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The role of vitamin C in iron absorption

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Abstract

Iron requirements remain the same despite the current lower energy requirement. This means that more iron must be absorbed per unit energy. A higher bioavailability of the dietary iron can be achieved by increasing the content of food components enhancing iron absorption (ascorbic acid, meat/fish) or by decreasing the content of inhibitors (e.g., phytates, tannins). The latter is not feasible considering the recent and reasonable trend toward increasing the intake of dietary fibre. The key role of ascorbic acid for the absorption of dietary nonheme iron is generally accepted. The reasons for its action are twofold: (1) the prevention of the formation of insoluble and unabsorbable iron compounds and (2) the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron, which seems to be a requirement for the uptake of iron into the mucosal cells.

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... Vitamin C is considered able to increase the absorption of nonhem iron to four-fold. 7 Nonheme iron is less readily absorbed by the body and is found in foods such as fortified cereal, rice, black beans, soybeans, eggs, wheat, and spinach. 8 Vitamin C is known as ascorbic acid, a water-soluble vitamin thought to increase the absorption of nonheme iron. ...
... The vitamin C and iron combine to form an iron chelate complex, which increases the solubility of iron in the small intestine, resulting in increased uptake across the mucus membranes of the duodenum. 7,8 The role of vitamin C in the process of absorption of iron is reduction of Ferric iron (Fe 3+) into Ferro (Fe 2+) in the intestine in order to be easily absorbed. 7 This reduction process will be even greater if the pH in the stomach is more acidic. ...
... 7,8 The role of vitamin C in the process of absorption of iron is reduction of Ferric iron (Fe 3+) into Ferro (Fe 2+) in the intestine in order to be easily absorbed. 7 This reduction process will be even greater if the pH in the stomach is more acidic. Vitamin C increase acid in the stomach that will also increase iron absorption by up to 50%. ...
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Background: The prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was still high in Indonesia, especially in Bengkulu. Consuming papaya is considered as one of the solutions to increase hemoglobin and hematocrit level.Objective: This study aims to examine the effect of consuming papaya on the level of hemoglobin and hematocrit in pregnant women.Methods: This study employed a true experiment with randomized pretest and posttest design with control group. There were 42 respondents recruited in this study using simple random sampling. Randomization was performed to divide the samples into two groups, namely 21 respondents in the treatment group and 21 respondents in the control group. A total of 110 grams of papaya was given to the intervention group every day for 14 days. Data were analyzed using dependent t-test and independent t-test.Result: There was a significant effect of consuming papaya on the hemoglobin and hematocrit level with p-value 0.000 (< .05). The mean difference between two groups showed that hemoglobin level (control group 10.010 gr/dL; intervention group 10.838 gr/dL) and hematocrit level (control group 27.43 %; intervention group 30.10 %).Conclusion: Consuming papaya has a significant effect on changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. It is suggested that consuming papaya should be one of alternative treatment for midwives to prevent anemia in pregnant women.
... Moreover, biochemical estimations showed the final fruit cake fortified with garden cress seed and rice bran powder to have increased amounts of protein, calcium, iron, folic acid and vitamin C compared to the non-fortified cake. The fruits present in the cake like dates, raisins and strawberries contributed to the increase in vitamin C content which may henceforth help to absorb the iron obtained from garden cress and rice bran and thereby enable the adolescent girls to meet their dietary requirements (Hallberg et al. 1989) [15] . Moreover, one of the key ingredients in the fortified cake; garden cress seeds also functions as a galactogogue. ...
... Moreover, biochemical estimations showed the final fruit cake fortified with garden cress seed and rice bran powder to have increased amounts of protein, calcium, iron, folic acid and vitamin C compared to the non-fortified cake. The fruits present in the cake like dates, raisins and strawberries contributed to the increase in vitamin C content which may henceforth help to absorb the iron obtained from garden cress and rice bran and thereby enable the adolescent girls to meet their dietary requirements (Hallberg et al. 1989) [15] . Moreover, one of the key ingredients in the fortified cake; garden cress seeds also functions as a galactogogue. ...
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The unabated rise in the prevalence of anemia in adolescents especially females is one of the major public health concerns worldwide. Amongst other factors, faulty dietary practices, irregular meal patterns, frequent consumption of energy dense food, snacking in between main meals generally accounts for the above. To address this problem an iron-fortified cake was prepared. The variations of non-fortified and iron-fortified cakes were assessed by 50 panel members by the hedonic scale test method. Sensory evaluation assays portrayed the iron-fortified fruit cake to be the best variation in terms of appearance, colour, taste, texture, and odour. Moreover, biochemical estimations showed the iron-fortified cake to have increased amounts of protein, calcium, iron and vitamin C compared to the non-fortified cake. Therefore, the iron-fortified cake may help in preventing anemia in addition to other deficiency disorders among the teenage girls belonging to the middle income group.
... Guava is a fruit high in several vitamins and minerals and is also rich in lycopene, a carotenoid phytonutrient known for its antioxidant effect [67]. Guava was used as an intervention due to its high vitamin C content and its effects in facilitating nonheme iron absorption [68]. Although Guava supplementation yielded significant improvements in the iron status of children, no significant effects were seen in cognitive function [68]. ...
... Guava was used as an intervention due to its high vitamin C content and its effects in facilitating nonheme iron absorption [68]. Although Guava supplementation yielded significant improvements in the iron status of children, no significant effects were seen in cognitive function [68]. Out of the two trials that found significant results, one of them was the iron intervention [58], which found that for children with iron deficiency anemia, iron supplementation increased accuracy and the speed of discrimination on the continuous performance task; however, for children with adequate iron status at baseline, iron supplementation did not affect performance on the continuous processing task. ...
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The developing human brain requires all essential nutrients to form and to maintain its structure. Infant and child cognitive development is dependent on adequate nutrition. Children who do not receive sufficient nutrition are at high risk of exhibiting impaired cognitive skills. This systematic review aimed to examine the effects of nutritional interventions on cognitive outcomes of preschool-age children. PubMed, PsycInfo, Academic Search Complete, and Cochrane Library electronic databases were searched to identify Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) published after the year 2000. Studies assessing the effects of food-based, single, and multiple micronutrient interventions on the cognition of nourished and undernourished children aged 2–6 years were deemed eligible. A total of 12 trials were identified. Eight out of the twelve studies found significant positive effects on cognitive outcomes. Iron and multiple-micronutrients supplementation yield improvements in the cognitive abilities of undernourished preschool-age children. Increased fish consumption was found to have a beneficial effect in the cognitive outcomes of nourished children. On the other hand, B-vitamin, iodized salt, and guava powder interventions failed to display significant results. Findings of this review highlight the importance of adequate nutrition during preschool years, and the crucial role sufficient nutrition plays in cognitive development.
... 37 Vitamin C-rich fruits in particular are advised during pregnancy because vitamin C helps in the absorption and the bioavailability of iron by providing the appropriate pH. 38,39 It is thus commendable that majority of the participants ate vitamin C-rich foods usually along with their meals or right after their meals. In addition, a large majority of the pregnant women also avoided coffee or tea that may impede the absorption of iron in the body. ...
... In addition, a large majority of the pregnant women also avoided coffee or tea that may impede the absorption of iron in the body. 33,38,39 These findings are lower than the 66.9% of antenatal attendees in a general hospital in Lagos, Nigeria that drank tea in a study reported by Yesufu et al 40 ; the 75.3% of participants who took tea or coffee in a study reported by Wemakor 24 among pregnant women from Northern Ghana and the 46.9% who reportedly took coffee or tea immediately after their meals in a study reported by Oumer and Hussein. 41 The variations could be due to socio-economic, cultural and contextual differences. ...
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Introduction Iron deficiency anaemia is an international public health concern and pregnant women are at an increased risk. We investigated the consumption of iron rich foods and associated factors among pregnant women in a rural district from Ghana. Methods Following a cross-sectional design, dietary intake of iron rich foods was obtained from 252 pregnant women using a 24-hour recall food check list. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics were also assessed. Findings Participants had a mean (SD) knowledge score of 54.66 (22.74)%. About 73% of the participants had heard about iron-deficiency anaemia. Only 16.3% of the participants knew foods that help the body to absorb and use iron while 9.1% knew beverages that decrease iron absorption. About 71% of the participants ate fish and/or seafood while 67.1% of them ate green leafy vegetables. Only 4.4% of the participants ate organ meat, and 29% took flesh meat. Only 22.4% of the study participants usually drank coffee or tea while 78.2% ate vitamin C-rich foods. With regards to attitudes, 88.5% of the participants perceived anaemia to be a serious disease. Nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with the consumption of iron rich foods (β = .02; 95% CI = 0.01-0.02). Conclusion Nutrition knowledge may be an important determinant of the consumption of iron rich foods among pregnant women making it necessary for healthcare providers to continue to provide nutrition education to pregnant women during routine antenatal care.
... Ascorbic acid or vitamin C enhances the dietary absorption of non-heme iron. First, it forms non-absorbable iron, and later, ferric iron is converted to ferrous iron which helps in better absorption of iron into the mucosal cells [18]. ...
... Probiotics introduce good bacteria into the gut, whereas prebiotics act as a fertilizer for the good bacteria. So, consumption of probiotics along with prebiotics is good for the gut bacteria which improves gastrointestinal digestion [18]. Inulin present in bananas energizes the growth of good bacteria in yoghurt, which helps to improve immunity and regulate digestion. ...
Article
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Abstract Food synergy is a concept of linking foods to health. Food consists of mixtures of nutrients, serving as a fuel for the body. When synergistic foods are put together, the evidence for potential health benefits becomes stronger than individual foods. Nutrient deficiency is a known phenomenon in many individuals, and synergy plays a very important role in combating the nutritional deficiency. Today’s consumer expresses high interest to build knowledge on the active role of food in their well-being, as well as in the prevention of non-transmissible chronic diseases. Functional foods and their active compounds play a vital role in preventing chronic diseases, improving immunity, and decreasing infections. The concept of synergy is an overthinking in nutrition research which can enhance effective dietary planning value added to the forthcoming nutrition research. This paper gives an overview of various synergic combinations of food components and their interactions within the food and with the human system to attain ideal health benefits.
... El tratamiento incluye la administración de una sal ferrosa con la recomendación de que se ingiera una bebida preparada con limón o naranja, por el elevado contenido de vitamina C de estas frutas. Diversas publicaciones ponen de manifiesto la importancia de la vitamina C en los procesos de absorción del fierro a nivel intestinal (2,3) , transporte que es afectado por ciertos componentes de los alimentos como los fitatos, taninos, etc., o por la presencia de calcio que compite con el fierro por la interacción con el transportador de metales divalentes (4,5) . ...
... El hierro de la dieta se encuentra fundamentalmente como hierro hemo y hierro no hemo. La biodisponibilidad del hierro hemo es considerablemente mayor que el hierro no hemo; este último se absorbe con la participación del transportador de metal divalente 1 (DMT1) que se encuentra en las microvellosidades de la membrana del enterocito, proceso que puede incrementar su eficiencia con la participación de la vitamina C (3)(4)(5)(6) . ...
Article
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Objetivo: Determinar el efecto que ejerce la administración de hierro hemo y la de sulfato ferroso con vitamina C en hígado y cerebro de rata. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron ratas albinas Holtzman mantenidas en un bioterio con temperatura de 22 ± 2° C, humedad entre 50 y 70 % y 12 horas de luz y 12 horas de oscuridad, que recibieron 4,0 mg de hierro elemental/ kg p.c. bajo la forma de hierro hemo o como sulfato ferroso + 10 mg de vitamina C durante siete días, a cuyo término se sacrificaron y se les extrajo sangre, hígado y cerebro. Se hicieron los cortes histológicos que se trataron con hematoxilina-eosina para la observación microscópica y en el suero se midió la capacidad antioxidante. Resultados: Los cerebros de las ratas que recibieron tratamiento con hierro hemo y sulfato ferroso + vitamina C no sufrieron alteraciones significativas, mientras que los cortes histológicos de hígado de ratas tratadas con hierro hemo mostraron un parénquima sin distribución polar, algunos núcleos carentes de citoplasma y numerosas células de Küpffer a nivel del sinusoide. En cambio, las ratas que fueron tratadas con sulfato ferroso + vitamina C presentaron un parénquima hepático deteriorado notablemente, algunas áreas con núcleos sueltos sin citoplasma y otras con citoplasma cuya membrana había desaparecido. Además, en algunas zonas, el parénquima hepático se encontraba homogenizado. Conclusiones: Los cerebros de las ratas tratadas con hierro hemo y las que recibieron sulfato ferroso + vitamina C prácticamente no sufrieron modificación alguna, en cambio, el hígado de las ratas tratadas con sulfato ferroso + vitamina C presentaron mayor daño hepático que las tratadas con hierro hemo.
... Vitamin C has been shown to protect lipids in human plasma against oxidative damage in vitro [36], ex vivo [37] and in vivo [38]. Vitamin C aids in the absorption of non-haem iron [39,40]; and also in the maintenance of reduced glutathione (GSH) [41,42] and in the regeneration of alpha-tocopherol [43]. Vitamin C is known to scavenge nitrosating agents and block formation of potentially mutagenic N-nitroso compounds [44]. ...
Article
Growing evidence suggests that vitamin C supplementation may be an effective adjunct therapy in the management of people with diabetes. This paper critically reviews the current evidence on effects of vitamin C supplementation and its potential mechanisms in diabetes management. Evidence from meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) show favourable effects of vitamin C on glycaemic control and blood pressure that may be clinically meaningful, and mixed effects on blood lipids and endothelial function. However, evidence is mostly of low evidence certainty. Emerging evidence is promising for effects of vitamin C supplementation on some diabetes complications, particularly diabetic foot ulcers. However, there is a notable lack of robust and well-designed studies exploring effects of vitamin C as a single compound supplement on diabetes prevention and patient-important outcomes (i.e. prevention and amelioration of diabetes complications). RCTs are also required to investigate potential preventative or ameliorative effects of vitamin C on gestational diabetes outcomes. Oral vitamin C doses of 500-1000 mg per day are potentially effective, safe, and affordable for many individuals with diabetes. However, personalisation of supplementation regimens that consider factors such as vitamin C status, disease status, current glycaemic control, vitamin C intake, redox status, and genotype is important to optimize vitamin C's therapeutic effects safely. Finally, given a high prevalence of vitamin C deficiency in patients with complications, it is recommended that plasma vitamin C concentration be measured and monitored in the clinic setting.
... In contrast, polyphenols (in tea and coffee), along with calcium, have an inhibiting effect on iron absorption, especially for the non-haem iron. [47][48][49] However, studies which assessed increased calcium intake for prolonged periods did not show an impact on the iron status. Therefore, it was concluded that the inhibitory effect of calcium on iron absorption is temporary. ...
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Objective To estimate the magnitude and the determinants of iron deficiency among adolescents aged 10–19 years in the State of Qatar. Design A cross-sectional study design was used to conduct the study. Setting Primary healthcare centres covering the three main geographical areas. One health centre was selected randomly from each region catchment areas: Northern, Central and Western. Participants Four hundred and fifty adolescents aged 10–19 years of all nationalities were enrolled in the study. Outcome measures Serum ferritin cut-off level used to diagnose iron deficiency (<15 µg/L), with normal C reactive protein. Results The mean age of the participants was 14.00±2.920, and more than half of the participating adolescents were among 10–14 years old age group (56.9%). Fifty-five per cent of the study participants were Non-Qatari, and females consisted of 70.0% of the participants. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 26.4%. Iron deficiency was significantly associated with gender, nationality, attaining menarche and consumption of iron absorption enhancers (citrus fruits and juice). Conclusion Iron deficiency among adolescents is of moderate public health concern in the country, according to the classification of the WHO. The estimated prevalence of iron deficiency was close to what was found in other low-income and middle-income countries; however, it is still behind the developed countries. Gender, attaining menarche and dietary habits are among the important factors that are associated with iron deficiency. Thus, there is a need to coordinate efforts and resources to address this issue by implementing effective strategies at the community and primary healthcare levels.
... In such cases, the consumption of sapota fruit of PKM 5 or Guthi or CO2 could provide a simple remedy to overcome Fe de iciency symptoms. A notable characteristic is that the ascorbic acid content is also high in Guthi which is essential for the uptake of Fe by the body [34]. ...
Article
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Sapota is popular in a number of countries for its delicious, soft, sweet and luscious fruits. Although several varieties of sapota are under commercial cultivation in India, information on nutritional profiling of fruit and the associated health benefits have not been investigated. Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate seven commercial varieties of sapota for their nutritional characteristics with a view to better exploit sapota fruits for their health benefits. A notable feature of the study was that the varieties Kalipati, Guthi and CO2 had significantly higher levels of the micro elements Fe, Cu and Zn respectively which could be exploited for treating mineral deficiency symptoms in human patients. The separation and identification of high levels of minerals and phytonutrients like, total phenol, total flavonoids, anthocyanins, fatty acids and free radical scavenging activity in fruit pulp showed that sapota fruit is nutritionally a rich fruit with many phytochemicals which are beneficial in both health and disease. The principal component analysis could successfully identify varieties with the largest amount of phytonutrients having specific health benefits.
... The association of Ferric Sodium EDTA with vitamin C, folic acid, copper gluconate, zinc gluconate and selenomethionine (Ferachel Forte®) has been designed to improve iron absorption, and to avoid side effects caused by the iron not absorbed, since large studies in literature reported the increase of iron absorption following these associations [6][7][8][9]. ...
... In addition to its role in collagen synthesis, vitamin C also promotes dietary nonheme iron absorption by reduction of ferric iron to its ferrous form that can be absorbed in the duodenum. 5 Though the absorption of heme iron is unaffected by vitamin C deficiency, this pathway may additionally contribute to iron deficiency anemia in scurvy. ...
Article
Scurvy is a historically significant disease whose incidence has declined significantly with advancements in nutrition and access to varied foods. It is classically characterized by gingival bleeding, corkscrew hairs, and petechiae. In cases of severe deficiency, as seen in patients with years of a restricted diet, impaired connective tissue formation can lead to symptomatic, life-threatening bleeding diathesis. Risk factors for a restrictive diet in patients with unidentified bleeding diathesis should be recognized early to prevent significant morbidity.
... This product has been formulated to improve iron absorption thanks to synergistic effect of active ingredients. It is for long time well known the role of vitamin C, folic acid, copper, zinc and selenium in increasing iron adsorption as well as their involvement in the improvement of anaemic patients [25][26][27][28]. We decided to use this new oral formulation because of previous results showing efficacy results comparable to IV formulation [8][9][10][11], in order to verify its use in NDD-CKD elderly patients with secondary anaemia not responders to ferrous sulphate therapy, in comparison with an oral liposomal iron formulation. ...
... Chen et al. (2005) reported that the flavonoids from almond skin acted synergistically with vitamins C and E to protect LDL-cholesterol oxidation. Similarly, a combination of green leafy vegetables and lemon is effective at increasing haemoglobin concentration in iron-deficient anaemic patients, as vitamin C accelerates the dietary absorption of non-haem iron (Hallberg et al., 1989). Furthermore, Fernandez and Marette (2017) suggested that bananas energize growth of beneficial bacteria in yoghurt, with the combination increasing immunity and regulating digestion. ...
Chapter
In recent times, a considerable change in the day-to-day lifestyle has been observed, and this transformation in working style, sleeping pattern, eating habits, etc., has resulted in several a number of physical and mental disorders. However, people are now becoming cautious towards maintaining a healthy lifestyle. In this context, nutritional therapy and phytotherapy have emerged as an attractive option among a variety of remedial measures. To prevent the disease and improvise the health, nutraceuticals of plant origin are gaining popularity. Nutraceuticals are bioactive compounds naturally present in food items, dietary supplements, and plant products/extracts acknowledged for their potential safe, nutritional, and therapeutic effects with safety. They help in boosting the immune system against various disorders, such as obesity, allergy, inflammation, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and cardiovascular ailments, and often provide an effective management of such problems. The present chapter focuses on plant-based nutraceuticals and their role in improvising the immune system of humans for a better quality of life. It also highlights the concept of synergistic foods as an immune booster, and a causal factor for to achieve various health benefits.
... Ascorbic acid keeps iron available for absorption through several mechanisms (20,21). Firstly, it promotes an acidic environment which facilitate iron absorption, secondly, it chelates Fe 3+ and maintains it in a stable complex, and lastly, it reduces Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ forming a soluble complex available for absorption (22,23). Iron in breast milk is readily absorbed because it is bound to lactoferrin which aids the absorption of iron through the lactoferrin receptor into the enterocyte (24). ...
... Both forms of iron are digested in the stomach and may compete with other divalent cations for absorption in the duodenum. Vitamin C plays a role in the absorption of non-heme iron by preventing the formation of unabsorbable iron-containing compounds and by reducing iron from its ferric to its more easily absorbed ferrous state [24]. Copper and zinc are absorbed in the duodenum and jejunum. ...
Article
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Purpose of review The goal of this article is to review micronutrient deficiencies in patients with obesity. We will describe the absorption of micronutrients and highlight the risk factors that may exist pre- and post-surgery that contribute to the development of micronutrient deficiency states. Furthermore, we will discuss the process involved in detecting, preventing, and treating micronutrient deficiencies. Recent findings Pre-bariatric surgery micronutrient deficiencies are commonly due to intake of a high energy, but low micronutrient diet. Deficiencies frequently include vitamin D, folate, vitamin B12, and iron. Post-bariatric surgery micronutrient deficiencies are commonly related to altered absorption in the setting of non-compliance with or intolerance of recommended diets, and frequently include abovementioned deficiencies as well as vitamin A, copper, and zinc deficiencies. All patients should have routine daily supplementation as well as close monitoring for the development of deficiency post-surgery. Summary It is important to understand a patient’s unique risk factors for developing a micronutrient deficiency, and to perform a complete nutritional evaluation to further assess, intervene on, and monitor a patient’s nutritional status throughout their pre- and post-operative course. Treatment of these deficiencies will require a multidisciplinary and multimodal approach involving risk factor modification and supplementation that depends on the severity and duration of the identified deficiency.
... Protein modifications caused by oxidative lesions may inhibit the pancreatic enzymes and dietary protein resistance to digestion. Hence, dietary supplementation with antioxidants such as vitamin C could prevent oxidative protein denaturation, and consequently, improve nutrient digestibility and feed efficiency [41,55,56]. Ciftci, et al. [57] demonstrated that ascorbate supplementation resulted in insignificant effects on birds' growth and egg production. ...
... Protein modifications caused by oxidative lesions may inhibit the pancreatic enzymes and dietary protein resistance to digestion. Hence, dietary supplementation with antioxidants such as vitamin C could prevent oxidative protein denaturation, and consequently, improve nutrient digestibility and feed efficiency [41,55,56]. Ciftci, et al. [57] demonstrated that ascorbate supplementation resulted in insignificant effects on birds' growth and egg production. ...
Article
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Background: The effects of safflower oil and vitamin C (Vit. C) inclusion in broiler chicken diets on the growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility coefficient "AID%" of amino acids, intestinal histology, behavior, carcass traits, fatty acid composition of the breast muscle, antioxidant and immune status for a 35-day feeding period were evaluated. A total of 300 three-day-old Ross chicks (58.25 g ± 0.19) were randomly allotted in a 2 × 3 factorial design consisting of two levels of vitamin C (0 and 400 mg/kg diet) and three levels of safflower oil (0, 5, and 10 g/kg diet). Results: An increase in the final body weight, total body weight gain, total feed intake, and the relative growth rate (P < 0.05) were reported by safflower oil and vitamin C inclusion. Dietary supplementation of safflower oil and vitamin C had a positive effect (P < 0.05) on the ingestive, resting, and feather preening behavior. Vitamin C supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the AID% of lysine, threonine, tryptophan, arginine, and valine. Safflower inclusion (10 g/kg) increased (P < 0.05) the AID% of methionine and isoleucine. Safflower oil inclusion increased (P < 0.05) the levels of stearic acid, linoleic acid, saturated fatty acids, and omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3) in the breast muscle. In contrast, the supplementation of only 10 g of safflower oil/kg diet increased (P = 0.01) the omega-3/omega-6 (ω-3/ω-6) fatty acids ratio. Vit. C supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the CAT serum levels, SOD, and GSH enzymes. Dietary supplementation of safflower oil and vitamin C improved the intestinal histology. They increased the villous height and width, crypt depth, villous height/crypt depth ratio, mucosal thickness, goblet cell count, and intra-epithelium lymphocytic lick cell infiltrations. The serum levels of IgA and complement C3 were increased (P < 0.01) by Vit. C supplementation and prominent in the 400 vit. C + 10 safflower Oil group. Conclusion: A dietary combination of safflower oil and vitamin C resulted in improved growth rate, amino acids AID%, intestinal histology, welfare, immune and antioxidant status of birds, and obtaining ω-3 and linoleic acid-enriched breast muscles. The best inclusion level was 400 vit. C + 10 safflower Oil.
... In plants, it serves an antioxidant role and is responsible for alpha tocopherol, zeaxanthin regeneration and pH-mediated regulation of PS II activity (Smirnoff 1996). While in humans, it functions as antioxidant and enzyme co-factor and plays a crucial role in cardiovascular functions, immune defense, iron metabolism, collagen and neurotransmitter synthesis (Carr and Maggini 2017;Hallberg et al. 1989; Martín-Calvo and Martínez-González 2017). Since vitamin Cis stored in the body in limited amounts and excreted through urine, a regular dietary supply is essential for human health (Oreopoulos et al. 1993). ...
Chapter
Nutritional inadequacies in staple crops pose a serious human health risk. Therefore, it becomes vital to develop nutritionally enhanced crops to overcome nutritional deficiency associated with malnutrition. This underscores the importance of metabolic engineering as an effective and accurate strategy as compared to conventional practices. Plant consists of numerous complex metabolic pathways that are responsible for the production of multiple metabolites. Metabolic engineering enables the modulation of these biosynthetic pathways to introduce new metabolic abilities by either increasing the production or reducing the accumulation of selected metabolites in crop plants augmenting the nutritional quality. Advancement in sequencing technology and bioinformatic tools provide an excellent opportunity to gain improved knowledge about metabolic pathways and discover the best intervention points. Despite several benefits, there are serious constraints that must be addressed in order to achieve functional expression of desired metabolic genes in host plants synergizing with the endogenous pathways to accumulate target metabolites without harming the host plant. In this chapter we will discuss recent advances in plant metabolic engineering, focusing on improvement of nutrition traits for the development of enriched crops.
... Vit. C also increase the vital presence of iron, it also increases its absorption in the gastrointestinal tract [55] and stimulates vit. C to secrete the catalyst for the formation of RBCs (Erythropoietin) from the kidney, which stimulates the formation of RBCs from bone marrow [56]. ...
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Aluminum is presents in many manufactured foods, medicines and is also added to drinking water for purification purposes. Therefore, the present study included the investigation of the protective effect of vitamin C and vitamin E in hematological parameters, and preventing oxidative stress induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl 3), with dose of 40 mg/Kg of body weight, orally by a gavage tube to male albino rats Rattus norvegicus, aged (3-4) months, weighing (200-250) g. Thirty male rats were randomly divided into five groups (6 rats / group), treated orally daily for 30 days as follows: The first group was given distilled water considered as control (untreated group). The second group was treated with 40 mg/Kg B.W. AlCl 3 only. Third and fourth groups were treated with 40 mg/Kg AlCl 3 plus vitamin C or vitamin E with dose of 400 mg/Kg B.W. respectively. The fifth group was treated with AlCl 3 plus combination of vitamin C and vitamin E at the same previously used concentrations. All these groups were given a standard forage and tap water ad libitum. The results showed that treating with AlCl 3 caused a significant decrease at (P ≤ 0. 05) in the hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and packed cell volume (PCV), but a significant increase in total white blood cells count (WBCs) and lymphocytes in the blood of male rats treated as compared with control group. The results also showed a significant decrease in the concentration of glutathione (GSH) and albumin, but a significant increase at (P ≤ 0. 05) in the concentration of each of malondialdehyde (MDA), uric acid, bilirubin, creatinine, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), [which have a role as non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants], alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) [liver function enzymes] activities in blood serum of treated rats as compared with control group. A significant decrease in the level of the GSH, increase in the level of MDA in brain tissue were observed which indicates the ability of aluminum to induce oxidative stress in albino rats. The results also showed that treatment with AlCl 3 plus vitamin C or vitamin E and their combination caused a significant increase in GSH level and a significant decrease in MDA level in serum and brain tissue compared with control group. In addition to positive effect on some hematological and biochemical parameters. In conclusion, vitamin C and E had prophylactic capacity that would remove any oxidative stress and toxic effects caused by AlCl 3 .
... Among the organic acids, ascorbic acid possesses the most pronounced enhancing effect on nonheme iron absorption [37][38][39]. Ascorbic acid forms a soluble chelate with ferric iron, which prevents the formation of insoluble and unabsorbable iron compounds and it is assumed that ascorbic acid facilitates the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron [40]. In contrast, an in vitro study on the human epithelial Caco-2 cell line showed that ascorbate increased apical ferric iron uptake in a concentration-dependent manner with a significant difference between iron uptake and iron reduction; ascorbate enhanced the uptake of ferric chloride iron through the formation of a Fe 3+ -ascorbate complex [41]. ...
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Objective: To provide an overview of nutrients and compounds, which influence human intestinal iron absorption, thereby making a platform for elaboration of dietary recommendations that can reduce iron uptake in patients with genetic haemochromatosis. Design: Review. Setting. A literature search in PubMed and Google Scholar of papers dealing with iron absorption. Results: The most important promoters of iron absorption in foods are ascorbic acid, lactic acid (produced by fermentation), meat factors in animal meat, the presence of heme iron, and alcohol which stimulate iron uptake by inhibition of hepcidin expression. The most important inhibitors of iron uptake are phytic acid/phytates, polyphenols/tannins, proteins from soya beans, milk, eggs, and calcium. Oxalic acid/oxalate does not seem to influence iron uptake. Turmeric/curcumin may stimulate iron uptake through a decrease in hepcidin expression and inhibit uptake by complex formation with iron, but the net effect has not been clarified. Conclusions: In haemochromatosis, iron absorption is enhanced due to a decreased expression of hepcidin. Dietary modifications that lower iron intake and decrease iron bioavailability may provide additional measures to reduce iron uptake from the foods. This could stimulate the patients' active cooperation in the treatment of their disorder and reduce the number of phlebotomies.
... Oral calcium inhibits absorption of both haem and non-haem iron. Oral vitamin C may enhance absorption of non-haem iron by reducing ferric ions to more readily absorbable ferrous forms [23]. ...
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PurposeBariatric surgery is associated with deficiencies of vitamins and minerals, and patients are routinely advised supplements postoperatively. We studied prevalence of vitamin B12, folate and iron deficiencies and anaemia before and after bariatric surgery over 4 years of follow-up.Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 353 people with obesity, including 257 (72.8%) women, who underwent gastric bypass (252, 71.4%) or sleeve gastrectomy (101, 28.6%) at our National Health Service bariatric centre in Northwest England.ResultsAt baseline, mean (standard error) age was 46.0 (0.6) years, body mass index 53.1 (0.4) kg/m2, serum vitamin B12 400.2 (16.4) pg/L, folate 7.7 (0.2) μg/L, iron 12.0 (0.3) μmol/L, ferritin 118.3 (8.4) μg/L and haemoglobin 137.9 (0.8) g/L. Frequency of low vitamin B12 levels reduced from 7.5% preoperatively to 2.3% at 48 months (P < 0.038). Mean folate levels increased from baseline to 48 months by 5.3 μg/L (P < 0.001) but frequency of low folate levels increased from 4.7% preoperatively to 10.3% (P < 0.048). Ferritin levels increased from baseline to 48 months by 51.3 μg/L (P < 0.009). Frequency of low ferritin levels was greater in women (39.1%) than in men (8.9%) at baseline (P < 0.001) and throughout the study period. Haemoglobin was low in 4.6% of all patients at baseline with no significant change over the study period.Conclusion There were notable rates of haematinic insufficiencies in bariatric surgical candidates preoperatively. Our study lends further support to regular supplementation with vitamin B12, folic acid, and iron in people undergoing bariatric surgery.
... However, it is currently not recommended to consume vitamin C supplements [25]. Dietary vitamin C aids in the absorption of iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg) by the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron, which is a requirement for the uptake of iron into the mucosal cells from the lumen [26]. Ascorbic acid facilitates iron absorption by forming a chelate with ferric iron at acid pH that remains soluble at the alkaline pH of the duodenum [27]. ...
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Introduction: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common upper gastrointestinal disorder encountered in the elderly patient. GERD is one of the highly prevalent diseases seen in the clinical practice. In the elderly population, few studies have addressed the prevalence of GERD. It is estimated that 20-30% of the US population experience weekly symptoms of GERD, and two out of five people experience heartburn or acid regurgitation at least once a month. Methods: To ensure peer-review articles were used, the search engine, PubMed was utilized along with medical reference-related websites and US Department websites as well as professional organizations. Some medications used by older adults may promote acid reflux, prescription treatments include proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), coating agents, H2 blockers and over-the-counter medications that contain antacids or decreased dosages of the prescription strength H2 blockers and PPIs. Discussion: Decreased stomach acidity could be responsible for risk of nutrient deficiencies including vitamin B12 (cobalamin), vitamin C (ascorbate), calcium, iron and magnesium deficiencies or medications that are used to alleviate the symptoms of GERD may also be responsible for increasing the risk for deficiencies. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate and provide reasons why regular assessment, screening, testing, and/or clinically evaluating nutritional deficiencies common in older adults and relating to physical pathogenesis and/or drug treatments of GERD, should be added to the GERD treatment protocol for older adults.
... Therefore, endurance activities require particular attention to the ferritin status in the blood. Iron absorption can be improved by the consumption of haem iron from animal products and non-haem iron from plant products and consumption of iron with vitamin C (Hallberg et al. 1989, Hurrell et al. 2006. If the blood ferritin levels are less than 50 lg/L, iron supplementation is recommended. ...
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Endurance refers to the ability of skeletal muscles to perform continuously withstanding the hardships of exercise. Endurance exercises have three phases: pre-, during-, and post-workout phase. The nutritional requirements that drive these phases vary on intensity, type of workout, individual’s body composition, training, weather conditions, etc. Generally, the pre-workout phase requires glycogen synthesis and spare glycogen breakdown. While workout phase, requires rapid absorption of exogenous glucose, insulin release to transport glucose into muscle cells, replenish the loss of electrolytes, promote fluid retention, etc. However, post-workout phase requires quick amino acid absorption, muscle protein synthesis, repair of damaged muscle fibres and tendon, ameliorate inflammation, oxidative stress, etc. Therefore, nutritional sources that can help these metabolic requirements is recommended. In this review, various dietary interventions including timing and amount of nutrient consumption that can promote the above metabolic requirements that in turn support in improving the endurance potential in athletes are discussed. • HIGHLIGHTS • Review article describes nutritional requirements of endurance exercises. • It also describes nutritional interventions to enhance the endurance potential in athletes.
... Vitamin C increases iron absorption and its antioxidant activity can provide protective effects against eventual liver damage caused by iron overload. Folic acid cooperates with normal haematopoiesis [21][22][23]. We used this formulation in the first group of the study ( Table 1) and we noted the real superiority in comparison with the intravenous administration of ferrous gluconate about arrhythmic risk, evaluated using T-peak-to-Tend index, and the risk of side effects due to high doses of saline solution administered intravenously in the second group of our study ( Table 2). ...
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Introduction: Iron-Deficiency anaemia (IDA) has a high impact on the quality of life in old patients when affected by chronic heart failure and/or respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of Ferric Sodium EDTA in combination with vitamin C, folic acid, copper gluconate, zinc gluconate and selenomethionine (Ferachel forte®) 2 tabs/day for 24 days, in elderly patients with secondary anaemia, analysing cardiovascular risk and quality of life by means of ECG and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) analyses.
... Amalaki 14 being amla rasa pradhan dravya is swayonivardhan (auto enhancer) for Rakta Dhatu and being yakrituttejak (hepatic stimulator) enhances the secretion of Ranjak pitta (this transforms rasa dhatu into rakta dhatu) which leads to enhancement of quantity and quality of Rakta Dhatu. Amalaki is the rich source of Vitamin C, which helps in the absorption of iron through reduction of ferric iron to ferrous iron which seems to be the requirement for the uptake of iron into the mucosal cells 15 . Statistically significant improvement was also found in Mamsa, Meda, Asthi, Majja and Sukra Dhatukshaya and Sara of respective Dhatus. ...
... All together, these findings show that ascorbate participates in the response to environmental stimuli, not only by buffering the cell redox state, but also by its involvement in the epigenetic control on gene expression. In addition, ascorbate enhances iron absorption (Hallberg et al., 1987(Hallberg et al., , 1989, which is not only important to keep the Fe 2+ /αKGdependent dioxygenases active, but also for many other roles (Lieu et al., 2001;Muckenthaler et al., 2008). ...
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Throughout evolution, a number of animals including humans have lost the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid (ascorbate, vitamin C), an essential molecule in the physiology of animals and plants. In addition to its main role as an antioxidant and cofactor in redox reactions, recent reports have shown an important role of ascorbate in the activation of epigenetic mechanisms controlling cell differentiation, dysregulation of which can lead to the development of certain types of cancer. Although fruits and vegetables constitute the main source of ascorbate in the human diet, rising its content has not been a major breeding goal, despite the large inter- and intraspecific variation in ascorbate content in fruit crops. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest to boost ascorbate content, not only to improve fruit quality but also to generate crops with elevated stress tolerance. Several attempts to increase ascorbate in fruits have achieved fairly good results but, in some cases, detrimental effects in fruit development also occur, likely due to the interaction between the biosynthesis of ascorbate and components of the cell wall. Plants synthesize ascorbate de novo mainly through the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway, the dominant pathway in photosynthetic tissues. Two intermediates of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway, GDP-D-mannose and GDP-L-galactose, are also precursors of the non-cellulosic components of the plant cell wall. Therefore, a better understanding of ascorbate biosynthesis and regulation is essential for generation of improved fruits without developmental side effects. This is likely to involve a yet unknown tight regulation enabling plant growth and development, without impairing the cell redox state modulated by ascorbate pool. In certain fruits and developmental conditions, an alternative pathway from D-galacturonate might be also relevant. We here review the regulation of ascorbate synthesis, its close connection with the cell wall, as well as different strategies to increase its content in plants, with a special focus on fruits.
... Moreover it has also been highlighted that since the long term effects of parenteral iron therapy on tissue damage and risk for infections is not available in IRIDA, the cases should first be treated with prolonged oral iron or with an oral iron and vitamin c combination [6]. The role of vitamin C in enhancing non haeme iron absorption in iron deficiency is well established since long, however the exact mechanism behind the same is not yet known [7]. It is suggested that ascorbic acid not only reduces formation of insoluble iron complexes but also acts at cellular level in duodenal cells to limit ferritin autophagy, increases conversion of ferric to ferrous form for better iron absorption via DMT-1 and also more importantly increases aconitase thereby reducing iron responsive protein activity and enhancing ferroportin expression for increased transfer of iron across duodenal cells into plasma [8][9][10]. ...
Article
Treatment in IRIDA focuses on use of intravenous iron preparations to circumvent oral absorptive defect resulting from high levels of hepcidin due to TMPRSS6 gene variations. However, recent case reports and recommendations on atypical microcytic hypochromic anemias advocate use of oral iron and vitamin c trial before parenteral iron, as the same results in comparable improvement in haemoglobin. We prospectively evaluated our IRIDA cohort (n = 7) with oral iron and vitamin c dose over a period of 10 weeks and noted complete response in majority (6/7 = 86%) with >2 g/dL rise in Hb along with significant improvement of other iron related indices.
... When considering the dietary intake of iron, it is important to note that a higher bioavailability can be achieved by increasing the concurrent consumption of food components that enhance iron absorption (such as ascorbic acid -Vitamin C) or by decreasing the content of inhibitors such as phytates and tannins (Hallberg et al., 1989). Since the recommended daily iron intake is 8 mg for males and up to 18 mg for menstruating females (Food and Nutrition Board, 2001), an athlete presenting with an iron deficiency should, in the first instance, work with a trained sports dietitian to ensure the whole food composition of the diet contains sufficient amounts of iron to meet the demands of training. ...
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The main focus of this review is illness among elite athletes, how and why it occurs, and whether any measures can be taken to combat it or to prevent its onset. In particular, there is particular interest in exercise-induced immunodepression, which is a result of the immune system regarding exercise (e.g., prolonged, exhaustive exercise) as a challenge to its function. This promotes the inflammatory response. There is often a high incidence of illness in athletes after undertaking strenuous exercise, particularly among those competing in endurance events, not only mainly in terms of upper respiratory tract illness, but also involving gastrointestinal problems. It may well be that this high incidence is largely due to insufficient recovery time being allowed after, for example, a marathon, a triathlon, or other endurance events. Two examples of the incidence of upper respiratory tract illness in moderate versus endurance exercise are provided. In recent years, increasing numbers of research studies have investigated the origins, symptoms, and incidence of these bouts of illness and have attempted to alleviate the symptoms with supplements, sports foods, or immunonutrition. One aspect of the present review discusses iron deficiency, which has been primarily suggested to have an impact upon cell-mediated immunity. Immunonutrition is also discussed, as are new techniques for investigating links between metabolism and immune function.
... For example, freezing of sample solutions containing hydroxylamine and iodide cause a significant enhancement in the total dissolved iron [Fe(II) + Fe(III)] relative to aqueous phase dissolution (by ∼6 and 13 times, respectively), whereas freezing of ascorbic acid solution markedly suppressed the iron dissolution compared to the aqueous counterpart. The reductive dissolution of iron oxides induced by strong reducing agents, such as ascorbic acid, 3,5,36,37 can play an important role in maintaining the iron balance in the human body and natural environment. Oxalic and citric acids also cause freezing-induced suppression in the total dissolved iron. ...
Article
The freezing-enhanced dissolution of iron oxides by various ligands has been recently proposed as a new mechanism that may influence the supply of bioavailable iron in frozen environments. The ligand-induced dissolution of iron oxides is sensitively affected by the kind and concentration of ligands, pH, and the kind of iron oxides. While most ligands are thought to be freeze-concentrated in the ice grain boundary region along with iron oxides to enhance the iron dissolution, this study found that some ligands like ascorbic acid suppress the iron dissolution in frozen solution relative to that in aqueous solution. Such ligands are proposed to be preferentially incorporated in the ice lattice bulk and not freeze-concentrated in the liquid-like grain boundary. The experimental analysis estimated that the ionized forms of ligands (e.g., iodide ions) are hardly present in the ice bulk region (<3%) and enhance the iron dissolution in frozen solution (relative to that in aqueous solution), whereas some neutral ligands (e.g., undissociated ascorbic acid) are significantly trapped in the ice bulk (>50%) and suppress the iron dissolution compared with the aqueous counterpart. The present results reveal that the ligand-induced dissolution of iron oxide in frozen solution is not always enhanced relative to aqueous solution, but depends on the kind of ligand and experimental conditions.
... The absorption of non-heme iron is diminished by coadministration of phytate contained high-fiber diet, phenolics contained tea and coffee, calcium as well as administration of few drugs such as proton-pump inhibitors and antibiotics like tetracyclines [21]. On the other hand, Vitamin C or ascorbic acid helps in the absorption of iron [22]. Thus, iron is often taken in conjunction with Vitamin C. ...
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Although the concept and implementation of food fortification are not novel in India, still since Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) introduced it mandatory, the paradigm of food fortification has been broadened. In the current regulation, common staple foods such as wheat flour, rice, edible oil, milk in addition to salt, and Vanaspati have been selected as food vehicle for different micronutrient fortifications. In the present review, we discussed different policies and strategies to address the public health problem associated with nutritional deficiencies with a special emphasis on food fortification. We used data and information in regard to different policies and food fortification published on governmental websites and several published scientific reports and papers were used to understand and discuss the topic. Although there are continuous efforts to mitigate nutritional deficiencies in the country, the optimum results are yet to receive. Food fortification mandate can be expected a potential tool in this context. So far, the trials conducted with fortified foods in India mostly were found having positive results to improve the nutritional status of the subjects included in the study. However, there is sufficient scope and necessity to broaden the trial design including the population of different age groups and socioeconomic status with special emphasis on female of childbearing age and geriatric population. Awareness of nutrition through continuous monitoring of the nutritional profiling of population and timely implement and revision of policies are utmost important to achieve the goal of nutritional security of the country.
... Certain dietary products, mainly derived from plant sources including phytate [68,69], polyphenols [70], and tannins [69] negatively affect iron absorption by tightly binding to iron and decreasing iron bioavailability. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that is thought to increase the absorption of non-heme iron, and it acts as a reducing agent to facilitate iron absorption from the GIT [71,72]. Other organic acids such as tartaric, malic, succinic, fumaric, and citric acids can prevent the precipitation of ferric iron when the pH increases, and this enhances Fe(II) and Fe(III) uptake [71,73]. ...
Article
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Iron (Fe) is a highly ample metal on planet earth (~35% of the Earth’s mass) and is particularly essential for most life forms, including from bacteria to mammals. Nonetheless, iron deficiency is highly prevalent in developing countries, and oral administration of this metal is so far the most effective treatment for human beings. Notably, the excessive amount of unabsorbed iron leave unappreciated side effects at the highly interactive host–microbe interface of the human gastrointestinal tract. Recent advances in elucidating the molecular basis of interactions between iron and gut microbiota shed new light(s) on the health and pathogenesis of intestinal inflammatory diseases. We here aim to present the dynamic modulation of intestinal microbiota by iron availability, and conversely, the influence on dietary iron absorption in the gut. The central part of this review is intended to summarize our current understanding about the effects of luminal iron on host–microbe interactions in the context of human health and disease.
... This global health problem can be addressed by improving the dietary iron bioavailability, which can be altered by various components present in the food which can either enhance or inhibit iron absorption. Thus, when iron is present along with ascorbic acid, the absorption of iron has been shown to increase even in the presence of inhibitors [11]. ...
Article
The study sought to perform a non-destructive and in-situ quality evaluation of spinach plants using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in order to establish its suitability for different uses once harvested. Modified partial least square (MPLS) regression models using NIR spectra of intact spinach leaves were developed for nitrate, ascorbic acid and soluble solid contents. The residual predictive deviation (RPD) values were 1.29, 1.21 and 2.54 for nitrate, ascorbic acid and soluble solid contents, respectively. Later, this predictive capacity increased for nitrate content (RPDcv = 1.63) when new models were developed, taking into account the influence on the robustness of the model exercised by the simultaneity between the NIR and laboratory analyses. Subsequently, using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the ability of NIRS technology to classify spinach as a function of nitrate content was tested. PLS-DA yielded percentages of correctly classified samples ranging from 73.08-76.92% for the class 'spinach able to be used fresh' to 85.71-73.08% for the class 'preserved, deep-frozen or frozen spinach, both for unbalanced and balanced models respectively, based on NH signal associated with proteins. Overall, the data supports the capability of NIR spectroscopy to establish the final destination of the production of spinach analysed on the plant, as a screening tool for important safety and quality parameters.
... 28 Vitamin C also enhances iron absorption. 29,30 However, antinutrients phytate and polyphenols bind with minerals, inhibit nonheme-iron and other micronutrient absorption (such as zinc and calcium), and reduce bioavailability. 31 Traditional processing methods such as fermentation and soaking reduce phytate content and consumption with ascorbic acid in the food matrix enhance absorption. ...
Article
Background: Production of rice and wheat increased dramatically in India over the past decades, with reduced proportion of coarse cereals in the food supply. Objective: We assess impacts of changes in cereal consumption in India on intake of iron and other micronutrients and whether increased consumption of coarse cereals could help alleviate anemia prevalence. Methods: With consumption data from over 800 000 households, we calculate intake of iron and other micronutrients from 84 food items from 1983 to 2011. We use mixed-effect models to relate state-level anemia prevalence in women and children to micronutrient consumption and household characteristics. Results: Coarse cereals reduced from 23% to 6% of calories from cereals in rural households (10% to 3% in urban households) between 1983 and 2011, with wide variations across states. Loss of iron from coarse cereals was only partially compensated by increased iron from other cereals and food groups, with a 21% (rural) and 11% (urban) net loss of total iron intake. Models indicate negative association between iron from cereals and anemia prevalence in women. The benefit from increased iron from coarse cereals is partially offset by the adverse effects from antinutrients. For children, anemia was negatively associated with heme-iron consumption but not with iron from cereals. Conclusions: Loss of coarse cereals in the Indian diet has substantially reduced iron intake without compensation from other food groups, particularly in states where rice rather than wheat replaced coarse cereals. Increased consumption of coarse cereals could reduce anemia prevalence in Indian women along with other interventions.
... 15 Ascorbic acid is a strong reducing agent which reduces ferric to ferrous state, thereby increasing the iron absorption. 16 However, a 2-fold increase in iron absorption with only 1:1 molar ratio of iron: ascorbic acid in the present study could be due to the differences in the solubility of the fortificants, their interactions with the food matrix as In absolute terms, approximately 0.158 mg of iron was absorbed from the milk based drink. On consumption of this milk twice a day would provide 0.316 mg of iron /day, a proportion of 0.775 mg of total iron required for school children per day making up to ~40% of the daily requirement. ...
Article
Background and objectives: Nutritional anemia is a significant public health issue with 50-80% prevalence in Indian children. Fortification of food, specifically milk, with iron is a potential approach to increase dietary iron intake. Ferric pyrophosphate [Fe4(P2O7)3] is organoleptically neutral and is less soluble in acid medium and, further, has low bioavailability in milk. However, since ascorbic acid is a potent enhancer of iron absorption, the coadministration of ascorbic acid with Fe4(P2O7)3 might enhance the absorption of iron. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid on iron absorption from a Fe4(P2O7)3 and an ascorbic acid fortified milk beverage with respect to milk fortified with Fe4(P2O7)3 alone. Methods and study design: A double-blind, two-way crossover, randomized study was conducted in 25 mildly anemic children. The test group received milk fortified with beverage powder containing 7 mg isotopically labeled iron (57Fe/58Fe) as Fe4(P2O7)3, equimolar proportions of ascorbic acid and 200 mg of calcium whereas control group received milk fortified with energy, calcium and iron equivalent beverage powder. Fractional iron absorption was measured by erythrocyte incorporation of stable isotopes of iron (57Fe/58Fe) in both the groups. Results: The fractional iron absorption from the control drink was 0.80% (95% CI: 0.57, 1.12). Fortifying the milk with an equimolar amount of ascorbic acid increased the fractional iron absorption almost 2-fold to 1.58% (95% CI: 1.13, 2.22). Conclusions: The presence of ascorbic acid in an equimolar ratio with that of iron from Fe4(P2O7)3 salt in milk as a fortificant enhanced iron absorption when compared to milk fortified with only Fe4(P2O7)3.
... Iron absorption is an important factor in hemoglobin synthesis (Hoffbrand and Moss, 2011). Vitamin C in the soybean improves the iron absorption for hemoglobin synthesis during erythropoiesis and is able to prevent the formation of insoluble and unabsorbable iron (Hallberg et al., 1989). However, calcium which is also found in the soybean has a contrastive effect on hematopoiesis. ...
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High Fat-Fructose Diet (HFFD) triggers various metabolic problems including obesity. Obesity leads to a chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with the unbalanced production of hematopoietic cells. In the condition of obesity, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are more likely to differentiate into granulocytes rather than erythrocytes as a response to inflammation. Modified soybeans are well-known to have higher compounds than the raw soybeans. One of the soybean modification processes is known as elicitation. In this study, soybeans are exposed to stressors such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and light to increase the beneficial compounds inside. The elicited soybean extract (ESE) contains several anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant compounds which are useful for the hematopoietic system. This study is aimed at determining the effects of ESE on hematopoietic cells; erythrocytes lineage (TER-119⁺CD34⁺, TER-119⁺VLA-4⁺, TER-119⁺), and granulocytes lineage (Gr-1⁺). In this study, twenty-eight three-week old female Balb/C mice were used. They were fed HFFD for twenty weeks, and were given ESE oral treatment for four weeks. The level of hematopoietic cells was analyzed using flow cytometry. The present study found that HFFD decreased the level of TER-119⁺CD34⁺, TER-119⁺, and TER-119⁺VLA-4⁺ level, and increased the Gr-1⁺ level. ESE significantly increased the TER-119⁺CD34⁺, TER-119⁺ and TER-119⁺VLA-4⁺ level (p < 0.05) and decreased the Gr-1⁺ level (p < 0.05) in the HFFD-treatment group. These results show that the potential use of ESE as an anti-inflammatory agent can improve the hematopoietic system in the HFFD-diet mice model.
... Iron found in animal products (meat, poultry, and fish) might be absorbed better by the body (77). The absorption of iron increases by consuming the foods that contain vitamin C, such as lemon and tomato (78). Furthermore, drinking coffee and tea with meals should be avoided since it might lower iron absorption (79). ...
Article
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Introduction: Millions of Muslims across the world observe Islamic fasting during the holy month of Ramadan, as well as the other specific dates in the lunar calendar year. While fasting during this month, Muslims refrain from eating or drinking from dawn to dusk. Islamic fasting is similar to alternate day fasting (ADF) since it incorporates an average of 12 hours of fasting and 12 hours of feasting periods. This present review study is aimed to find out the common adverse health effects associated with Islamic fasting and the preventive measures to be followed to avoid them. Methods: The literature was reviewed through searching in databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and reference lists to identify the related articles. Results: Many health benefits have been attributed to Islamic fasting, including the reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, and asthma. On the other hand, some studies have mentioned a few health problems associated with Islamic fasting, such as headaches, heartburn, constipation, dehydration, decreased sleep quality, and anemia, which may occur in some fasting individuals during Ramadan. Conclusion: Islamic fasting could be beneficial for health if it is performed correctly. During Ramadan, fasting individuals are advised to adhere to a balanced diet that contains sufficient portions of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, pulses, meat, fish, milk, and dairy products. Moreover, fasting individuals must drink adequate fluids, such as water, fresh fruit juices, and soups, in order to prevent the possible adverse health effects associated with Islamic fasting.
... Inhibitors can bind with minerals in the gut preventing absorption. Although vegans and vegetarians tend to consume more iron than omnivores, their diet comprises largely of plant-based foods, containing more phytates, and therefore reduce the amount of iron available for the body [7] [8] . ...
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It is well documented that good nutrition during pregnancy is essential for the health of both the fetus and the pregnant woman. Various barriers may prevent pregnant women from consuming all the vital nutrients recommended; this can include poverty, access to food, nausea and vomiting. However, many women may unwittingly elude important nutrients by following restrictive diets, such as vegetarian or vegan diets, often believing that this is a healthy option. Fortification of food and supplementation of key micronutrients, particularly folic acid, vitamin D and iron can help to ensure optimal nutritional status in pregnant women, particularly where diets may be lacking. Globally, Governments and health organisations have issued recommendations and/or started schemes that aim to optimise micronutrient intake in pregnancy, mainly via targeted supplementation.
... In the intestinal tract ascorbic acid increases nontransferrin-mediated absorption of iron by reducing ferric iron (Fe 3+ ) to ferrous iron (Fe 2+ ) and also enhances transferrin-mediated uptake of iron via intracellular reduction of iron (Hallberg, Brune, & Rossander, 1989;Lane, Chikhani, Richardson, & Richardson, 2013a, 2013bLane & Richardson, 2014). Related to the above described biological functions, vitamin C has a role in energy-yielding metabolism, collagen synthesis, nonheme iron absorption, and normal functioning of the nervous system. ...
Article
Associations of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genes encoding for the ascorbic acid transporters SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 were reviewed. SNPs in both genes modify circulating ascorbic concentrations, the risks for various cancers, cardiovascular outcomes, inflammatory bowel disease, and ocular diseases. Disease associations are inconsistent and impact sizes are generally moderate. The impact sizes of SNPs on circulating ascorbic acid concentrations are moderate and reported changes did not alter the populations’ vitamin C status. Associations for the SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 genes are currently poorly validated, limiting their utility as diagnostic or predictive biomarkers.
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This book contains nutrition research written in an Innovative Communication way where the poem, script, conversation, and blog have been used to portray nutrition research.
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Diagnosis of obesity: beyond the BMI
Chapter
Nutraceuticals are medicinal foods that play a role in maintaining wellbeing, enhancing health, modulating immunity and thereby preventing as well as treating specific diseases. Thus, the field of nutraceutical can be envisioned as one of the missing blocks in the health benefit of an individual. Nutraceuticals are foods providing all the essential nutrients required for maintaining the optimal health. They are used as alternatives to modern medicines to promote quality of health, increase nutritive value of the diet, and prolong life expectancy. They have received considerable zest for their expected safety and therapeutic effects. Generally, consumers prefer food supplements to improve their health, as drugs show various side effects and adverse reactions. The principle reason for the growth of the nutraceutical market worldwide is current health status and lifestyle disorders. Nutraceutical market is seeing tidal growth mainly in the United States, India, and European countries.
Chapter
Iron in the diet exists in two forms: heme and nonheme. Heme iron is mainly obtained from animal sources, while nonheme iron is mostly from plant sources. Compared to nonheme iron, heme iron is well absorbed by the body and is not generally affected by the dietary factors. Dietary factors such as animal tissue (meat, fish, and poultry, MFP) and ascorbic acid (AA) are known to enhance, whereas phytate, polyphenols, and calcium are known to decrease nonheme iron absorption. Although the nature of the factor in MFP is not clear, enhancing effect was shown in many human studies. The positive influence of animal tissue has been attributed to unknown “factors” possibly proteins or other constituents that can prevent iron from polymerizing and maintain iron in a stable soluble form. AA is shown to overcome the inhibition even in the presence of phytate and polyphenols. Because of the reducing capability of ascorbic acid, it forms soluble chelates with iron, thereby preventing the formation of insoluble and unabsorbable iron compounds that may be formed with phytates and polyphenols. Phytate has been shown to inhibit nonheme iron absorption in a dose-dependent manner, but its content can be easily reduced by many simple food processing methods. The degree of inhibition by polyphenols depends on the type (food sources) and the amount of polyphenols in the diet. Although it is not that clear, the inhibition of iron absorption by calcium depends on the source of calcium (supplement vs dietary calcium) and the composition of the meal. The effect of all of the dietary factors is clear from single meal human studies, but magnitude of effect was diminished in the context of mixed diets that contained various enhancers and inhibitors. However, it is difficult to conduct those kinds of studies in humans.
Article
Cooking at home has experienced a decline in many countries since the mid-20th century. As rates of obesity have increased, there has been an emphasis on more frequent home cooking, including its incorporation into several food-based dietary guidelines around the world as a strategy to improve dietary quality. With the recent trend towards the adoption of diets richer in plant-based foods, many consumers cooking at home may now be cooking plant foods such as vegetables, potatoes and pulses more often. It is, therefore, timely to explore the impact that different home cooking methods have on the range of nutrients (e.g. vitamin C and folate) and bioactive phytochemicals (e.g. carotenoids and polyphenols) that such plant foods provide, and this paper will explore this and whether advice can be tailored to minimise such losses. The impact of cooking on nutritional quality can be both desirable and/or undesirable and can vary according to the cooking method and the nutrient or phytochemical of interest. Cooking methods that expose plant foods to high temperatures and/or water for long periods of time (e.g. boiling) may be the most detrimental to nutrient content, whereas other cooking methods such as steaming or microwaving may help to retain nutrients, particularly those that are water-soluble. Dishes that use cooking liquids may retain nutrients that would have been lost through leaching. It may be helpful to provide the public with more information about better methods to prepare and cook plant foods to minimise any nutrient losses. However, for some nutrients/phytochemicals the insufficient and inconsistent research findings make clear messages around the optimal cooking method difficult, and factors such as bioaccessibility rather than just quantity may also be important to consider.
Article
The interaction of vitamins C, B12, and folic acid (B9) with human serum transferrin (HST) was studied. A static interaction mechanism for the binding of the vitamins with HST was revealed. The interaction takes place with small binding constants in the case of both vitamin C and B12, and a moderate constant in the case of folic acid. The driving forces of the interactions were: hydrophobic for vitamin B12, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces for vitamin C, and electrostatic forces for the folic acid. The microenvironments of its fluorescent amino acids, Trp and Tyr, were changed by all bound vitamins. The distances between HST and vitamins were determined, these data confirming the results obtained by fluorescence experiments. The denaturation temperature of HST was modified by the interactions with vitamins. Molecular docking simulation showed the best orientation of vitamins towards HST 3D structure and confirmed the fluorescence data.
Chapter
A healthy plant-based diet (PBD), which consists of mostly plant-derived foods and abstains from animal products, has been shown to be effective in managing risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and in reducing adverse CVD outcomes. PBDs have been shown to have beneficial effects in the prevention of coronary artery disease, hypertension, cerebrovascular accident, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and heart failure and may also reduce cardiovascular mortality. Potential mechanisms for these benefits include reduction in atherogenic lipid levels (LDL-C and non-HDL-C), presence of anti-atherogenic compounds such as polyphenols and fibers, and avoidance of pro-atherogenic compounds found in animal products. Structured PBD/lifestyle programs have been developed, and while each varies in composition, all programs attempt to provide comprehensive recommendations for implementing a PBD to reduce CVD risk. Further research is needed to better understand the full range of benefits, and potential limitations, of a PBD and related structured diet/lifestyle programs. In clinical practice, recommendations for a healthy PBD should align with preferences of the individual patient in order to maximize both quality of life and cardiovascular benefit.
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Vitamin C is a supplement used orally by several people globally. It may help in many other conditions, like sepsis, which is caused by an infection that leads to an imbalanced immune response involving pro (e.g., TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (e.g., IL-10, IL-4, IL-7) cytokines. Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant and acts against reactive oxygen species. At the same time, this vitamin influences cellular immune signaling, avoiding exacerbated transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Very high intravenous doses have already shown to be beneficial in septic patients. Some clinical trials are still running to evaluate the real impact of vitamin C in this condition. To the moment, the combination of low-dose corticosteroids, high-dose parenteral ascorbate, and thiamine seems to be the most effective supportive treatment that could help septic patients recover.
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The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of green apple juice against the harmful impact resulting from exposure to X-ray in adult male albino rats Rattus norvegicus aged (5-7) months, their weight (250-350)g. 40 male rats were used, they were divided randomly into four groups, 10 rats for each group, as follow: The first group was given standard forage and normal tap water and considered as a control, the second group was exposed to X-ray at about 76 Kv. (reduplicate) for a period of 3 days each 5 seconds, Third and fourth group were treated with green apple juice 2 and 4 ml/Kg. B.W. respectively by gavage tube, and after one hour of treatment, the rats were exposed to X-ray at about 76 Kv. (redupilcate) for a period of 3 days each 5 seconds, the last three groups were given a standard forage and tap water ad libitum. The results showed that X-ray exposure caused a significant decrease at (P≤ 0.05) in the haeamoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, total red blood cells count, the concentration of each of total protein, albumin, globulin and uric acid, but a significant increase in total white blood cells count, platelets count, the concentration of urea, creatinine and peroxy nitrate radical in blood of male reats exposed compared with control group (was not exposed). The results also showed a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) concentration which has a role as antioxidant, with a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in blood serum of exposed rats as compared with control group, the a above changes indicate the ability of X-ray to induce oxidative stress in male rats. The results also showed that treating rats with green apple juice 2 and 4 ml/ Kg. B.W. and then exposed them to X-ray causes a significant increase in some of the decreased hematological and biochemical parameters and vice versa, the results also showed that there was a significant increase in GSH concentration a compained with a significant decrease in MDA concentration as compared with the group exposed to X-ray only. From this study we concluded that the green apple juice has a role protecting against reactive oxygen species that are produced as a result of exposure to radiation through body's cells, which happened as a result of increasing the production of antioxidants and inhibit free radicals in the blood. So we concluded that the green apple juice had the ability to protect against X-ray side effects Copy Right, IJAR, 2014,. All rights reserved.
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Fe(II) plays critical roles in a variety of biologically important processes in living systems, and monitoring labile Fe(II) level could contribute to the in-depth study of its biological roles. Herein, we present a live cell-specific probe (RAcy) for the detection of labile Fe(II) ion in living cells and animals. The probe RAcy was equipped with an acetate group as a switch, which could selectively activate the capacity of the probe to detect Fe(II) in live cells instead of dead cells. The probe RAcy could provide a highly sensitive and selective response to Fe(II) ion in the presence of esterase in live cells. Imaging experiments showed that RAcy could be used as live cell-specific probe for the imaging of labile Fe(II) ion in live cells and animals, and also could be applied to the evaluation of esterase activity in live animals.
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Within the past quarter century, researchers have taken steps to understand pathophysiological stable isotope fractionation within mammalian tissues more accurately. Biomedically, researchers have demonstrated that pulmonary disease, smoking, organ failure, anemia, anorexia, and changes in metabolic rate all affect the isotopic composition of human tissues and tissue by-products. This research strongly suggests that a relationship exists between human (patho)physiology and stable isotope biochemistry. Despite the results achieved by these studies, only a small minority of bioarchaeologists have attempted to elucidate these mechanisms in human skeletal and dental tissues. This research presents the results of a pilot study aimed at examining the degree to which bone collagen δ13C and δ15N values and enamel apatite δ18O and δ13C values vary between individuals with and without lesions indicative of a chronic anemia. Consistent with previous research, our results indicate that the enamel apatite of suspected anemics have significantly lower δ18O values relative to their lesion-free counterparts (U = 4.00, p = 0.05); however, this result was limited to the first permanent molar. Due to the small sample size and the lack of information concerning breast-feeding and weaning practices in the region during this time, it is not possible to link this variation definitively to the pathophysiology of anemia and/or its sequelae. There was no significant variation in bone collagen δ13C or δ15N values between anemic and lesion-free juveniles (δ13C: U = 26.00, p = 0.38; δ15N: U = 33.00, p = 0.85) or between anemic and lesion-free adults (δ15N: U = 2.70, p = 0.26; δ13C: U = 4.57, p = 0.10). A number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors may have contributed to the lack of variation. While sample sizes are small, the data indicate that future analysis is warranted
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The role of dietary factors is an important and controversial topic in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Despite the preponderance of consumer products utilizing oral micronutrients supplementation for relief AD symptoms, less attention has been paid on the utility of topical micronutrients, specifically for individuals with AD. We review evidence on topical formulations of vitamins (A, B, C, D, and E) and trace minerals (magnesium, manganese, zinc, and iodine) for treatment of AD. While topical B, C, and E formulations appear to provide some benefit to AD individuals, topical vitamin A has no utility, and topical vitamin D may exacerbate symptoms. Magnesium, zinc, and iodine all appear to improve AD through anti‐inflammatory and anti‐microbial effects, though future studies must evaluate their use as monotherapy. The exposition of the effects that topical micronutrients have on AD offers an adjuvant treatment modality for this common inflammatory dermatosis.
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