Article

What Is Video Game Culture? Cultural Studies and Game Studies

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Abstract

What is video game culture, however? What does it mean to have a culture defined by the consumption of a particular medium? Moreover, what are the implications of defining this culture in a particular way? While there has been a great deal of ink split on video game culture, the actual definition of the term is often treated as common sense. Unpacking the discourses surrounding "video game culture" allows us to see the power dynamics involved in attributing certain characteristics to it, as well as naming it "video game culture" as such. This has implications for how video games are studied and is connected with how culture is studied more broadly. By critically examining how video game culture has been defined in both press and academic articles, this paper illuminates how this definition has limited the study of video games and where it can move.

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... The cultural perspective (Dini 2012;Shaw 2010;Šisler et al. 2017;and Muriel and Crawford 2018) focuses on gamers' experiences as generated through their interactions with the global gaming system. Daniel Muriel and Garry Crawford (2018) approach video games through a Geertzian (Geertz 1973) perspective on meaning and build on Latour's (2005) and Law's (2004) actor-network theory. ...
... I argue that gaming culture has autonomy and thus constitutes the autonomous sphere of gaming. I argue that the gaming sphere is transnational, not local; similar to Shaw (2010) and Muriel and Crawford (2018), I think that the cultural approach will help us understand gaming as a social phenomenon better than focusing on video gaming cultures. ...
... Taking the perspective of the strong program in cultural sociology (Alexander and Smith 2001), sport protest analysis has not paid enough attention to culture and cultural actors themselves (Grix 2015;Bairner et al. 2016;Numerato 2018;Butterworth 2020). Following the cultural perspective in video game analysis (Dini 2012;Shaw 2010;Šisler et al. 2017;Muriel and Crawford 2018), I have constructed the concept of the gaming sphere to help answer questions about the meaning-making process in the world of gaming and to fill this gap in literature on video game protests. I have defined its constitutive and communicative institutions and how they engage in an ongoing project to reestablish the gaming sphere. ...
Article
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With eSports and video games rapidly gaining popularity, we are witnessing a rise of semi-autonomous gaming communities. I propose using Alexander’s civil sphere theory and my concept of the gaming sphere to understand the dynamics of the meaning-making processes herein. I ask: why did the Blitzchung controversy spark such outrage? I explore the hidden meanings behind the controversy where the professional Hearthstone eSports player Ng Wai Chung was punished for expressing his opinion during post-game interview by calling to “Liberate Hong Kong,” losing $4000—all happening in the ostensibly apolitical gaming sphere. I first build the gaming sphere from the civil sphere, establishing the constitutive and communicative institutions of gaming as well as identifying the sacred and profane binary oppositions within the gaming sphere. Second, I provide a thick description and interpretation of the Blitzchung controversy using my concept of the gaming sphere. Lastly, I conclude that despite winning fairly, Blitzchung’s punishment for being “political” was not removed entirely. However, as the civil sphere was invited into the gaming sphere, the controversy shifted toward Hong Kong protests. The gaming sphere was partially restored as apolitical, even supporting a noble cause, but the Blitzchung controversy never achieved full societalization.
... Hussain and Griffiths (2008) reported that the change of gender can affect the players' style of play and interaction with other players. Shaw (2010) argues that it is necessary to perform a critical review of the place of girls and women in gaming culture, which is traditionally defined as a masculine space. Brehm (2013) hypothesises that cyberbullying, sexism, harassment, and a male dominant culture are among the major reasons that the female player share remains low. ...
... The fact that the male share is bigger when it comes to game production and consumption (Taylor 2006), in spite of WoW having feminine elements in the game, is reflected on the tendencies of the industry by (1) the male dominant storyline in games (Fron et al. 2007; Kishonna Gray 2012); (2) the stereotyping of female characters, such as the damsel in distress or as the reward of completing game objectives (Jo Bryce and Jason Rutter 2003; Nardi 2010); and (3) the white straight male model (Eklund 2011;Shaw 2010Shaw , 2011. Brehm (2013, 3) further states that "female characters are rarely dynamic and complex and are still a minority as main characters". ...
... In the end, gender identity differences and power relations can trigger chauvinist behaviours that repeat themselves as generations go by (Consalvo 2012;Fron et al. 2007;Ribeiro and Bispo 2006). Aggressive attitudes such as bullying, harassment and violence in interactions between genders over feelings of invasion of traditional male territory have also been noted before (Belk 2013;Consalvo 2012;Shaw 2010Shaw , 2011. This discriminative behaviour towards a female presence in online games, along with moral and sexual harassment, has been linked to male chauvinism and a dominant position (Brehm 2013;Cote 2017;Eklund 2011;Fron et al. 2007;Gray 2012;Nardi 2010). ...
Article
The present article addresses the dynamics of the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) with the objective of investigating gender imbalance, focusing on female members of the virtual community. In detail, we seek to understand which factors can influence or inhibit female participation in games and virtual communities. A netnography was employed, collecting about 1000 players’ statements from the World of Warcraft (WoW) gaming community. The results indicate that a dominant male share of players enforces sexism and other male-concepts onto the female players. Although not all female players perceive such behaviours, it does affect a large share of them and thus influences their choices and behaviours in the MMORPG.
... Entretanto, os jogos são também constituídos como uma subcultura através da retratação midiática de quem são os gamers e quais seus costumes. Assim, a cultura dos jogos foi sendo historicamente situada como predominantemente masculina através dos estudos críticosà indústria e público, das propagandas dos jogos com garotos jogando na sala de estar e manchetes jornalísticas ilustradas por fotografias de equipes masculinas de e-Sports ou que criticam a cultura masculina tóxica dos jogos [1]. ...
... Os fãs de cultura pop, por anos, foram tratados como pessoas patológicas e estereotipados pela mídia como nerds obcecados, com frustrações sexuais e desmasculinizados [3]. Os jogadores, em particular, foram alvo de diversos discursos sobre como são indivíduos antissociais e o ato de jogaré constantemente associado a problemas de saúde e comportamentos obsessivos [1]. Contudo, nos anos 2000, o fã masculino de cultura pop passou por uma reformulação através do reposicionamento do nerd como uma demografia de mercado [4]. ...
... Para enxergarmos um pouco melhor como se relacionam esses dados de popularidade e a discrepância de gênero dos usuários, apresentamos a Fig. 16, que mostra a relação entre número de seguidores, visualizações, e total de trabalhos publicados pela conta (não apenas fanarts). Cada círculo representa um usuário, quanto mais para direita, mais artes o 1 10 100 1 000 10 000 100 000 ...
Preprint
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Digital games are increasingly part of a cyberculture engendered by digital platforms. With this in mind, we approach in this work some considerations about World of Warcraft players as fans and content producers and the narrative disputes that emerge about the game on fan work publishing platforms (Archive of Our Own and DeviantArt). We analyzed a vast set of fanfics and fanarts collected on these platforms, showing a textuality that involves not only the digital game, but a whole network of fan production that expands beyond the act of playing. Our observations show that, despite the popular perception that World of Warcraft fandom is mostly male and heteronormative, women and LGBTQI+ people are a large participatory audience and produce a lot of content, especially in the fanfic universe. The works created are also quite marked by narratives of dissident bodies and sexualities. However, despite the presence of these subjects and narratives in the fandom, this content is made invisible in DeviantArt, which privileges male artists and heteronormative fanarts of a commercial nature.
... Такой интерес со стороны различных направлений исследований демонстрирует, какое значение имеют видеоигры сегодня для многих областей человеческой жизнедеятельности. Игровая индустрия выходит за рамки своих изначальных развлекательных целей: игры проникают в образование, мобильные технологии, музейное дело, социальную жизнь и профессиональную деятельность [151]. И действительно, видеоигры и игровые технологии активно применяются в науке, медицине, образовании, бизнесе, вооруженных силах, менеджменте, маркетинге, искусстве, архитектуре, спорте и т.д. ...
... Такие способы осуществления власти подробно анализируются в работе Митчелла Дина «Правительность: власть и правление в современных обществах» с помощью введения представления о либеральных режимах управления, в которых «свобода управляемых часто рассматривается как техническое средство достижения целей» [228, с. 83]. Ярким примером подобного типа управления является предоставление свободы рынку для произвольного ценообразования, конкуренции и рационального экономического поведения индивидов в условиях современного неолиберализма [там же, с. [150][151][152][153][154][155][156][157][158][159][160][161][162][163][164][165][166]. Подобное предоставление свободы в рамках определенных устанавливаемых государством ограничений при-водит не к анархии и беспорядку, а к саморегуляции, ведущей к стабильным росту и развитию, выгодным для управляющих. ...
Book
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The monograph is devoted to the issues of understanding video games as a significant phenomenon of modern culture. The main task that the authors of the book set themselves is to acquaint the reader with a wide range of scientific problems in the field of video game research. The monograph contains a study of the origins and effects of video games, highlights the main stages of the development of the gaming industry and game studies. Videogames are investigated from the standpoint of philosophy, cultural studies, psychology, sociology, religious studies and modern educational issues. The book is addressed to a wide audience, but first of all it will be interesting and useful to representatives of the social sciences who are engaged in the study of digital culture and video games.
... Exploring video game culture is an extensive, multi-faceted task that many authors have dedicated themselves to (see e.g. Shaw, 2010;Muriel & Crawford, 2018;Horban et al., 2019). These efforts turn out to be complex, shed light on the subject from different perspectives, are based on various interests and do not lead to a common definition (Elmezeny & Wimmer, 2018). ...
... Nowadays video game culture is (b) not a niche phenomenon that only affects a small group of people, but has long since become an essential part of our society. And video game culture is (c) not a static phenomenon either, but is from a Cultural Studies point of view subject to permanent change, is constantly being reshaped, created and in a state of constant debate and flux (Shaw, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
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As the majority of people in Austria and all over Europe play video games - regardless of gender, age, social or cultural background - video games have become an important part of today's society. Around this fascination, a "video game culture" has developed. However, in this context, it is not only the mere consumption of video games that plays a role, but rather the participation in a media landscape shaped by video games. Examples of phenomena that have emerged from video game culture are gameplay video productions (Let's Play videos and streams) and e-sports, the organised competitive playing of video games. In these fields, especially young people participate taking on different roles - for example as fans, spectators, content producers or competitors. A closer look at these activities shows that they on the one hand open up numerous spaces for (informal) learning. One the other hand, they also bring challenges to our society. However, there are hardly any school projects that address the various phenomena and challenges arising from today’s video game culture. The article sheds light on the relevance of video game culture activities - beyond gaming - for the educational field and provides insights into two ongoing projects: the research project StreamIT! as well as the E-Sports School League Floridsdorf+ in Vienna with the accompanying web platform esport-schulliga.at
... Aunque estos sistemas clasificatorios sean en gran medida arbitrarios, es cierto que los jóvenes nacidos entre finales de 1990 e inicios del 2000 han sido los primeros en conocer una industria del videojuego ya consolidada (tanto en el ámbito comercial como independiente), lo que les ha permitido acercarse a sus productos culturales de una forma natural. No obstante, creemos que en un contexto tan ludificado y permeable a los juegos como el actual, es necesario pensar, en la línea apuntada por Adrienne Shaw (2010), no tanto en una subcultura o generación mística de jugadores, sino en el papel clave que tienen los videojuegos en toda nuestra cultura. ...
... Creemos que en un contexto tan ludifi cado y permeable a los juegos como el actual, es necesario pensar, en la línea apuntada por Adrienne Shaw (2010), no tanto en una subcultura o generación mística de jugadores, sino en el papel clave que tienen los videojuegos en toda nuestra cultura. ...
Chapter
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Después de este “punto de partida” teórico y epistemológico, los profesores Jorge Oceja y Natalia González Fernández, de la Universidad de Cantabria (España) presentan el capítulo titulado “La generación gamer”, en el que abordan la supuesta relación directa y prácticamen- te causal entre la denominada generación millenial o generación y (formada supuestamente por las personas nacidas entre la última década del siglo XX y los primeros años del XXI) y el ser jugador de videojuegos. En esta línea, los autores concluyen que en un contexto tan ludifica- do y permeable a los juegos como el actual, es necesario pensar no tanto en una subcultura o generación mística de jugadores, sino en el papel clave que tienen los videojuegos en toda nuestra cultura.
... In foreign scientific discourse, a separate research program has been formed -game studies, within the framework of which interdisciplinary analysis of video games is carried out in a wide range of their cultural constitution [37]. For our study, it is of particular interest, firstly, a set of works by G. Kirkpatrick [21] and D. Spring [38] devoted to the history of video games, their development in the context of the cultural space. ...
Article
Video games have become a prominent part of on-screen technoculture today, breaking the purely entertaining social labelling framework. They contribute to the generation of new social activities, and also become an innovative media space for the explication of artistic and aesthetic values, political meanings and educational practices. The aim of the study is the reconstruction and analysis of the cultural constitution of video games, revealing the features of their screen rhetorical capabilities, as well as revealing the educational potential of gamification practices and Digital Game Based Learning strategies. This is intended to form the competence-thematic framework of video games as a platform for modern media education. The methodological basis of the work is the cultural-historical and dialectical approaches, as well as the methods of systemic and structural-functional analysis. The study made it possible to trace the genesis of the cultural formation of video games, which demonstrated many strategies for their integration into the space of mass media culture. The main rhetorical models implemented in video games are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the comprehensive consideration of procedural rhetoric as an original way of convincing the user through gameplay, interactive involvement in virtual practices. The foundations of the practice of gamification and the strategy of Digital Game Based Learning in education are considered. It identifies the possibilities of gamification as an innovative methodology for organizing incentives and rewards, and also identifies the range of difficulties and risks of total gamification of the educational process. Based on the results of the study, it was determined that video games use an original complex of rhetorical techniques that combine both traditional audiovisual formats of narrative, characteristic of other on-screen media, and procedural-interactive techniques. They made it possible to directly integrate the user into virtual narratives, turning them from a passive recipient into an actor. The importance of gamification as a tool for building strategies of internal stimulation with elements of entertaining practices in the dynamics of learning is also revealed, which increases the effectiveness of education. It has been revealed the significant educational potential of video games as a promising media platform in the framework of the implementation of the Digital Game Based Learning strategy. They can act both as carriers of knowledge and as a virtual environment for the formation of competencies in the field of history, economics, literature and social management. Procedural and rhetorical tools allow a person to become a part of an interactive scenario, which greatly increases the likelihood of assimilating information and developing professional skills.
... The most massive and popular research area in game studies has become cultural studies (A. Meskin [28], R. Guins [20], A. Shaw [40]), this research area examines a wide range of issues related to the cultural influence of video games and their place in the modern sociocultural space. In addition, in the last decade, the direction of historical studies has been actively developing in the foreign discourse of game studies (L. ...
Article
Screen culture today, absorbing verbal-narrative and written culture, is the dominant memorial-representative format for the reproduction, preservation and broadcast of cultural information. Among the varieties of screen culture, since the beginning of the 21st century, video games have become especially popular and widespread. They possess unique interactive-procedural qualities, which, together with the traditional grammar of screen narrative, create an original complex of rhetorical techniques that effectively influence the mass public consciousness. In turn, the plot and visual design of video games is often based on historical narratives, becoming a platform for virtual interactive reconstruction of history. The study is devoted to the up-to-date topic of analyzing the on-screen phenomenon of video games as an innovative platform for historical media education, identifying its educational potential and the risks of political distortion of history. The methodological basis of the study is cultural-civilizational, dialectical and historical approaches, as well as structural-functional analysis, comparative-political science approach and systemic method. The study made it possible to identify a wide range of historical video games and classify the modalities of the implementation of historical topics in them with its general educational potential. In addition, the fundamental deconstructive nature of the actualization of the historical metanarrative in the procedural-interactive architectonics of video games has been determined. Finally, three main strategies for distorting and falsifying history in video games have been revealed. According to the results of the study, it was revealed that almost every significant cultural and historical era, with an emphasis on military battle plots, is reflected in the video game format. These game projects have serious educational potential, procedurally immersing the gamer in the context of the main historical facts, cultural aesthetics of the era and internal determinants of historical dynamics. At the same time, the postmodern essence of video games has been established, which poses a threat to the invariance of the perception of history, latently encouraging the intentions to rewrite it. Other risks are contained in the identified examples of politicization of the historical narrative of video games, which are concretized in the tendency to belittle the role of Russia in the international arena and the Eurocentric value accentuation.
... The purpose of video games is also increasingly diversifying such that their use extends well beyond the traditional arena of play to include cognitive, educational, physical, and mental health aspects (e.g., Chan, Kow, & Cheng, 2017;Colder Carras et al., 2017;Ferguson & Colwell, 2017;Green & Bavelier, 2012;Green & Seitz, 2015;Molyneux, Vasudevan, & de Zúñiga, 2015). In view of its popularity, laypersons and researchers alike have taken an interest in the effects of video games (Barlett, Anderson, & Swing, 2009;Cade & Gates, 2017;Ferguson, 2013;Ferguson, Copenhaver, & Markey, 2020;Hartanto, Toh, & Yang, 2016;Markey & Ferguson, 2017;Shaw, 2010). In particular, there is growing interest in the effects of video games on well-being because of a seemingly paradoxical feature of video gaming-while most video game players cite "fun" as their motivation to play video games (Reid, 2012), video games continue to hold a notorious reputation among some researchers for being detrimental to mental health and emotional well-being as measured by indicators like happiness, perceived stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms (e.g., Gentile, Bender, & Anderson, 2017;Rehbein, Kleimann, & Mössle, 2010;Tortolero et al., 2014). ...
Article
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The appeal of video gaming has undoubtedly withstood the test of time. In view of its increasing popularity, lay people and researchers alike have taken an interest in the psychological consequences of video gaming. However, there seems to be a paradox associated with the effect of video gaming on gamers' well-being—namely, while most video game players cite “fun” as their motivation to play video games, video games continue to hold a notorious reputation among some researchers for being detrimental to mental health and emotional well-being as measured by indicators such as happiness, perceived stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. We suggest that a significant contributor to the mixed literature is the oversight of contextual factors that may moderate this relationship. The current review highlights five important contextual factors that should be considered when studying the associations between the frequency of video gaming and well-being. Specifically, we suggest that unless the social context (who), type (what), motivation (why), time and day (when), and amount (how much) of video gaming activities are adequately considered, examinations of well-being outcomes in relation to video gaming will remain incomplete.
... Un videojuego es un software interactivo orientada al entretenimiento en general, que se desarrollan en un dispositivo electrónico y puede basarse en una historia (Shaw & culture, 2010;Wolf, 2021). Sin embargo, la limitación de la accesibilidad en la mayoría de los videojuegos afecta a distintos usuarios. ...
Article
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En la actualidad, los gobiernos están trabajando en la inclusión del ser humano con discapacidades visuales, para que lleven una vida más digna, equitativa y justa. En este sentido, el uso de las Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (TIC) pueden contribuir en el proceso de aprendizaje, y específicamente, los audio-juegos les permiten desarrollar la comprensión del espacio que les rodea, mejorando la orientación y movilidad de los individuos con deficiencia visual. Con esta premisa, el objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar el audio-juego Expo-camino para niños no videntes entre 8 a 10 años, utilizando la metodología ágil SUM, que integra audios 3D con interfaces de usuario, en función de los distintos niveles de problemas de visión y medir la capacidad de aprendizaje de los participantes. El enfoque del aprendizaje narrativo utilizó audios inmersivos, que narran los sucesos históricos de la época colonial de Quito, juntamente con un sistema de preguntas de cálculos aritméticos que reforzaron el aprendizaje cultural y cognitivo de los participantes. Se empleó un diseño experimental con un pretest y postest, utilizando un cuestionario de 10 preguntas basado en el Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). Los datos recolectados fueron analizados mediante estadística descriptiva. Como resultado se obtuvo que Expo-camino tiene una capacidad de ser entendido, aprendido y utilizado con porcentaje del 71%, basado en la experimentación de 2 meses, logrando reforzar el aprendizaje de manera efectiva.
... Along with new video games being launched, the authors are going to undertake new studies related to map symbols that appear in them. Video games are perceived as products of culture [81]; hence, the authors would like to develop their studies in this direction as games allow one to visualise how gamers influence and shape the culture they participate in [82], with culture being reproduced by symbols and elements presented, distributed, taught, and perpetuated in video games [83]. ...
Article
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In this article researchers examined the differences that may characterise selected groups of gamers with regard to age and time spent on playing a survival game, Valheim, confronted with their interpretation of map symbols used in the game. The Valheim video game, which was released in early 2021, is a survival game set in a gameplay world inspired by Norse mythology. The authors of the article noted that the age factor and gaming experience may have different results in terms of the interpretation of cartographic products. The obtained data came from an online questionnaire. In the statistical analysis the authors employed the Pearson's chi-squared test and the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure to find statistically significant differences between selected groups of respondents and their subjective interpretation of map symbols. Statistical analysis showed several differences and interesting relationships in the interpretation of symbols in relation to the age of the players and in the interpretation of symbols in relation to the time spent in the game. For future research, it is worth continuing towards researching new video games with existing cartographic products in order to investigate how games and players influence the culture in which they participate.
... ,Jansz and Martis (2007),Galloway (2007),DeVane and Squire (2008),DiSalvo, Crowley, and Norwood (2008), Williams, Martins, Consalvo, and Ivory (2009), Shaw (2010, and Young(2015)has taken a variety of methodological approaches to understand different aspects of identity and video gaming through critical, quantitative, and qualitative lenses. The work by many of these scholars-particularly Williams et al. and Dietrich-has worked to measure the capacity of racial phenotypic representations to live up to the experiences of non-white video game players. ...
... • Visar, também, a criação de grupos de trabalho na área do desenvolvimento de aplicações móveis multimédia e novos media de aplicação comercial. (Bristot et al 2017;Fortim, 2008;Friman, 2015;Jenkins & Cassel, 1998;Shaw, 2010). ...
Chapter
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Apresenta as conclusões do Seminário e os textos das comunicações dos participantes sobre práticas bem-sucedidas e reflexões sobre o tema dos videojogos e o seu ensino.
... Despite the presence of more technical researches (e.g. Crawford, 1984;Salen & Zimmerman, 2003;Fabricatore, 2007;Schell, 2014) and works devoted to philosophical reflections on videogames (Juul, 2005), videogame culture (Shaw, 2010;Muriel & Crawford, 2018) and even video-ludification (Bruns, 2020), there are still many unexplored issues in the area of videogame philosophy. ...
Article
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The study is devoted to the philosophical consideration of specific features of communication and education through the use of video games. The purpose of the research was to consider the specific features of communication in the process of interaction within video games, to reveal their educational potential and the difference in their use for educational purposes. The analysis of videogame definitions has allowed focusing on their specific features, namely: interactive, rule-based nature and the need of the specific hardware. As a result, the possible types of dialogue within video games have been considered and, on their basis, the main types of interaction have been formulated for analyzing their use in education: interaction with no active player, player-videogame interaction in case of one-player videogames, player-videogame-player interaction and player-community-videogame interaction. In conclusion, the similarity of videogame playing and the learning process has been delineated in relation to the analyzed types of interaction. The authors state the further need for a comprehensive study of the specific features of each of described types due to the significant differences in the dialogue and educational potential of videogames belonging to them.
... In this sense, the term video game culture is relatively recent, first appearing in a 1996 publication in The Washington Post (Amdur, 1996, in Shaw, 2010), a few years before game studies began as an emerging academic field (Aarseth, 2001). ...
Chapter
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Si la especie humana fuese devastada de la noche a la mañana, y miles de años después un grupo de extraterrestres llegase a nuestro planeta, cuando estos explorasen los restos de todo aquello que envolvía a nuestra civilización, una de sus conclusiones sería que el videojuego fue un eslabón importante de nuestra cultura. Para Umberto Eco (2000a[1976], p. 44), la cultura es principalmente comunicación, es decir, un sistema de significaciones cuya consecuencia es que la humanidad y la sociedad únicamente existen cuando se establecen procesos de comunicación y relaciones de significación. Raymond Williams (1998, p. 48), por su parte, describe la cultura como el trabajo intelectual y creativo donde, de forma detallada, el pensamiento y la experiencia humana se registran de diversas formas. Ante estas premisas, los videojuegos no únicamente encajarían como cultura, es decir, como proceso de comunicación según la propuesta de Eco sino que, además, su carácter interactivo e inmersivo los provee de relaciones de significación que se extrapolan a los nuevos escenarios de la cibercultura, que Darley (2002, p. 15) agrupa en lo que denomina «cultura visual digital»; si bien es cierto que los videojuegos se articulan y categorizan bajo su propio lenguaje (Ryan, 2006, p. 28). Todo ello, sin olvidar la actual cultura participativa, que genera demandas especiales respecto a la interpretación, reconfiguración y construcción de videojuegos (Raessens, 2011, p. 383), los cuales Jiménez Alcázar (2015, p. 24) define como «una forma de expresión y, como tal, una manifestación cultural». Se trata, por tanto, de la «cultura software», que se ha convertido en el nuevo lenguaje universal para interactuar en sociedad (Lozano, 2011, pp. 109-110). If the human species were devastated overnight, and thousands of years later a group of extraterrestrials arrived on our planet, when they explored the remains of everything that enveloped our civilization, one of their conclusions would be that the video game was an important part in our culture. For Umberto Eco (2000a [1976], p. 44), culture is primarily communication, that is, a system of meanings, the consequence of which is that humanity and society only exist when processes of communication and relations of meaning are established. Raymond Williams (1998, p. 48), for his part, describes culture as the intellectual and creative work where, in detail, human thought and experience are recorded in various forms. Given these premises, video games would not only fit in as culture, that is, as a communication process according to Eco’s proposal, but also, their interactive and immersive character provides them with relations of meaning that are extrapolated to the new scenarios of cyberculture, which Darley (2002, p. 15) groups in what he calls «digital visual culture»; although it is true that video games are articulated and categorized under their own language (Ryan, 2006, p. 28). All this, without forgetting the current participatory culture, which generates special demands regarding the interpretation, reconfiguration and construction of video games (Raessens, 2011, p. 383), which Jiménez Alcázar (2015, p. 24) defines as «a form of expression and, as such, a cultural manifestation». It is, therefore, «software culture», which has become the new universal language for interacting in society (Lozano, 2011, pp. 109-110).
... Video games have been in our lives since the early 1950s. Starting with the first and very primitive video game Pong, they have changed a lot in the last 40 years (Shaw 2010). At their early stages, video games were not compact, so only a limited number of people could have access to the luxury of enjoying them. ...
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This study examines the effects of queer theory on the world of games, how heteronormative world-view created a certain space, and how this space evolved throughout the history of video games. queer theory, which is the subject of the study, is examined through major indie game titles, especially by people who identify themselves as queer and/or those utilizing queer perspective. Another aim of this study is to examine differences between LGBT character representation in AAA game titles and games produced by queer game developers. As a means to achieve this, “Comparative research” methodology will be utilized on AAA titles and indie games, and differences between them will be analyzed. Comparison will take place between AAA titles such as Dragon Age, Mass Effect, and The Sims and indie titles that came to the fore especially after 2010 such as Mainichi and Little Witch Story.
... One might be tempted to believe that the concept of "Video Game Culture" is rather self-explanatory. But many scholars, like Adrienne Shaw, have criticized the approach of video game scholars who have taken the meaning of video game culture for granted; and those that have placed defined it as something very different from mainstream culture (Shaw, 2010). "Culture", "cultural studies" and the aforementioned "digital culture" are all difficult terms to offer crystal clear definitions, and as a concept that is closely related to this literature, it is impossible to offer a single definition of video game culture: in this regard, Adrienne Shaw's own article focuses on the cultural discussion of "video game culture" based on the thoughts, perceptions and attitudes of people who themselves play video games. ...
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The games are involving more and more in our daily lives with each passing day. This medium, which was once only intended for “entertainment”, has shown itself both in the mainstream media and academia as a medium that attracted attention in many different countries, especially in the USA in the late 90s. Especially with the 20th century, miniature war games, table-top board games, role-playing games and digital games have reached a much wider audience around the world. Game Culture, which is a subculture of its own, is considered as a subculture by the mainstream conscious nowadays, yet it has reached mainstream acclaim its subheadings. The formation of this culture gained momentum, especially in the 1970s, and in the following years it began to grow exponentially. With the development of technology and changes on the production logic of games, games that create an individual culture are one of …
... Like Campbell, we argue that what is missing from these accounts is a discussion of the 'craft' (Sennett, 2008) the skill, knowledge, judgement and passionpresent within acts of video game consumption and what material practices video gaming inaugurates through our use of the controls. Recent decades have seen digital games emerge as a major contemporary media form with widespread reach, cultural impact and vibrant creativity (Crawford et al., 2013;Shaw, 2010;Sharp, 2015), in addition to emerging as the basis of what is generally termed 'game studies', the academic discipline dedicated to their study (Gekker, 2021;Mäyrä and Sotamaa, 2017). In this context, video games have emerged as an important site of study for understanding contemporary consumption patterns, especially in the context of craft. ...
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This article repurposes Campbell’s (2005) concept of ‘the craft consumer’ to generate a new theory of video game consumption, which proposes that we identify the material practices typically associated with craft labour within acts of digital play. We draw on case studies from popular and community-driven video game titles including Dark Souls and Super Mario Maker to make our argument, suggesting that a grasp of the controls initiates material practices, like repetition, which provide the groundwork for craft skill. It is from this position that we argue that consumers initiate a craft-like ‘dialogue’ (Sennett R (2008) The Craftsman. London: Yale University Press.) with the game’s design that reveals the experimental and creative nature of video game consumption. Importantly, these case studies provide evidence to meet with Campbell’s definition of ‘craft consumption’ as an (1) ‘ensemble activity’ and (2) as a ‘collection’ of handmade things. The result is a better understanding of the consumer as someone who initiates experiences of skilled labour and creative self-expression through the craft of playing a video game. This article presents a new understanding of the (gaming) consumer whilst also challenging the idea that the experience of ‘craft consumption’ is typically reserved for the middle or professional classes, as Campbell maintains.
... In the 1990s, the gamer was largely stereotyped as anti-social, reclusive and transgressive. 9 Mainstream media articles reflected this in concerned pieces about the dangers of "Nintendo epilepsy," which was coined after a thirteen-year-old had a seizure while playing Super Mario Bros.; and "Nintendonitis," which was labeled after a thirty-five-year-old woman complained of severe thumb pain after playing video games for five uninterrupted hours. 10 Traditional journalism at once reported on the video game industry's substantial business potential 11 -in 1993, the video game industry began to make more than Hollywood-and yet saw video games as "defective and unreasonably dangerous products" even as "game makers knew this when they targeted their products to juveniles." ...
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Gaming journalism began its existence under attack from the rest of the journalistic field and from U.S. culture as a result of the audience to whom they appealed: young, diverse, progressive. This study argues that early gaming magazines (n=150) repaired the gaming paradigm during the development of gaming's mainstream acceptance from 1991-1995 by challenging stereotypes of gamers: imagining their audience as diverse, social and mature.
... The video game is considered a product of contemporary culture since it has cultural values that can be reproduced in multiple formats, generating a cultural and industrial development that attracts the attention of the consumer. This influence is representative given that video games are used by a diversity of age groups, genders, sexualities, races, religions, ethnicities, and nationalities; and, in addition, they are present in fields such as education, mobile technology, workplaces, social events, as exhibition support in museums, the development of family interactions and other areas of daily life [12]. ...
Article
This document presents the highlights of the influence of video games on teaching and disseminating culture in recent years. An exhaustive review was carried out on how education has benefited and enhanced using video games and their technological advances and their benefits to ensure the continuity of the curricula during the COVID-19 pandemic. Video games and their constant developments provide a tool that fosters the competencies and skills of students at all educational levels. New and better playful experiences have been developed that present players with more immersive situations are encouraging students to a greater interest in their learning process.
... Research should, for example, examine Let's Players' potential to shape game culture by engaging audiences that consist of gamers and non-gamers alike who come together to watch others play-not because they are primarily attracted by the appeal of the game itself but rather by the personal characteristics and qualities of the person playing it (Radde-Antweiler, Waltemathe, & Zeiler, 2014). In other words: How can (or should) our understanding of a gaming culture that is so often defined simply by the consumption of video games (Shaw, 2010) change when video game consumption itself is changing in such fundamental ways, allowing audiences to move away from actively playing themselves and more toward "interpassive" consumption (Fuchs, 2017) that features both passive video reception as well as (inter-)active community participation? In this sense, we also suggest to adopt a "paratext" perspective on Let's Plays and to consider these videos as user-created or "unauthorized" paratexts (Consalvo, 2007;Genette, 1997;Jones, 2008) that serve as additional content surrounding and accompanying the original medium (the video game) and expand the frame that influences video game reception, much like other forms of paratext, such as game reviews, wikis, or game-specific forums. ...
Article
Let’s Players have emerged as a successful class of entertainers in the YouTube® universe. Most of their broadcasts not only relate to video games and gaming but also feature elements of talk shows and other modes of personality entertainment, including star–fan interaction through social media channels. Hence, they represent focal points of reference for gamers and important manifestations of contemporary gaming culture. The present contribution applies the concept of parasocial relationships (PSR) to examine how dimensional compositions and formation dynamics of audience engagement with Let’s Players are affected by the specific conditions of digital online media environments. Findings from an online survey indicate that PSR with popular Let’s Players are composed partially similar to “conventional” stars, but seem to rest more on interactive responsiveness and less on idolizing “larger-than-life” characters. Implications for PSR theory in hybrid mass/online communication settings and for digital gaming culture are discussed.
... From this perspective, cultural is not something that exists within the design structure of a video game but is created (through shared experiences, perceptions, values, etc…) (Khairunisa, 2020). Rather than evoking the power of cultural values through specific Likert stems and responses, video games allow for personal cultural perspectives to occur as the process-oriented experiences that they are (Shaw, 2010). ...
Chapter
Rating scales are a traditional method for gathering social, emotional, and behavioral data. However, rating scales are at risk for validity problems associated with biased responding. A post-hoc analysis of scale data identified two groups within the sample: an anomalous response group and a non-anomalous response group. Findings indicated that those in the anomalous response group were more likely to rate themselves significantly differently on self-report rating scales measuring socially sensitive constructs. However, the two groups did not differ across the game-based behavioral stealth assessment measures (proactive aggression, reactive aggression, and prosocial skills). Findings support the need for trian-gulation and understanding of data through multiple methods of assessment. More directed research is needed to purposefully explore the validity of game-based assessments as part of a battery of measures.
... 10 judul game di atas terdiri dari berbagai genre yang sudah cukup di kenal oleh para gamer lokal, dan berangkat dari pengembang game yang sebagian besar adalah skala pengembang indie atau UMKM yang telah membangun beberapa iterasi kemudian di jual secara digital tentu untuk menekan budget marketing yang harus dikeluarkan, dimana biaya tentu akan lebih besar jika menjual game dalam (Shaw, 2010) 10 judul game di atas akan dilakukan komparasi dengan pendekatan transcultural dalam konteks desain persepsi transcultural tentu gamegame lokal telah mengadaptasi culture dari luar utamanya game-game buatan Jepang yang rata-rata benjadi inspirasi bahkan mempengaruhi game yang di-develop oleh pengembang lokal, hasil analisis ditemukan 10 game Jepang dan korea yang menjadi sumber ide perancangan game-game lokal tersebut antara lain. ...
Article
Kajian ini membahas tentang 10 judul video game buatan studio lokal yang terdapat di platform Steam. Ke-10 game menunjukan eksistensi industri game di Indonesia yang mulai menggeliat. Akan tetapi data yang dihimpun dari Deputi Bidang Ekonomi Digital dan Produk Kreatif Kemenparekraf 90 persen (dari game) yang dimainkan gamer lokal masih berupa game impor, dan persentase hasil penjualan developer lokal masih didominasi oleh penjualan yang berasal dari luar negeri sehingga beberapa IP dari produk lokal tersebut belum bisa menjadi bintang di rumah sendiri, developer-developer seperti Digital Happiness, Mojiken, Toge Production, dan Agate tersebut pun mengetahui dan paham dengan kondisi tersebut sehingga game-game tersebut dirancang penuh agar sesuai dengan selera global tapi dengan sentuhan elemen-elemen lokal sehingga game tersebut merupakan produk hasil dari transcultural karena di kembangkan dengan menggunakan refrerensi dari judul-judul game internasional untuk kemudian dilakukan duplikasi formul duplikasi tersebut mayoritas dari pengembang game Jepang. Kajian ini meng-analisis persepsi dari “ formula “ tersebut kenapa video game lokal lebih bisa diterima di pasar global lewat Steam. Kajian dengan menggunakan data display yang di kembangkan dalam format tabel yang di komparasi dengan 10 judul game Jepang dengan pendekatan 6 komponen video game yaitu game world, game storyline, characters for video game, music, visuals, quality assurance untuk di lihat seberapa jauh kesamaan antara game Indonesia dan game Jepang yang sudah lahir terlebih dahulu untuk kemudian di narasikan dengan aspek transcultural untuk di tarik kesimpulan. hasil perpaduan keduanya itulah yang akan menjadi konteks kajian dalam video game Indonesia hasil developer lokal.
... Placing digital games within larger cultural discourses is important because they are also a part of the dominant culture (Cote 2020;Shaw, 2010;. Thus, analyzing computer games from the narratives of the Portuguese press can provide a window to visualize how video games were typified, the profile of the public who integrated this niche, and the main social tensions of the time in which they appeared. ...
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Each technology is developed within a specific context and related to different social fields. This paper offers a historical analysis of the beginnings of press narratives about computer games in Portugal during the establishment of democracy and its entry into the European Economic Community in the 1980s. It focuses on the narratives created by two specialized computer press publications about the place of digital games in the broader social context and how gender and age group issues were presented in these narratives. It was possible to identify how computer games were directed to an imagined target population, given the worldwide tendency to relate technologies and games as a male "taste." This helped to distinguish those legitimately interested in gaming culture and exclude all those who did not fit this norm.
... Furthermore, due to shared incidences of internal identity negotiations (Brockenbrough, 2016), a wide variety of shared, immersive experiences have been identified as both culture and identity-forming. For example, video game culture (Shaw, 2010), networked music cultures (Snell & Hodgetts, 2007), deaf and hearing-impaired cultures (Sparrow, 2005), and those associated with gender-identity and sexuality (Crameri et al., 2015;Dyer, 2005) have emerged in recent times. For the purposes of this dissertation, the term culture is used to refer to these broader, contemporary notions and definitions. ...
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Over the past few decades, the world of higher education has undergone significant transformation in a myriad of ways. In particular, the learner population has become increasingly diverse and online learning has become increasingly prevalent. Concerns have been raised, within the literature, that educational inequity may manifest if the educator does not account for this diversity in their professional, course development, and assessment practices. To address this potential inequity, educational researchers and practitioners have suggested the need for pedagogical approaches that foster, nurture, and sustain all learners’ cultural frames of reference, values, norms, knowledge, and linguistic conventions. This has led to the emergence of ‘culturally relevant’, ‘culturally responsive’, and ‘culturally engaged’ pedagogical approaches. While the most popular of these has been ‘culturally responsive pedagogy’, it has been criticised for not doing enough to nurture and sustaining the learners’ cultural backgrounds/identities. While ‘culturally sustaining’ pedagogical approaches appear promising, the bulk of the research on these approaches has been conducted in face-to-face learning. Less is known about culturally sustaining online pedagogies, and even less is known about educators’ perceptions towards, and experiences of, culturally sustaining online learning. This research used a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to investigate educators’ perceptions towards, and lived experiences of, culturally sustaining online learning. The research’s data was generated through semi- structured interviews with ten purposively sampled participants. The inclusion criteria, for this purposive sampling, was twofold. Firstly, it required participants to be educators who currently work with initial or continuing teacher education programmes at the research setting, a large university in te Ika-a-Māui, Aotearoa New Zealand. Secondly, it required participants to have a professional interest in cultural diversity and working with diversity, as evidenced by their research or teaching interests. This research was considered and approved by the Ethics Committee of Te Kura Toi Tangata. The findings of this research suggest that the participants are cognisant of the increasing diversity of their learner populations and the increasing prevalence of online learning. They want to acknowledge and celebrate this increasing diversity but are concerned with causing their learners’ discomfort, or possibly ‘othering’ them. Furthermore, they consider the rejection of deficit theorising and ‘knowing the learner’ important for the development of culturally sustaining practices, especially online. When compared to the findings of relevant prior research, the participants’ experiences of the increasing learner diversity and increased prevalence of online learning in contemporary teaching and learning was substantiated. Congruence with the literature was also identified in a number of areas, including the perceived importance of acknowledging and celebrating diversity, building and maintaining learner trust, ‘knowing your learner’, and the rejection of deficit theorising. However, the participants’ concerns about the potential for discomfort/‘othering’ of learners or some of the perceived benefits and disadvantages of online communication were not supported by the findings of previous research. This study hopes to contribute to the growing body of literature concerned with educational practices that may mitigate the inequity many learners face, especially in online learning. It shares the perceptions and experiences of a particular sample group, in a single educational institution, and is not intended to be extrapolated or generalised to a wider population. Instead, it is intended to raise awareness of possibilities for culturally sustaining online learning without contributing to the reinforcement of any stereotype, or creation of any new stereotypes. The results, however, may be of interest to educators, or groups of educators, elsewhere.
... This research is also inseparable from several limitations, such as samples taken only in Indonesia, which has a different cultural perspective from other countries. Culture is also part of game behavior [70]. Hashimoto [71] explains that culture has a role in shaping gamers' attitudes. ...
Article
Game-oriented business development is growing quickly and this encourages the digital economy in Indonesia. This research aims to examine the role of perceived value on the purchase behavior of online game attributes in Indonesia based on gender groups. Samples were taken from several online gaming communities in Indonesia. The variables in this study consist of perceived value variables, namely emotional, quality, social and economic value, which are antecedents for the online game attribute purchase intention and purchase behavior variables. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The research results show an influence on purchase intentions of perceived value which consists of emotional, quality, social and economic value and ultimately shapes the buying behavior of online game product attributes. There is a difference in each component of perceived value on purchase intention between male and female groups. Emotional and quality values do not affect the female group’s pursuit intent, while social values do not significantly affect the male group.
Book
Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Narrative Aesthetics in Video Games is a collection of contemporary research and interpretation that explores the narrative structures in video games and ludonarrative content design in related media. Featuring coverage of a broad range of topics including narrative theory, game studies, history of video games, and interdisciplinary studies, this book is ideally designed for scholars, researchers, intellectuals, media professionals, game developers, entrepreneurs, and students who wish to enhance their understanding of the relationship and correlation of video games, narrativity, and aesthetics.
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This chapter provides the syllabus, rationale and discussion regarding making an introductory game studies course in a media studies program at the Communications school.
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India embraces a rich terrain of myth and traditions from its religious epics. Quite often, the history and myth go hand in hand, while the belief plays the role in forming a public sense and daily living order. The influence of myth and traditions is deeply embedded in everyday Indian life. While considering the visual culture, the essence of myth can be traced in any stratum of Indian life. The Ramayana and the Mahabharata are the Indian epic texts from where the dominant ideology of the Indian visual culture originated and transformed. During the materialization of cinema (first screen) and television (second screen) in India, narratives from Ramayana and Mahabharata were screened as “successful” prime time crowd pullers. People worshiped their “gods” and “goddesses” on the screen and gratified their imagination. There is enough academic exposure in relation between Indian epics and screen (Dwyer, 2006). Moving ahead to the third screen and the fourth screen generation of visual experiences (computer and mobile), the video games made gamers / prosumers not only to glimpse their god but “act” and modify them. The animated video games like Hanuman: The Boy Warrior and Gurubhakt Ekalavya, Bheema: The Asura Temple, Chota Bheem: Racing and Archery, Bal Ganesh, Little Krishna, Ravana: The unbeatable, Aswathama: The Immortal and other mobile based flash video games are popular in Indian and in the overseas market. These animated characters in the video games reflect the morals and provide a parallel world of ecstasy. Using C.G Jung's understanding of mythology in examining unconscious processes in disrupting and identifying the epics in video games, this research paper explores a theoretical framework for understanding the Indian epics and their characteristics as a “subject” for animation and entertaining video games. The strong masculine characters like Hanuman, Bheem, Arjun act as battle heroes of the video games and are always in fighting against evil. Their visual representation through animation is creating an everlasting impression and memory on their physical appearances and body power they accumulate on the process of animation. This paper further investigates the Levi-Strauss’s classical notes on decoding myth, which “build” the new world out of the collective dream. The production values, conception and distribution of such animation for video games need to be studied for analyzing the recreation of myth in the new world order of entertainment. With the strong presence of a Bollywood replica of myth, this study is focused on video games as an illustrious mode of entertainment in an ordered systematic manner. Keywords: Myth, Epic, Religion, Fantasy, Video game, Visual culture
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The goal of this edited book is to bring together gaming faculty and course developers to present and talk about their syllabi. There are three objectives for such a goal. First, anyone interested in teaching a gaming course will be able to browse this edited volume to find course ideas. Second, we believe in the value of teaching with and through games. Rather than seeing this as a competition, we believe that the more courses that are created, the stronger the field. This book will allow for strengthening of all gaming courses. Stronger courses will lead to bigger programs and more graduates to positively influence our field. Third, our field is changing. A collection of game syllabi will allow scholars to look across multiple contexts and disciplines to understand how gaming is perceived and taught. In this edited volume, readers will be able to hear from successful instructors while they also see detailed course outlines (by week or module) that help them craft better gaming courses. More specifically, they will be able to explore multiple aspects of course syllabi including: the catalog description, course purposes and objectives, context, pedagogy, assignments, assessment, an expanded course outline, a set of best practices for instruction, and authors’ descriptions of potential future changes to make the course stronger.
Article
The public, practitioners, and researchers often express concerns about the physical and behavioral well-being of people who play video games. Research generally fails to distinguish between people who play games and people who self-identify as gamers, so there is limited existing work on how gamer identity affects well-being. Using survey data from nearly 900 young adults collected in 2014 and 2015, this study compared people who do not play video games to self-identified gamers and other video game players on three measures of well-being: physical health, binge drinking, and aggressive behavior. Controlling for demographic factors and time spent gaming, gamers reported poorer physical health compared to non-players. Gamers were less likely to have engaged in binge drinking relative to non-players, an effect modified by self-esteem and social support. People who played games, but did not identify as gamers, did not differ from non-players on measures of well-being. There was no difference in aggressive behavior across player status. Hours played was not independently associated with measures of well-being. Supplementary analyses suggested a potential gendered relationship between player status and well-being. The study illustrated the theoretical and empirical relevance of respondent-selected gamer identity in contextualizing the purported relationship between video game play and well-being.
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This paper identifies opportunities and pathways through which feminist digital geographies can expand into the realm of online gaming. Whilst research at the nexus of gender and online gaming has come a long way in the past two decades, geographical perspectives are noticeably lacking. They can contribute to the discourse by emphasising the contingent nature of online gamespaces, and how a gendered subject position might be redefined through, and help to redefine, the (in)distinctions between “online” and “offline”, “gaming” and “non-gaming” spaces. I identify four directions in which feminist geographies of online gaming can unfold: aesthetic-affective spaces of the “virtually real”, relationality through and beyond the avatar, labours of play and the purpose of leisure, and non-gaming spaces and the gaming of space. These directions foreground an exploration of gender within/and online gaming that is ontologically open, spatially fluid and replete with epistemological potential.
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This article draws on in‐depth interviews with 47 male and female gamers to investigate the interactional processes whereby gamers reproduce gender inequality. Women gamers, because they faced harassment from men, traded place for peace, locating themselves at the margins and minimizing their presence within gaming spaces. Men, who faced no harassment on the basis of gender, normalized the seeming absence of women while justifying their dominant position within gaming culture. These processes maintained the overall marginalization of women within gaming culture by reproducing notions of women as outsiders and men as natural gamers.
Article
Gender stereotypes are a known issue in video games, where female characters are often hyper-sexualized and relegated to disempowering roles. Numerous quantitative studies paint a grim picture of video game communities as hyper-masculine spaces complicit in reproducing harmful gender ideologies. Missing from the literature are qualitative inquiries of the meaning gamers assign to their engagement with a medium that is known for underrepresenting and objectifying women. This study uses qualitative textual content analysis of an influential, popular Internet video game forum—the largest of its kind—where gamers respond to questions posed by members about gender in video games. My findings show that gamers centralize the role of sexual agency and sexual empowerment to construct multiple, nuanced discourses for understanding gender stereotypes in games. These discourses mirror broader feminist debates about the achievability of sexual empowerment within hyper-sexualized cultural contexts. As video games grow in popularity, their ability to generate meaning among increasingly diverse audiences requires continued investigation. By engaging with gamers as they make sense of gender representation in games, researchers can glean insight into the many ways gamers envision change within the video game industry.
Article
Este artigo trata da observação de um Workshop da cena queer avant garde de jogos digitais da Baía de San Francisco, uma cena de produção acadêmica e de jogos queer norte-americana. As cenas queer de jogos digitais são reconhecidas por apropriarem-se de dinâmicas constitutivas dos jogos digitais (como narrativa e mecânicas inerentes aos jogos digitais), assim como de outras estéticas da cultura pop e de elementos históricos das identidades e movimentos LGBTQ. Estas manifestações visam, ao mesmo tempo, produzir novas maneiras de narrar experiências não-heterossexuais e não-cissexuais, e resistir a compreensões hegemônicas que os excluem dessas culturas. Dessa maneira, aqui nos centramos nas relações estéticas organizadas por essa cena, em especial à estética da fofura (”cute”), e de que maneira essa é compreendida e utilizada tanto para um acesso simbólico e afetivo diferencial para essas comunidades quanto como resistência à temas estéticos e mecânicos do jogo digital mainstream.
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Este artigo parte da controvérsia acerca do Projeto de Lei do Senado nº 383, que trata da regulamentação da atividade dos esports no Brasil. Analisamos as repercussões e a conversação acerca da hashtag#TodosContraPLS383, movimento de repúdio organizado no Twitter em novembro de 2019, com o intuito de compor um argumento que problematize (1) as relações entre a indústria de games e dimensões de governança e (2) de que forma o discurso neoliberal é assimilado por indivíduos dentro desta cultura. A partir de uma apropriação etnometodológica e utilizando o software ATLAS.ti para a coleta e compreensão dos dados, reconstruimos uma narrativa que discute a retórica anti-regulação expondo a ideologia neoliberal que pode ser largamente identificada nos discursos acerca da cultura gamer.
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Creativity, unconventionality, rebellion, innovation and imagination are some of the closest terms we can associate with guerilla marketing. The purpose of the paper Social Media Marketing: Implementation of Guerrilla Marketing among Instagram Influencers is to present influencer marketing as a necessary marketing strategy that makes company brands more visible to a large number of people and allows their products and services to be placed on the mass market. Numerous companies are increasingly resorting to this way of advertising where they enter into partnerships with influencers whose profiles are widely visited and who will best present and display their name and their products. Doing business with influencers on Instagram has proven to be a great way to sell and promote a brand, and the closeness that influencers achieve with their followers significantly affects the way potential customers perceive a brand.
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In the past few years, Covet Fashion and Redecor have emerged as popular options in the invest/express genre of casual games, where players create outfits and decorate rooms, respectively, to be judged by other users. This paper considers how such gamification—by turning taste considerations into a literal game—can impact judgments in everyday life. Drawing on symbolic interactionism, this paper positions taste judgments as being constructed through communication and social position. As such, by altering who players are in communication with, these games have the potential to rework learned taste and aesthetic judgments, thereby modifying sociocultural considerations like cultural capital. Taking a phenomenological approach, this paper finds these games frequently support the negative aspects of contemporary consumer culture, but have the potential to be more empowering.
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Dividido en cinco apartados, encontrará a su lectura en un primer momento lo que corresponde a la introducción, en este apartado se presenta un esbozo sobre los referentes de vida que me llevan a cuestionarme sobre esta temática, Además, planteo un panorama sobre la pertinencia de este estudio, y da sitio a las formalidades de investigación como lo son los objetivos y las preguntas de investigación. En el capítulo segundo presento los elementos teóricos que considero establecen una línea de reflexión analítica hacia el escenario que contiene a los videojuegos, para después establecer algunas posturas sobre los ejes que corresponden a las relaciones interpersonales y la identidad, en tanto que son los temas que esta investigación persigue para presentar, además retoma un poco sobre los estudios existentes en relación con la práctica de videojugar. El tercer apartado, se establece el dispositivo, epistemológico, ontológico y principalmente metodológico que da formalidad a la investigación del entramado lúdico digital, que deja al descubierto la categoría de juventud, considerada también, como elemento decisivo para la comprensión de las dinámicas que suceden a partir de la práctica de videojugar, teniendo en cuenta el recorrido histórico de los propios videojuegos. Para la siguiente sección, se presenta lo realizado en las aproximaciones empíricas, que corresponde a los resultados y análisis de la investigación. El universo experiencial de los usuarios permite un acercamiento al entramado identitario de aquellos que video juegan 1 “Las grandes cosas provienen de pequeños comienzos” frase tomada del juego Uncharted Sic Parvis Magna1 5 como parte de sus dinámicas de vida cotidiana, como elemento trascendental e histórico de su ser. Como último, pero no menos importante, se encuentran algunas notas finales, en un tono de conclusión, como ejercicio de reflexión propio de quien escribe, para visualizar si las preguntas y objetivos de investigación fueron resueltos o las aproximaciones realizadas al respecto, además de pensar en algunas sugerencias y posibilidades, así como consideraciones para aquellos interesados en investigar desde lo psicosocial a las comunidades de usuarios de videojuegos.
Article
Sociologists have long known that wages are not all that attract highly skilled workers to jobs. Identity rewards in organizations of work are opportunities for workers to affirm valued identities. Past research has found that workers who value these rewards will protect them when they are threatened. Other scholars have shown that managers can use identity rewards to control and elicit cooperation from workers. Another body of scholarship has explored how gendered assumptions and expectations are built into organizations of work. Based on 2 years of field research and 18 interviews with games industry professionals, my research unites these lines of inquiry, by examining how gendered identity rewards entice game developers for game developers to forgo higher wages and more stable conditions in other areas of software development, reinforcing both exploitive class relations and a culture hostile to marginalized workers.
Article
In the 1980s, a video gamer stereotype emerged as isolated, pale-skinned, white, teen boy in a dark basement single-mindedly mashing buttons. While there may have been a grain of truth to this image, it is also believed that the growth of the video game industry has attracted new audiences and made playing video games more mainstream. Many media scholars have attempted to refute this stereotype with cross- sectional surveys. Rather than examining a snapshot of current gamers, we analyze changes in the characteristics of gamers over close to two decades. Time use data for the US that has been collected consistently for 18 years allow us to identify who the gamers are over time and many of their demographic characteristics. Over this period, video game playing has grown faster among older, female, more educated, and moderate-income, and non-White demographic groups. Or, it has become more mainstream. On the other hand, some proxies suggest that gaming still attracts an antisocial loner archetype. Gamers are increasingly more likely to live with their parents, remain unmarried, and they increasingly game alone for longer gaming sessions.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Interactive video and computer games belong to the new multimedia culture that is based on the digital computer technology. These electronic games have become increasingly popular since the 1980ies. In the beginning they were mainly played b y y outh and young adults, but in the early 1990ies they also entered the media world of children. This development was closely connected to the introduction of new hand-held v ideo game machines like Nintendo's Gameboy and new television-linked game machines like Sega's Master Drive and Nintendo's Entertainment System. For a while the market of electronic games was split up into two parts: computer games for the PC were predominantly designed for and played by over 14-year-olds whereas video games for hand-held and television-linked game machines were mostly developed for and played by children. This, however, changed in the middle of the nineties, because new game machines were introduced which also aimed at older users (think of Sony's Playstation), and because - on the other hand - personal computers became a more and more common equipment for children, too. Electronic games combine two formerly different phenomena: play and technical m edia. Thus they are at t he same time toys which have changed children's ways of playing, and media which have changed children's media culture. We can also say that video and computer games have blurred the borders between playing and media use. Play is the predominant m ode of children and youth to acquire the world o f new media a nd computer technology. We have empirical evidence that "electronic games are the most frequently used interactive media" (Beentjes et al., 2001, 95) throughout Europe. In a comparative study carried out in 1997 and 1998 it was shown that - on average - children between 6 and 16 devote about half an hour per day to playing electronic games. Those types of PC use that adults usually regard as the more serious ones demand less time: PC not for games about 17 minutes and the Internet about 5 minutes per day (Fig. 1). [Available online at: http://www.gamestudies.org/0301/fromme/]
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