Article

Human decidua is a major source of renin

Department of Medicine, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles 90033.
Journal of Clinical Investigation (Impact Factor: 13.22). 07/1989; 83(6):2085-92. DOI: 10.1172/JCI114121
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Plasma prorenin levels are elevated in normal pregnant women. Current evidence suggests renin production by tissues of the uteroplacental unit contribute to this elevation. The purpose of this investigation was to define the source of renin biosynthesis within the human uteroplacental unit and to characterize the renin produced. RNA extraction and Northern blot analysis consistently demonstrated renin mRNA expression in uterine lining both in the pregnant (decidua) and nonpregnant states (endometrium) and in fetal chorion laeve, which is inseparable from the decidua. In contrast, renin mRNA expression was not detected in basal plate and intertwin chorion (which is separate from decidua), amnion, myometrium, or placental villi. The total renin content in decidual homogenates was two- to threefold greater than in endometrial homogenates, and cultured human decidual cells produced significantly more total renin than cultured human endometrial cells, suggesting that pregnancy enhanced renin production by the cells lining the uterus. Immunoblot analysis and [3H]leucine incorporation identified 47,000-mol wt prorenin as the major form of renin produced by cultured human decidual cells. These studies indicate that maternal decidua is the major source of prorenin in the uteroplacental unit.

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    • "In late gestation human pregnancy, the human decidua (maternal lining of the uterus) is the major site of prorenin production (Shaw et al. 1989; Pringle et al. 2011b). Next to the kidney, the highest levels of prorenin are found in human amniotic fluid (Skinner et al. 1968; Itskovitz et al. 1992), yet as we have found, mRNA expression of prorenin in amnion and chorion is very low (Pringle et al. 2011b). "
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    ABSTRACT: Very high concentrations of prorenin protein occur in human amniotic fluid and amnion. The source of amniotic fluid prorenin is likely the decidua, as it has the highest levels of prorenin mRNA (REN). Conversely, REN mRNA levels in amnion and chorion are very low. This study aimed to investigate whether decidual prorenin could cross the amnion and accumulate in amniotic fluid. Late gestation amnion was incubated for 24 h in the presence or absence of recombinant human (rh)prorenin. REN mRNA abundance was determined by qPCR and prorenin protein levels in the supernatant and tissue were measured by an ELISA. Prior to incubation only 3/11 amnion samples had REN mRNA but measurable levels of prorenin protein were found (1.4 ng/mg total protein). After 24 h incubation, REN mRNA was found in all explants and levels were significantly increased (P = 0.03) but prorenin protein levels in amnion were unchanged. Prorenin protein levels in the supernatant were, however, increased (P = 0.048). Incubation with (rh)prorenin significantly increased amnion tissue prorenin levels (2.8 ng/mg total protein, P = 0.001); REN mRNA levels were unchanged. Therefore, amnion explants express small amounts of REN and secrete prorenin protein. Prorenin is also taken up by amnion. We postulate that the amniotic renin angiotensin system (RAS) alters pregnancy outcome through effects on gestation length and amniotic fluid volume. Since human amnion can take up and secrete prorenin protein, the activity of both amnion and amniotic fluid RASs can be amplified by prorenin produced by other intrauterine tissues. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    • "It has been confirmed that the components of RAS are not unique to the kidney but are synthesized in many tissues, among which one of the major local RAS during pregnancy is in the uteroplacental unit (placenta also named fetal origin and decidua named maternal origin) (Shah 2006). Since the first-time pro-renin, AGT, ACE, ANG II and ANG I, AT1R were identified in fetal placental tissues (Li et al. 1998), the expression of renin, AGT, ACE, and AT1R has been observed in the first trimester human deciduas (Shaw et al. 1989), and more recent studies via human third trimester decidual cells also have demonstrated the presence of AGT and renin (Li et al. 2000). Other studies of the decidual spiral arteries have indicated the expression of AGT, renin, ACE, and AT1R (Morgan et al. 1998a,b). "
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    ABSTRACT: The compensatory alterations in rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone System (RAAS) contribute to the salt-water-balance and sufficient placental perfusion for the subsequent well-being of the mother and fetus during normal pregnancy and is characterized by an increase in almost all of the components of RAAS. Preeclampsia, however, breaks homeostasis and leads to a disturbance of this delicate equilibrium in RAAS both for circulation and the uteroplacental unit. Despite being a major cause for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remains elusive, where RAAS has been long considered to be involved. Epidemiological studies have indicated that preeclampsia is a multifactorial disease with a strong familiar predisposition regardless of variations in ethnic, socioeconomic and geographic features. The heritable allelic variations, especially the genetic polymorphisms in RAAS, could be the foundation for the genetics of preeclampsia and hence are related to the development of preeclampsia. Furthermore, at a posttranscriptional level, microRNA (miRNA) can interacts with the targeted site within the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of RAAS gene, and thereby might participate in the regulation of RAAS and pathology of preeclampsia. In this review, we discuss the recent achievements of genetic polymorphisms, as well as the interactions between maternal and fetal genotypes, and miRNA posttranscriptional regulation associated with RAAS in preeclampsia, . The results are controversial but utterly inspiring and attractive in terms of potential prognostic significance. Although many studies suggest positive associations with genetic mutation and increased risk for preeclampsia, more meticulously designed larger-scale investigations are needed to avoid the interference from different variations.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
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    • "In human utero-placental tissues the traditional vasoconstrictor components of the RAS are ubiquitous [11-16]. As to vasodilator peptides and receptors of the RAS, Broughton-Pipkin and her group have recently shown higher early expression of the receptor of Ang IV in the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous trophoblast [12]; in addition, our laboratories have shown that Ang-(1–7) and ACE2 are expressed in multiple sites of the utero-placental interface [17,18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background In humans, trophoblast invasion, vascular remodeling and placental development are critical to determine the fate of pregnancy. Since guinea-pigs (GP) and humans share common pregnancy features including extensive trophoblast invasion, transformation of the uterine spiral arteries and a haemomonochorial placenta, the GP animal model was deemed suitable to extend our knowledge on the spatio-temporal immunoreactive expression of the vasodilator arpeptide of the renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-(1–7) [Ang-(1–7)] and its main generating enzyme, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Methods Utero-placental units were collected in days 15, 20, 40 and 60 of a 64–67 day long pregnancy in 25 Pirbright GP. Ang-(1–7) and ACE2 expression in utero-placental units were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results Ang-(1–7) and ACE2 were detected in the endothelium and syncytiotrophoblast of the labyrinthine placenta, interlobium, subplacenta, giant cells, syncytial sprouts, syncytial streamers, and myometrium throughout pregnancy. In late pregnancy, perivascular or intramural trophoblasts in spiral and mesometrial arteries expressed both factors. Immunoreactive Ang-(1–7) and ACE2 were present in decidua and in the vascular smooth muscle of spiral, myometrial and mesometrial arteries, which also express kallikrein (Kal), the bradykinin receptor 2 (B2R), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its type 2 receptor (KDR), but no endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). In addition, the signal of Ang-(1–7) and ACE2 was especially remarkable in giant cells, which also show Kal, B2R. eNOS, VEGF and KDR. Conclusions The spatio-temporal expression of Ang-(1–7) and ACE2 in GP, similar to that of humans, supports a relevant evolutionary conserved function of Ang-(1–7) and ACE2 in decidualization, trophoblast invasion, vascular remodeling and placental flow regulation, as well as the validity of the GP model to understand the local adaptations of pregnancy. It also integrates Ang-(1–7) to the utero-placental vasodilatory network. However, its antiangiogenic effect may counterbalance the proangiogenic activity of some of the other vasodilator components.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology
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