National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. General effectiveness of treatments

Article (PDF Available)inArchives of General Psychiatry 46(11):971-82; discussion 983 · December 1989with 20,184 Reads 
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Abstract
We investigated the effectiveness of two brief psychotherapies, interpersonal psychotherapy and cognitive behavior therapy, for the treatment of outpatients with major depression disorder diagnosed by Research Diagnostic Criteria. Two hundred fifty patients were randomly assigned to one of four 16-week treatment conditions: interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, imipramine hydrochloride plus clinical management (as a standard reference treatment), and placebo plus clinical management. Patients in all treatments showed significant reduction in depressive symptoms and improvement in functioning over the course of treatment. There was a consistent ordering of treatments at termination, with imipramine plus clinical management generally doing best, placebo plus clinical management worst, and the two psychotherapies in between but generally closer to imipramine plus clinical management. In analyses carried out on the total samples without regard to initial severity of illness (the primary analyses), there was no evidence of greater effectiveness of one of the psychotherapies as compared with the other and no evidence that either of the psychotherapies was significantly less effective than the standard reference treatment, imipramine plus clinical management. Comparing each of the psychotherapies with the placebo plus clinical management condition, there was limited evidence of the specific effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy and none for cognitive behavior therapy. Superior recovery rates were found for both interpersonal psychotherapy and imipramine plus clinical management, as compared with placebo plus clinical management. On mean scores, however, there were few significant differences in effectiveness among the four treatments in the primary analyses. Secondary analyses, in which patients were dichotomized on initial level of severity of depressive symptoms and impairment of functioning, helped to explain the relative lack of significant findings in the primary analyses. Significant differences among treatments were present only for the subgroup of patients who were more severely depressed and functionally impaired; here, there was some evidence of the effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy with these patients and strong evidence of the effectiveness of imipramine plus clinical management. In contrast, there were no significant differences among treatments, including placebo plus clinical management, for the less severely depressed and functionally impaired patients.
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  • ... We first examined the role of baseline depression severity, a muchdiscussed factor of differential treatment effect, which has shown contradictory results in previous randomized comparisons of CT and IPT. One study (17) concluded that patients with severe depression (BDI-II .29) were better off with IPT, whereas another study (18) found that CT was more beneficial for this subgroup. ...
    Article
    Objective: Although the effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive therapy (CT) for major depression has been established, little is known about how and for whom they work and how they compare in the long term. The latter is especially relevant for IPT because research on its long-term effects has been limited. This overview paper summarizes findings from a Dutch randomized controlled trial on the effects and mechanisms of change of IPT versus CT for major depression. Methods: Adult outpatients with depression (N=182) were randomly assigned to CT (N=76), IPT (N=75), or a 2-month waitlist control group followed by patient's treatment of choice (N=31). The primary outcome was depression severity. Other outcomes were quality of life, social and general psychological functioning, and scores on various mechanism measures. Interventions were compared at the end of treatment and up to 17 months follow-up. Results: On average, IPT and CT were both superior to waitlist, and their outcomes did not differ significantly from one another. However, the pathway through which change occurred appeared to differ. For a majority of participants, one of the interventions was predicted to be more beneficial than the other. No support for the theoretical models of change was found. Conclusions: Outcomes of IPT and CT did not appear to differ significantly. IPT may have an enduring effect not different from that of CT. The field would benefit from further refinement of study methods to disentangle mechanisms of change and from advances in the field of personalized medicine (i.e., person-specific analyses and treatment selection methods).
  • ... The concept of personal recovery informs the goals of treatment, rehabilitation, and support services for individuals with psychiatric illness (1)(2)(3). It also reflects a historic shift from a focus on symptom reduction to wider considerations of individual well-being consonant with the World Health Organization's landmark definition of health (4). Overemphasis on symptom reduction risks neglecting dimensions of personal recovery such as hope, empowerment, and life satisfaction (3, 5). ...
    Article
    Objective: Personal recovery measures have been examined among treatment-seeking individuals enrolled in high-quality care. The authors examined whether utilization of mental health services as typically delivered is associated with personal recovery among adults with clinically significant psychological distress. Methods: The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-6) measured respondents' (N=1,954) psychological distress level. The authors also assessed five dimensions of personal recovery-hope, life satisfaction, empowerment, connectedness, and internalized stigma. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to examine relationships between personal recovery and treatment, self-reported treatment completion, provider type, and adequacy of care, adjusting for covariates including K-6 score. Results: Participants who received care >12 months prior to the survey reported lower levels of hope (95% confidence interval [CI]=-0.36, -0.06, p<0.01), empowerment (95% CI=-0.26, -0.02, p<0.05), and connectedness (95% CI=-0.37, -0.06, p<0.01) than those who had not received treatment. Those who received care in the past 12 months reported lower levels of hope (95% CI=-0.47, -0.14, p<0.001) and life satisfaction (95% CI=-0.42, -0.05, p<0.01). However, treatment completion was associated with higher levels of empowerment (95% CI=0.02, 0.56, p<0.05) and hope (95% CI=0.04, 0.62, p<0.05) and lower levels of stigma (95% CI=-1.21, -0.21, p<0.01) compared with noncompletion. Differences according to provider type and adequacy of care were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Utilization of mental health services was associated with lower levels of personal recovery, which may indicate that care-as typically utilized and received-does not promote personal recovery. Longitudinal research is needed to determine causal relationships underlying these associations.
  • ... Seventeen studies remained after we applied these exclusion criteria, ten [39][40][41][42][43][44][45][60][61][62] and seven [63][64][65][66][67][68][69] of which reported remission and dropout rates for FCBT and ICBT, respectively (Table 1). We subsequently pooled these using random effects meta-regression as proposed by DerSimonian and Laird [70]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Background and Objective Unipolar depression is the most common form of depression and demand for treatment, such as psychotherapy, is high. However, waiting times for psychotherapy often considerably exceed their recommended maximum. As a potentially less costly alternative treatment, internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) might help reduce waiting times. We therefore analyzed the cost–utility of ICBT compared to face-to-face CBT (FCBT) as an active control treatment, taking differences in waiting time into account.Methods We constructed a Markov model to simulate costs and health outcomes measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for ICBT and FCBT in Germany. We modeled a time horizon of 3 years using six states (remission, depressed, spontaneous remission, undergoing treatment, treatment finished, death). The societal perspective was adopted. We obtained parameters for transition probabilities, depression-specific QoL, and cost data from the literature. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Within a scenario analysis, we simulated different time-to-treatment combinations. Half-cycle correction was applied.ResultsIn our simulation, ICBT generated 0.260 QALYs and saved €2536 per patient compared to FCBT. Our deterministic sensitivity analysis suggests that the base-case results were largely unaffected by parameter uncertainty and are therefore robust. Our probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggests that ICBT is highly likely to be more effective (91.5%), less costly (76.0%), and the dominant strategy (69.7%) compared to FCBT. The scenario analysis revealed that the base-case results are robust to variations in time-to-treatment differences.ConclusionICBT has a strong potential to balance demand and supply of CBT in unipolar depression by reducing therapist time per patient. It is highly likely to generate more QALYs and reduce health care expenditure. In addition, ICBT may have further positive external effects, such as freeing up capacities for the most severely depressed patients.
  • ... 19 Uzun dönemde alevlenmeler yönünden değerlendirildiğinde; KİPT'in unipolar majör depresyon dönemlerini etkili bir şekilde tedavi etmesinin yanısıra yineleyen nöbetleri de geciktirdiği ve önlediği gösterilmiştir. [20][21][22][23][24] Bununla birlikte, 70 yaş üzeri hastalarda ve distimik bozukluğu olan hastalarda depresyonun akut ve idame tedavisinde sadece KİPT tedavisine göre antidepresan tedavi ile daha iyi sonuçlar alındığı bildirilmiştir. [24][25][26][27] Cuijpers ve ark.nın 2011 tarihli meta-analizinde, 4 randomize idame çalışması değerlendirilmiş KİPT+ plasebo alan hastalarda sadece plasebo alanlara göre; KİPT ve farmakoterapi kombinasyonu alanlarda sadece farmakoterapi alanlara göre yinelemenin daha az oranda görüldüğü bildirilmiştir. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    ABS TRACT Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) was developed in the 1970s as a treatment for depression and for many years was used mainly by investigators in clinical trials. It’s demonstrated efficacyin multiple studies eventually led clinicians to proposeIPT as a treatment for different types of depressed patients, including pregnant, postpartum, and primary care patients. Clinical guidelines endorse IPT monotherapy for treatment of mild to moderate depression. In addition, IPT is used to treat other psychiatric illnesses, including bipolar disorder, eating disorders, anxiety disorders and postraumatic stress disorder. In this review, we will summarize the efficacy of IPT in an evidencebased manner
  • ... Authors of four studies were unreachable and authors of another four studies no longer had access to the data. Of the remaining sixteen studies, fourteen [379][380][381][382][383][384][385][386][387][388][389][390][391][392] used the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) to assess depressive symptoms and were included in the current analyses (responsible for 1,472 patients). Three studies [393][394][395] were added (responsible for 384 patients) as an update of the dataset. ...
    Thesis
    Many people with a depression or anxiety disorder also experience somatic symptoms like back ache or dizziness. Although it is well-known that these symptoms mutually influence each other and can respond to the same therapies, only little is known about the roles of individual symptoms in this relation. This is the result of a tendency to focus on groups of symptoms in research: feeling down is in this way considered to be interchangeable with anxiety and insomnia. However, these symptoms have highly differential characteristics. This thesis aims to unravel the roles of differential (types of) symptoms in the relation between depressive, anxiety and somatic symptomatology. First, it focuses on the types and strengths of cross-sectional and longitidinal associations between these symptoms in five epidemiological studies. Second, the treatment of the symptoms is investigated in five clinical studies, considering consultations for functional somatic symptoms in primary care and responses of individual symptoms to treatment with antidepressants and psychotherapy in patients with a depressive disorder.
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    Background: Telemedicine is a strategy for overcoming barriers to access evidence-based psychotherapy. Digital modalities that operate outside session-based treatment formats, such as ongoing two-way messaging, may further address these challenges. However, no study to date has established suitability criteria for this medium. Methods: A large outpatient sample (n = 10,718) engaged in daily messaging with licensed clinicians from a telemedicine provider. Patients consisted of individuals from urban and rural settings in all 50 states of the US, who signed up to the telemedicine provider. Using a longitudinal design, symptoms changes were observed during a 12 week treatment course. Symptoms were assessed from baseline every three weeks using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression, and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) for anxiety. Demographics and engagement metrics, such as word count for both patients and therapists, were also assessed. Growth mixture modeling was used to tease apart symptoms trajectories, and identify predictors of treatment response. Results: Two subpopulations had GAD-7 and PHQ-9 remission outcomes (Recovery and Acute Recovery, 30.7% of patients), while two others showed amelioration of symptoms (Depression and Anxiety Improvement, 36.9% of patients). Two subpopulations experienced no changes in symptoms (Chronic and Elevated Chronic, 32.4% of patients). Higher use of written communication, patient characteristics, and engagement metrics reliably distinguished patients with the greatest level of remission (Recovery and Acute Recovery groups). Conclusions: Remission of depression and anxiety symptoms was observed during delivery of psychotherapy through messaging. Improvement rates were consistent with face-to-face therapy, suggesting the suitability of two-way messaging psychotherapy delivery. Characteristics of improving patients were identified and could be used for treatment recommendation. These findings suggest the opportunity for further research, to directly compare messaging delivery with a control group of treatment as usual. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT03699488, Retrospectively Registered October 8, 2018.
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    Background: Antidepressant medication (ADM) and psychotherapy are effective treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD). It is unclear, however, if treatments differ in their effectiveness at the symptom level and whether symptom information can be utilised to inform treatment allocation. The present study synthesises comparative effectiveness information from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of ADM versus psychotherapy for MDD at the symptom level and develops and tests the Symptom-Oriented Therapy (SOrT) metric for precision treatment allocation. Methods: First, we conducted systematic review and meta-analyses of RCTs comparing ADM and psychotherapy at the individual symptom level. We searched PubMed Medline, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, a database specific for psychotherapy RCTs, and looked for unpublished RCTs. Random-effects meta-analyses were applied on sum-scores and for individual symptoms for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) measures. Second, we computed the SOrT metric, which combines meta-analytic effect sizes with patients' symptom profiles. The SOrT metric was evaluated using data from the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) study (n = 407) and the Emory Predictors of Remission in Depression to Individual and Combined Treatments (PReDICT) study (n = 234). Results: The systematic review identified 38 RCTs for qualitative inclusion, 27 and 19 for quantitative inclusion at the sum-score level, and 9 and 4 for quantitative inclusion on individual symptom level for the HAM-D and BDI, respectively. Neither meta-analytic strategy revealed significant differences in the effectiveness of ADM and psychotherapy across the two depression measures. The SOrT metric did not show meaningful associations with other clinical variables in the MARS sample, and there was no indication of utility of the metric for better treatment allocation from PReDICT data. Conclusions: This registered report showed no differences of ADM and psychotherapy for the treatment of MDD at sum-score and symptom levels. Symptom-based metrics such as the proposed SOrT metric do not inform allocation to these treatments, but predictive value of symptom information requires further testing for other treatment comparisons.
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    No network meta‐analysis has examined the relative effects of psychotherapies, pharmacotherapies and their combination in the treatment of adult depression, while this is a very important clinical issue. We conducted systematic searches in bibliographical databases to identify randomized trials in which a psychotherapy and a pharmacotherapy for the acute or long‐term treatment of depression were compared with each other, or in which the combination of a psychotherapy and a pharmacotherapy was compared with either one alone. The main outcome was treatment response (50% improvement between baseline and endpoint). Remission and acceptability (defined as study drop‐out for any reason) were also examined. Possible moderators that were assessed included chronic and treatment‐resistant depression and baseline severity of depression. Data were pooled as relative risk (RR) using a random‐effects model. A total of 101 studies with 11,910 patients were included. Depression in most studies was moderate to severe. In the network meta‐analysis, combined treatment was more effective than psychotherapy alone (RR=1.27; 95% CI: 1.14‐1.39) and pharmacotherapy alone (RR=1.25; 95% CI: 1.14‐1.37) in achieving response at the end of treatment. No significant difference was found between psychotherapy alone and pharmacotherapy alone (RR=0.99; 95% CI: 0.92‐1.08). Similar results were found for remission. Combined treatment (RR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.05‐1.45) and psychotherapy alone (RR=1.17; 95% CI: 1.02‐1.32) were more acceptable than pharmacotherapy. Results were similar for chronic and treatment‐resistant depression. The combination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy seems to be the best choice for patients with moderate depression. More research is needed on long‐term effects of treatments (including cost‐effectiveness), on the impact of specific pharmacological and non‐pharmacological approaches, and on the effects in specific populations of patients.