power, which may be sufficient to divert a fraction of the cardiac output away from the muscles of locomotion to the respiratory muscles, further compromising exercise tolerance.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · Experimental Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Estimates of the proportional contribution of the peripheral chemoreceptors (i.e., the carotid bodies) to human ventilatory control during moderate exercise (i.e., below the lactate threshold, theta L) suggest that they: (a) exert no discernible influence on the initial (usually rapid) phase I component; (b) provide significant modulation of the slower, exponential phase II dynamics, therefore contributing to the tightness of arterial PCO2 regulation and the magnitude of the transient hypoxemia in this phase; and (c) account for approximately 20% of the steady-state phase III drive, which can rise to over 50% in hypoxia (PaO2 approximately 50 mm Hg). Above theta L, the carotid bodies constrain the transient fall in arterial pH by mediating much (but not all) of the compensatory hyperventilation for the metabolic acidemia. The carotid body contribution above theta L, estimated by Dejours O2 testing, is not appreciably different from subthreshold estimates, suggesting that: (a) the respiratory alkalosis in blood and cerebrospinal fluid resulting from the hyperventilation may suppress carotid chemosensitivity; (b) an artifact resulting from secondary hyperoxia-induced stimulation of central chemoreceptors may lead to underestimation of the carotid body contribution; or (c) the carotid bodies may not be entirely "silenced" by hyperoxia during a metabolic acidemia.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1994 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
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    ABSTRACT: The stability of arterial blood gas tensions and pH during steady-state moderate exercise has suggested an important humoral element of ventilatory control in humans. However, the involvement of central and peripheral chemoreflexes in this humoral control remains controversial. This reflects, in large part, technical and interpretational limitations inherent in currently used estimators of chemoreflex "sensitivity." Evidence suggests that the central chemoreceptors (a) contribute little during moderate exercise, given the relative stability of cerebrospinal pH, (b) constrain the hyperpnea of high-intensity exercise, consequent to the respiratory compensation for the metabolic acidemia, and (c) may play a role in the respiratory compensation during chronic metabolic acidemia. In contrast, the peripheral chemoreceptors appear to (a) exert considerable influence on ventilatory kinetics in moderate exercise, but are less important in the steady state, and (b) induce much of the respiratory compensation of high-intensity exercise.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1994 · Canadian journal of applied physiology = Revue canadienne de physiologie appliquée
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