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Nursery Rhymes, Phonological Skills and Reading

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Nursery rhymes are an almost universal part of young English-speaking children's lives. We have already established that there are strong links between children's early knowledge of nursery rhymes at 3;3 and their developing phonological skills over the next year and a quarter. Since such skills are known to be related to children's success in learning to read, this result suggests the hypothesis that acquaintance with nursery rhymes might also affect children's reading. We now report longitudinal data from a group of 64 children from the age of 3;4 to 6;3 which support this hypothesis. There is a strong relation between early knowledge of nursery rhymes and success in reading and spelling over the next three years even after differences in social background, I.Q and the children's phonological skills at the start of the project are taken into account. This raises the question of how nursery rhymes have such an effect. Our answer is that knowledge of nursery rhymes enhances children's phonological sensitivity which in turn helps them to learn to read. This paper presents further analyses which support the idea of this path from nursery rhymes to reading. Nursery rhymes are related to the child's subsequent sensitivity to rhyme and phonemes. Moreover the connection between knowledge of nursery rhymes and reading and spelling ability disappears when controls are made for differences in these subsequent phonological skills.
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... The attainment of proficiency in reading and writing, a critical gateway to literacy and a fuller participation in society, is a major challenge to schoolchildren in all languages Lee & Jonson-Reid, 2016;Saiegh-Haddad, 2012;Share & Bar-On, 2018;Torgesen, 2002;Vellutino et al., 2007). Early intense and systematic exposure to the oral language, prior to school, is often found beneficial and can facilitate the acquisition of reading and writing abilities in early school years (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008;Bryant et al., 1989;Fricke et al., 2013;Kaiser & Roberts, 2011;Maclean et al., 1987;Sénéchal & LeFevre, 2002;Snow et al., 1998;Storch & Whitehurst, 2002;Vellutino et al., 2007). ...
... Indeed, the level of familiarity with nursery rhymes and their production was positively related to early reading achievements (Maclean, et al., 1987). Bryant et al. (1989) reported longitudinal data, covering a three-year period, on a small group of prekindergarteners, showing a strong correlation between early knowledge of nursery rhymes and success in reading and spelling in first grade (Bryant et al., 1989). ...
... Indeed, the level of familiarity with nursery rhymes and their production was positively related to early reading achievements (Maclean, et al., 1987). Bryant et al. (1989) reported longitudinal data, covering a three-year period, on a small group of prekindergarteners, showing a strong correlation between early knowledge of nursery rhymes and success in reading and spelling in first grade (Bryant et al., 1989). ...
Article
Oral language proficiency in kindergarten can facilitate the acquisition of reading and writing. However, in diglossic languages, like Arabic, the large gap between the spoken and the formal, modern standard (MSA) varieties of the language may restrict the benefits of oral language proficiency to subsequent literacy skills. Here, we tested, in a randomized controlled study, whether an intervention program, implemented in kindergarten, that familiarized the children with rhymes presented in MSA through recitation, facilitated reading and spelling in first grade. We also tested whether engaging the children in recitation affords an advantage over repeated listening by itself and whether rhymes directly referring to the alphabet impart additional advantages. The children were assigned to one of four intervention conditions (10 sessions, 2 months) wherein they either recited or repeatedly listened to nursery rhymes that were either related or unrelated to the alphabet, or engaged in nonlinguistic activities (control). A year later, all intervention groups read faster compared to a control group (nonlinguistic activity). The two recitation groups gained in reading accuracy, reading efficiency, and spelling; spelling gains were found also in children who only listened to alphabet-related rhymes. The reciting groups were superior to the listening groups in all study measures (reading and spelling). The results suggest long-term contributions from structured interventions based on oral rhyme repetition, in kindergarten, to reading and spelling in first grade. Vocal recitations in kindergarten can benefit the mastering of literacy skills even in a language that differs from the one spoken in the child's home. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Rhyme awareness enables children to reflect on the phonological structure of words, which in turn supports their reading and spelling. The ability to recognize rhyming words develops during preschool years (Vloedgraven & Verhoeven, 2007) and previous research considered oral language play during early childhood as an informal contributor to 1 the early precursors of rhyme awareness (Bryant, Bradley, MacLean, & Crossland, 1989;Dunst, Meter, & Hamby, 2011;MacLean, Bryant, & Bradley, 1987). In the current dissertation, we apply this hypothesis to even younger children, namely preverbal infants. ...
... Child songs and nursery rhymes might be the earliest contexts in which infants encounter rhymes in their linguistic input. A small number of studies has even shown that early knowledge of nursery rhymes is directly linked to later success in reading and spelling (Bryant et al., 1989;MacLean et al., 1987). ...
... Higher levels of contextual parental educational explained a larger portion of the variance in phonological awareness as compared to the other emergent literacy. According to Bryant et al. (1989), the mothers' educational level was the most powerful index of the possible effects of the children's home environment on phonological awareness and learning to read and spell. The higher effect of SES on phonological awareness is expected also in consideration of a more general spread of targeted activities, such as nursery rhymes, which in turn positively influences phonological awareness, preparing children for reading and spelling acquisition. ...
... Niveles más elevados de educación parental contextual explicaban una cantidad mayor de la varianza en conciencia fonológica en comparación con el resto de las habilidades de alfabetización emergente. Según Bryant et al. (1989), el nivel de estudios de la madre era el indicador más potente de los posibles efectos del entorno familiar del niño en la conciencia fonológica y el aprendizaje de la lectura y la escritura. También se espera un mayor efecto del NSE sobre la conciencia fonológica debido a la generalización de las actividades objeto de estudio, como las canciones infantiles, que a su vez influyen de forma positiva en la conciencia fonológica y preparan al niño para la adquisición de la lectura y la escritura. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mixed-SES kindergartens and emergent literacy in Italian children. The independent contributions of parents’ occupational (SES-PO) and educational level (SES-PE) on emergent literacy were separately analysed. Three emergent literacy skills were assessed in 189 children twice, at the beginning and the end of the last year of kindergarten. Firstly, repeated-measures MANCOVA has shown that only SES-PE was significantly associated with the increase of all emergent literacy skills over the school year. Secondly, robust-methods ANOVA has shown what type of mix of family-PE is optimal at a school level for children to achieve significant improvements after one year of kindergarten. Creating mixed-SES learning environments may improve children’s emergent literacy skills. Policymakers should specifically target parental educational levels, rather than occupational levels, when addressing the issue of SES in schools.
... 9 p. 495 I do not know the full extent to which nursery rhymes are used in the home, but in children's centers and nurseries many traditional rhymes are sung along with newer more recent songs, and there are also many CDs of nursery rhymes which are played in crèches and nurseries. Knowledge of nursery rhymes enhances children's phonological sensitivity, which in turn helps them to learn to read (Bryant et al. 1989). Whether or not parents, sta , and children know or understand the origins of English nursery rhymes, when we sing them we are still providing a message concerning national allegiance to children. ...
Article
This chapter considers children’s music-making in London, UK, and in rural West Bengal, India. While learning styles within these communities differ considerably, folk music is the basis of learning in both, with nursery rhymes and children’s songs considered within this category of “folk” music. The role of parents in both communities is a crucial factor in the learning process. In the Bengali context, parents often continue to teach music to their child into adulthood. The chapter considers the process of nurturing in early years, the role of nursery rhymes, teaching styles, introducing children to their cultural roots and, above all, the reactions of children themselves to these processes. The narrative also includes the influences of colonialism on children’s songs past and present, both in the UK and India, and in other previously colonized countries. The impact of modernization in India on the development of folk music is also considered.
... Kajian Kanozia dan Jindal, (2019) misalnya telah membuktikan bahawa video muzik kanak-kanak di saluran Youtube amat digemari oleh kebanyakan kanak-kanak kerana keberkesanannya dalam proses perkembangan minda dan psikomotor mereka. Hal ini kerana, irama mempunyai kaitan positif jangka panjang dengan perkembangan kanak-kanak kerana menerusi kemahiran berirama kesannya dapat meningkatkan sensitiviti keupayaan fonologi dan kebolehan membaca kanak-kanak dengan cepat (Bryant et al., 1989;Dowker & Pinto, 1993;Dunst & Hamby, 2017). Sebagai contoh siri muzik video Youtube 'Nursery Rhymes' yang ditayangkan di Youtube didapati mampu meningkatkan keupayaan fonologi dalam kalangan kanak-kanak pada usia 2 hingga 6 tahun (Harper, 2011). ...
Article
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Muzik dangdut adalah merupakan salah satu irama yang semakin diminati dan mendapat sambutan hangat dalam dunia hiburan tempatan. Muzik dangdut juga dilihat popular dan disenangi pelbagai golongan masyarakat termasuk kanak-kanak yang mendengarnya. Ketika ini fenomena muzik dangdut semakin diminati dan dapat dilihat dengan jumlah tontonan video yang tinggi terhadap eksistensi lagu-lagu dangdut di laman Youtube. Sebuah lagu berirama dangdut di Malaysia yang menarik perhatian untuk diselidiki adalah lagu berjudul ‘Goyang Upin & Ipin’ (2020). Video muzik animasi yang dimuat naik oleh Syarikat Les' Copaque Production tersebut telah mencatat lebih 1.4 juta tontonan hanya selama 24 jam dan 3.4 juta tontotan selepas 2 hari dimuat naik ke YouTube. Namun begitu, wujud stigma dan pelbagai kritikan ditimbulkan oleh masyarakat yang kurang senang dengan pemilihan irama muzik serta aksi-aksi yang dipaparkan dalam video muzik tersebut. Tidak kurang juga yang beranggapan bahawa aksi ‘gelek’ kesan tindak balas latar muzik dangdut yang dimainkan boleh memberikan kesan negatif kepada minda kanak-kanak. Justeru itu, kajian ini dijalankan dengan kaedah kualitatif dengan penjelasan bersifat naratif terhadap kandungan lagu dalam konteks muzikal bagi menganalisis aspek muzikal lagu dangdut ‘Goyang Upin & Ipin’ secara autentik. Hasil analisis menunjukkan kesan ekspresi muzik dangdut tersebut cenderung mewujudkan rasa gembira dan memberi kesan ekspresi positif terhadap psikologi pendengar.
... ool in transmission and learning of language and knowledge (Gauthier & Lejeune, 2008). Dunst, Meter, and Deborah (2011) argued that nursery rhyme experience and knowledge expedited children's phonological processing skills and print-related outcomes which anchored the association between nursery rhymes and literacy improvement among young children (Bryant et. al., 1989). The fact that nursery rhymes are more about the rhythm and sound of words rather than their actual meaning can explain why nursery rhymes can easily improve phonological awareness skills. Children like the loudness and rhythm of the words in nursery rhymes, even though they don't have a complete understanding of their meaning, or even ...
... Phonological awareness is largely studied in relation to reading development, and children with poorer awareness of phonology at all linguistic levels (stressed syllable, syllable, rhyme, phoneme) are known to experience difficulties in learning to read (Ziegler & Goswami, 2005). A longitudinal causal relationship has been established using rhyme awareness tasks with preschoolers such as the rhyme oddity task (here children select the odd word out [the non-rhyme] in oral word triples like cat, fit, pat) and nursery rhyme knowledge (Bradley & Bryant, 1983;Bryant et al., 1989). For the current project, we created a game intended to simulate the rhyme oddity task using families of toys. ...
Preprint
Here we report preliminary analyses of the linguistic tasks selected for the Cambridge UK BabyRhythm project, data to be made available online via OSF. BabyRhythm is a study of 122 infants as they age from 2 – 30 months, investigating cortical tracking and sensorimotor synchronisation to acoustic and visual rhythm in relation to language acquisition. Participating infants attended for 8 brain recording sessions (EEG) between the ages of 2 – 11 months, and received language tasks beginning at 8 months. The tasks selected were both standardised and experimental, and were intended to sample 5 linguistic domains: semantics, phonology, grammar, rhythmic timing and gesture. For each task we here describe infant performance (mean, median, range), and we also report performance by sex and by monolingual (N=92) versus multilingual (N=30) status. We report relations between measures, and identify the most reliable language tasks that will be utilised in subsequent longitudinal brain-behaviour analyses.
... Las rimas infantiles se adquieren de forma auditiva y, al igual que otras secuencias del lenguaje, necesitan de una «delicado equilibrio entre formulaicidad y creatividad» (Wray, 2002: 75, traducción propia). Sus características inherentes como elementos cognitivos que enlazan la socialización y la toma de conciencia lingüística han desencadenado su uso instrumental -es decir, su uso con objetivos específicos de aprendizaje -de forma sistemática en el proceso de la adquisición del lenguaje: en las aulas, en el aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras o en ediciones de libros que dividen las rimas por temas y usos, 3 incluso analizando sus campos semánticos (Bryant et al., 1989;Dunst y Gorman, 2011;Dinçel, 2017) Las rimas y cancioncillas, no obstante, de forma global, indican un tipo de conducta lingüística (Wray, 2002: 128) y responden al impulso social infantil, que genera patrones que pueden convertirse, durante su desarrollo, en re-creaciones, juegos e intervenciones lingüísticas, conocido como childlore en ingles (Thomas, 2004: 169); es decir, apoyando la creación propia infantil, su uso y su diseminación en los espacios donde los niños y niñas pasan tiempo juntos sin supervisión (parques, colegios, campamentos, etc.). Las características orales de las rimas también complementan los elementos musicales del lenguaje, siendo el significado acompañado (y a veces subyugado) por la conciencia de los elementos musicales como el tono, los intervalos, el ritmo, el tempo o las curvas sonoras ("The Biology of Music"). ...
Chapter
Como ejemplos de oralidad en la literatura impresa, las rimas infantiles se han usado como instrumentos didácticos con excelentes resultados, puesto que ilustran un puente entre el conocimiento lingüístico y una ideología comunitaria. A través del análisis de las traducciones de nursery rhymes inglesas al español en un contexto auditivo, este capítulo considera que las rimas infantiles se deberían traducir como ejemplos de discurso canónico, incluyendo las características formales que comparten las rimas en la mayor parte de idiomas, y las idiosincrasias particulares que le otorgan a la rima su unidad en español. Se definen las particularidades de las rimas infantiles españolas para ofrecer opciones de traducción que incorporen elementos claves para su interpretación. Asimismo, se cuestiona la interferencia cultural y el impacto cognitivo que tienen las traducciones de nursery rhymes inglesas en el receptor infantil del idioma meta. Palabras clave: nursery rhyme, rimas infantiles, traducción, oralidad, elementos canónicos As examples of orality in print, nursery rhymes have been used instrumentally in connection to the educational system with excellent results, as they exemplify a bridge between linguistic cognition and communal ideology. Through the analyses of the translation of English nursery rhymes into Spanish language in an aural setting, this article argues that nursery rhymes should be translated as canonical discourse examples, including the formal traits shared in most languages and the specific idiosyncrasies that confer the rhyme a unitary nature. Spanish children’s rhymes particularities are defined to offer contrastive translation options for a transferal that incorporates key performative linguistic elements. Additionally, the current translation of English nursery rhymes raises questions in relation to cultural interference and the impact translated rhymes have on the acquisition and use of the language by the target language child receiver. Key words: nursery rhyme, rimas infantiles, translation, orality, canonical features
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The article sums up the situation of teaching and using local official languages in society and education.
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Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, 60-72 aylık çocukların erken okuryazarlık beceri düzeyinin SED, ev okuryazarlık uygulamaları, öğretmen okuryazarlık bilgi düzeyi ve sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamaları açısından incelenmesidir. Araştırmaya, devlet okulları bünyesinde bulunan anasınıflarında eğitim öğretimine devam eden ve tanılı herhangi bir yetersizliği olmayan 60-72 ay yaş aralığındaki 235 çocuk dâhil edilmiştir. Araştırmaya dâhil edilen çocukların erken okuryazarlık beceri düzeylerine ilişkin bilgiler ‘Erken Okuryazarlık Testi (EROT)’, ailelerin sosyo ekonomik düzeylerine ilişkin bilgiler ‘Aile Bilgi Formu’, ev okuryazarlık uygulamalarına ilişkin bilgiler araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilen ‘Ev Okuryazarlık Uygulamaları Ölçeği (EVOKU)’, okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin erken okuryazarlık bilgi düzeyi ve sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamalarına ilişkin bilgiler ‘Öğretmen Görüşme Formu’ ile elde edilmiştir. Çocukların öncelikle EROT alt testlerinden elde ettikleri puanların SED’e ve yaşa göre dağılımları belirlenmiştir. Dağılımların belirlenmesinin ardından EROT alt testlerinden elde edilen puanların SED’e ve sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamalarına göre farklılık gösterip göstermediğimi belirlemek için Kruskall Wallis- H testi, ev okuryazarlık uygulamalarına ve öğretmen bilgi düzeyine göre farklılık gösterip göstermediğini belirlemek için Mann Whitney-U testi kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlara bakıldığında çocukların alıcı dilde sözcük bilgisi, ifade edici dilde sözcük bilgisi ve sesbilgisel farkındalık becerileri alt testlerinden elde ettikleri puanların SED’e göre anlamlı farklılık gösterdiği görülmüştür. Anlamlı farklılığın ise üst SED’den gelen çocuklar ile alt SED’den gelen çocuklar arasında ve üst SED’den gelen çocukların lehine, orta SED’den gelen çocuklar ile alt SED’den gelen çocuklar arasında ve orta SED’den gelen çocukların lehine olduğu gözlemlenmiştir. Ev okuryazarlık uygulamalarının, çocukların alıcı dilde sözcük bilgisi, ifade edici dilde sözcük bilgisi, sesbilgisel farkındalık ve dinlediğini anlama alt testlerinden elde ettikleri puanlar üzerinde anlamlı farklılıklar yarattığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Anlamlı farklığın ise erken okuryazarlık becerileri açısından risk grubunda olmayan çocukların lehine olduğu görülmüştür. Okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin sahip olduğu erken okuryazarlık bilgi düzeyinin, çocukların EROT alt testlerinden elde ettikleri puanlar üzerinde anlamlı farklılık yaratmadığı görülmüştür. Son olarak sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamalarının, çocukların alıcı ve ifade edici dilde sözcük bilgisi alt testlerinden elde ettikleri puanlar üzerinde anlamlı farklılık yarattığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Anlamlı farklılığın ise iyi uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfında bulunan çocuklar ile zayıf uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfında bulunan çocuklar arasında ve iyi uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfındaki çocukların lehine, orta düzey uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfında bulunan çocuklar ile zayıf uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfında bulunan çocuklar arasında ve orta düzey uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfındaki çocukların lehine olduğu görülmüştür. Elde edilen bulgular alanyazın temelinde tartışılmış ve hem SED’in hem ev okuryazarlık uygulamalarının hem de sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamalarının erken okuryazarlık becerileri için önemli değişkenler olduğu belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak, çocuğun erken okuryazarlık bilgi ve becerilerinin gelişimi üzerinde etkili olduğu belirlenen tüm değişkenler bütüncül bir bakış açısıyla ele alınmış ve çocuğun içinde bulunduğu SED’in, ev okuryazarlık ve sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamalarının niteliğinin ve niceliğinin çocukların erken okuryazarlık bilgi ve becerilerinin gelişimini destekleyen önemli değişkenler olduğu görülmüştür.
Chapter
In our studies of communication and play between infants and their mothers we have described signs of developing motives in the infant for cooperation with the mother. These motives lead mother and infant to share emotional states, exploratory orientations and experiences, and finally, the using of objects as instruments for particular purposes (Trevarthen, 1974a, b, 1977, 1979a, b, 1982, 1983a; Trevarthen and Hubley, 1978). We have not been directly studying the vocalizations that develop into speech in any detail, and not trying to resolve issues in the theory of language.