The cerebellum in sagittal plane - Anatomic-MR correlation: 1. The vermis

Neuropsychology Research Laboratory, Children's Hospital Research Center, San Diego, CA 92123.
American Journal of Roentgenology (Impact Factor: 2.73). 11/1989; 153(4):829-35. DOI: 10.2214/ajr.153.4.829
Source: PubMed


Correlation of thin (5-mm) sagittal high-field (1.5-T) MR images of three brain specimens and 11 normal volunteers with microtome sections of the human cerebellar vermis and hemispheres demonstrates that proton-density-weighted (long TR/short TE) and T2-weighted (long TR/long TE) spin-echo pulse sequences provide the greatest contrast between gray and white matter. These images also can display (1) the corpus medullare and primary white-matter branches to the vermian lobules, including the lingula, centralis, culmen, declive, folium, tuber, pyramis, uvula, and nodulus; and (2) several finer secondary branches to individual folia within the lobules. Surface features of the vermis including the deeper fissures (e.g., preculminate, primary, horizontal, and prepyramidal) and shallower sulci are best delineated by T1-weighted (short TR/short TE) and T2-weighted images, which provide greatest contrast between CSF and parenchyma. Given that the width of the normal vermis varied from 6 to 12 mm in our volunteers, the acquisition of thin slices (less than or equal to 5 mm) was required to minimize volume averaging of the cerebellar hemispheres with the vermis on a midline sagittal MR section. Knowledge of the detailed normal anatomy of the cerebellar vermis on sagittal MR images can assist in the identification of various pathologic alterations.

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    • "The bimodal intensity distribution was discrete in all cases, and an operator selected the minima between peaks. Prior to analysis, images were re-aligned first in the axial plane so that the cerebellar-interhemispheric fissure was perpendicular to the bottom of the image frame, and then in the sagittal plane so that the fourth ventricle was perpendicular to the bottom of the image frame (Courchesne et al., 1989, 1994; Deshmukh et al., 1997). The anterior–superior vermis sample was measured on seven, 1 mm thick, aligned and extracted sagittal slices—the mid-sagittal and three, 1 mm thick parasagittal slices taken from left and right of the midline (Fig. 2). "
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    ABSTRACT: Postural stability becomes compromised with advancing age, but the neural mechanisms contributing to instability have not been fully explicated. Accordingly, this quantitative physiological and MRI study of sex differences across the adult age range examined the association between components of postural control and the integrity of brain structure and function under different conditions of sensory input and stance stabilization manipulation. The groups comprised 28 healthy men (age 30-73 years) and 38 healthy women (age 34-74 years), who completed balance platform testing, cognitive assessment, and structural MRI. The results supported the hypothesis that excessive postural sway would be greater in older than younger healthy individuals when standing without sensory or stance aids, and that introduction of such aids would reduce sway in both principal directions (anterior-posterior and medial-lateral) and in both the open-loop and closed-loop components of postural control even in older individuals. Sway reduction with stance stabilization, that is, standing with feet apart, was greater in men than women, probably because older men were less stable than women when standing with their feet together. Greater sway was related to evidence for greater brain structural involutional changes, indexed as ventricular and sulcal enlargement and white matter hyperintensity burden. In women, poorer cognitive test performance related to less sway reduction with the use of sensory aids. Thus, aging men and women were shown to have diminished postural control, associated with cognitive and brain structural involution, in unstable stance conditions and with diminished sensory input.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Neurobiology of aging
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    • "We chose the mid-sagittal slice, at the level of the vermis, and then included parasagittal slices on either side (see Fig. 1). Our selection criteria for the mid-sagittal, and parasagittal slices were based upon the best fit of several criteria: 1) the mid-sagittal slice was that slice where the cerebral aqueduct was most clearly visualized; 2) the three middle slices were those slices where the vermian corpus medullare, or white matter, retained its characteristic shape (Press et al., 1989); and 3) the three middle slices were those where the outer contour of the vermis was most characteristically vermal (Courchesne et al., 1989). "
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    ABSTRACT: Several functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the cerebellar vermis in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but there have been no structural neuroimaging studies of this brain structure in PTSD. We utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with manual tracing to quantify the volumes of three divisions of the mid-sagittal vermis, and their total, within an identical, co-twin control design that employed Vietnam veterans discordant for combat exposure in Vietnam. Each structure's volume was significantly correlated between twins, indicating a partial familial determination: for anterior superior vermis, r=0.73; for posterior superior vermis, r=0.47; for inferior posterior vermis, r=0.51; and for total vermis, r=0.57. There were no significant differences between the PTSD and non-PTSD veterans for any vermis volume, and no significant main effects or interactions when their non-combat-exposed co-twins were added to the analyses. Thus, the results do not support the structural abnormality of cerebellar vermis in combat-related PTSD.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · Psychiatry Research
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    • "The bimodal intensity distribution was discrete in all cases, and an operator selected the minima between peaks. Prior to analysis, images were realigned first in the axial plane so that the cerebellar--interhemispheric fissure was perpendicular to the bottom of the image frame, and then in the sagittal plane so that the fourth ventricle was perpendicular to the bottom of the image frame (Courchesne et al., 1989, 1994; Deshmukh et al., 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: Postural balance is impaired in individuals with pathology of the anterior superior vermis of the cerebellum. Chronic alcoholism, with its known vermian pathology, provides a viable model for studying the relationship between cerebellar pathology and postural stability. Decades of separate study of recovering alcoholics and post-mortem neuroanatomical analysis have demonstrated vermian pathology but few studies have used quantitative posturography, acquired concurrently with quantitative neuroimaging, to establish whether this brain structure-function relationship is selective in vivo. Here, 30 healthy men and 39 chronic alcoholic men, abstinent from alcohol for several months, underwent MRI for volumetric quantitation of the cerebellar vermis and three comparison brain regions, the cerebellar hemispheres, supratentorial cortex and corpus callosum. All subjects also participated in an experiment involving a force platform that measured sway path length and tremor during static standing balance under four sensory conditions and two stance conditions. Three novel findings emerged: (i) sway path length, a physiological index of postural control, was selectively related to volume of the cerebellar vermis and not to any comparison brain region in the alcoholics; (ii) spectral analysis revealed sway prominence in the 2-5 Hz band, another physiological sign of vermian lesions and also selectively related to vermian volume in the alcoholics; and (iii) despite substantial postural sway in the patients, they successfully used vision, touch and stance to normalize sway and reduce tremor. The selective relationship of sway path to vermian but not lateral cerebellar volume provides correlational evidence for functional differentiation of these cerebellar regions. Improvement to virtual normal levels in balance and reduction in sway and tremor with changes in vision, touch and stance provide evidence that adaptive mechanisms recruiting sensorimotor integration can be invoked to compensate for underlying cerebellar vermian-related dysfunction.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2006 · Cerebral Cortex
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