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Subjective Reports of the Effects of MDMA in a Clinical Setting

  • Heffter Research Institute


This article is a summary report of data gathered from the first 29 people administered MDMA in a clinical setting. Because the primary purpose of the project was to assist the subjects in achieving their particular and varied goals for having the sessions, the data available for analysis is limited. Only phenomenological descriptions were obtained of the therapists' observations and of the subjects' experiences before, during and after the sessions. Psychological evaluations by independent observers with testing before and after sessions, placebo control group data with double-blind assessment, and laboratory examinations of organ and metabolic functions were not conducted. Providing the reports of these 29 subjects' experiences will hopefully encourage further research into the beneficial effects of MDMA. Presenting evidence establishing the limits of its usefulness should discourage any movement to promote it as a social or psychological panacea.
Subjective Reports
of the Effects of MDMA
a Clinical Setting
The psychological effects of MDMA were first re-
ported in 1978 by Shulgin and Nichols. Because it had
originally been patented in Germany in 1914 and was no
longer patentable. no pharmaceutical manufacturer could
be found who was interested in sponsoring an Investiga-
tional New Drug application with the Food and Drug
Administration or in supporting research (Shulgin 1980).
In 1980. it was learned that. in California at least, drugs
that were not yet available commercially could be used
within a physician's practice if they were manufactured by
the physician or by a pharmacist (Younger 1978). The
state medical board recommended that there be peer re-
view. informed consent and supporting scientific litera-
ture when conducting experimental work (California
Board of Medical Quality Assurance 1980). This article is
a summary report of data gathered from the first 29 people
administered MDMA in a clinical setting.
Because the primary purpose of the project was to
assist the subjects in achieving their particular and varied
goals for having the sessions. the data available for analy-
sis is limited. Only phenomenological descriptions were
obtained of the therapists' observations and of the sub-
jects' experiences before. during and after the sessions.
Psychological evaluations by independent observers with
testing before and after sessions. placebo control group
data with double-blind assessment. and laboratory exami-
nations of organ and metabolic functions were not con-
The MDMA used in this study was synthesized in the
':'3 Azul Drive. Santa Fe. New Mexico X7505.
Journal of Psvchoactive Drugs
laboratory of Alexander Shulgin, Ph.D., who had col-
laborated in writing the only published papers on its
synthesis (Braun. Shulgin
Braun 1980). Dr. Shulgin
was present during the entire procedure for consultation
and assistance. Identity was verified primarily by infrared
The sessions were conducted in San Francisco and in
Santa Fe, New Mexico, from 1980 to 1983. All subjects
were referred by psychotherapists or friends specifically
for the purpose of having an MDMA session, and none
were referred from the author's (Greer) private psychiat-
ric practice. A questionnaire designed for screening and
preparing the subjects for MDMA sessions was filled out,
and lengthy informed consent information was explained
both verbally and in writing. (Information regarding "In-
formed Consent for MDMA Session" is available from
the authors.) Parenthetically. five subjects (well-known
by the authors) filled out the questionnaire retrospectively
at the time of follow-up.
In this preparatory process. the possible side effects
that could occur (resulting primarily from MDMA 's sym-
pathomimetic effects) were described in detail. Subjects
were also told that they should not take MDMA unless
they were certain that they were willing to deal with any
disturbing experience they might have, including (but not
limited to) previous psychological difficulties.
The following medical conditions were criteria for
exclusion from the study: hypertension, heart disease,
hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, sei-
zure disorder. glaucoma, diminished liver function and
actual or possible pregnancy. Subjects with a history of a
socially or vocationally disabling psychological condi-
Vol. 18(4) Oct-Dec, 1986
tion. other than that caused by alcohol or other drug
intoxication. were also excluded. Subject No. 19 was an
exception because the disability was not known until after
the session.
The following agreements were made before the
session to ensure an atmosphere of security during the
session: (I) Everyone agreed to remain on the premises
until it was mutually agreed that the session was over and
that it was safe to leave: (2) The subjects agreed to refrain
from any destructive activity to self, others or property:
(3) All agreed that there would be no sexual activity
between the therapists and the subjects; and (4) The sub-
jects agreed to follow any instructions given by a therapist
when explicitly stated as part of the structure of the ses-
Most of the sessions were held in the subjects'
homes. A six-hour fast was instituted to ensure rapid
absorption of the MDMA and to prevent nausea. Before
the dose was administered there was time to reestablish
contact with the therapists and answer questions. An oral
dose of 75-150 mg of MDMA was then given. (Subject
No.7 received higher doses, which are discussed below.)
Lower doses were used in interpersonal sessions and
higher doses were given to heavier people. During indi-
vidual sessions, the subject listened to instrumental
music-with or without headphones and/or eyeshades-
to facilitate an internal experience. During interpersonal
sessions, music was usually played in the background.
The therapists were attentive and available to respond to
requests or needs, to receive and record communications,
and to interact with subjects as was deemed appropriate.
When subjects noticed that the effect of MDMA was
beginning to subside-usually before two hours-they
were offered a second dose of 50 mg or, rarely, 75 mg.
The purpose of the second dose was to prolong the session
and to provide a more gradual return to their usual state of
consciousness. Some subjects were offered propranolol
(20-40 mg, every three and a half to four hours) or a single
five milligram dose of diazepam to reduce unwanted
sympathomimetic side effects. Others received /-
tryptophan (500 mg) to reduce discomforts occurring late
in the session.
When the sessions were over, the subjects' ability to
drive was assessed before they were allowed to drive a
car. The usual duration of sessions was five to eight hours.
depending on the dosage and setting. Follow-up was
conducted both verbally (soon after the session) and much
later by written questionnaire.
The data gathered from the questionnaires are pre-
sented here in narrative form. (These data are available
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
from the authors in tabular form.) The findings are pre-
sented in the categories of the questions asked. Much
information was gathered on the presession question-
naires. but most was for screening purposes or for com-
parison with the follow-up questionnaires. The only items
from that questionnaire mentioned here are preexisting
physical or psychological problems and the subjects' pur-
poses for having the session.
Fourteen (14)of the 29 subjects reported psychologi-
cal problems. none of which was of a severe nature. Six
individuals reported a dissatisfaction with themselves,
such as fear of rejection, perfectionism or lack of self-
confidence. Mild depression was reported by four sub-
jects. anxiety by two. hate or sadness at being alone by
two, normal existential despair or angst by two and diffi-
culty making major life choices by one. (Subjects with
diagnosable psychiatric disorders are discussed below.)
Additionally. two subjects had significant health prob-
lems: subject No.4 had essential hypertension that was
well controlled with medication. and subject No.7 had
chronic macula edema in one eye with an ocular implant.
Follow-up questionnaires were completed by 28 of
the 29 subjects from two months to two years after the last
session, and most were around nine months. The other
subject (No. 22) responded with a letter over two years
later instead of filling out the questionnaire.
Benefits During Sessions
Every subject experienced some benefit from
MDMA during his/her session. Twenty-seven (27) sub-
jects felt closer and more intimate with anyone present.
(The other two had solo sessions.) A1l21 subjects who had
sessions in couples or groups experienced more closeness
and/or enhanced communication, and two found it easier
to receive compliments and criticism.
All 29 subjects reported positive changes in their
attitudes or feelings. Sixteen (16) felt warmer, fresher,
more alive, euphoric or loving feelings. Ten (10) subjects
mentioned greater self-confidence or self-acceptance, and
10felt that their defenses were lowered. Two of these and
five others reported undergoing a therapeutic emotional
process. Five subjects said they had a transcendent experi-
ence. Five noticed having fewer negative thoughts or
feelings. Three felt more self-aware or self-grounded, and
two reported feeling blessed or at peace.
Twenty-two (22) subjects reported some cognitive
benefit: an expanded mental perspective, insight into per-
sonal patterns or problems, improved self-examination or
"intrapsychic communication" skills, or "issue resolu-
tion." Five subjects used a low dose (50 mg) to facilitate
their creative writing abilities-four in a group session
and one alone. All found it quite useful. Five subjects
Vol. 18(4) Oct-Dec. 1986
reported clear cognition or enhanced presence of mind.
One subject reported an enhanced sense of touch.
Another subject felt pleasantly warm, which was unusual
for her.
Undesirable Effects
All subjects reported some undesirable experience
during or after their sessions. The longest that any of these
symptoms persisted was one week, except in two sub-
jects. Subject No. 14 experienced a week of increased
appetite and a 15 pound weight gain over a few weeks. He
enjoyed eating more for a few months and then lost 10
pounds. No other subjects reported increased appetite.
Subject No. 19 had difficulty coping with work, friends
and relatives a few weeks later. He then had anxiety
attacks that caused him to miss seven days of work. Work
had been a major life stress both before and after the
session. and had led to similar episodes of disabling
anxiety in the past. He was "not receptive to the sensa-
tion" of MDMA and
that the session itself
was not the anxiety-inducing catalyst. Rather, I think it
served to open up some tightly controlled emotions that
spilled out in a frightening way." He entered long-term,
semiweekly psychotherapy for the first time. A year later
he said. "It probably was a good thing. It speeded up
processes that needed to happen."
Every subject reported some undesirable physical
symptom and one subject (No.7) had many more physical
symptoms than any other. She was by far the oldest (74
years). though in good general physical health, except for
her macula edema. In two separate sessions. she took a
much higher single dose (200 mg) and total dose (350 mg)
than any other subject because she had not responded to
lower doses. The side effects she reported during sessions
were nausea, a small amount of vomiting, jaw tension.
ataxia. urinary urgency, blurred vision, sweating. brief
short-term memory loss, and brief distortion in depth
perception with a brief hallucination. During the evening
after the sessions. she-experienced loss of appetite, a little
vomiting, less taste for alcohol. a strong body odor.
blurred vision, urinary urgency. a mild hearing impair-
ment, difficulty opening her jaws wide, insomnia and the
biting of her cheek during sleep. Her jaw-opening diffi-
culty continued for several days, along with two days of
fatigue and hoarseness. one day of feeling uncertain on
her feet and a brief visual illusion the second night, which
lasted only until she turned on the light. She also reported
a pleasant two-day relief from her usual sensitivity to light
in the eye with chronic macula edema.
Twenty-two (22) subjects reported jaw tension or
shaking. or teeth clenching during the session. Two of
these and one other also reported it for the day after.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Diazepam (5 mg) clearly relieved this effect in two sub-
jects, and propranolol (40 mg) also relieved it in two. One
subject (No. 12) who had taken propranolol at the start of
his session reported more jaw tension than he had had in
an earlier, identical-dose session without it. He wondered
if it was due to his purposefully more cognitive orientation
during the second session. None of the other eight subjects
who used propranolol during their sessions complained of
jaw or other muscle tension after taking it.
Twenty-three (23) subjects reported fatigue lasting a
few hours to a few days after the session; for 16 this lasted
two days or less. Four of the 23 felt sleepy or tired during
the session. though one had also taken diazepam (5 mg) to
prevent the jaw clenching she had experienced with
MDMA in the past. One other subject felt tired late in the
Eleven (I I) subjects reported some insomnia the
night after the session, though three subjects reported
sleeping better. Eight subjects experienced muscle aches
or tightness; six during the sessions and four afterward for
a day or less. Six of the eight also had jaw tension.
All but one of the subjects lost their appetites during
sessions-though none found it unpleasant-and all had
fasted overnight or for a few hours before. Seven subjects
felt nauseated during sessions, most for about five to 30
minutes. Two reported stomach upset for the next one or
two days and one subject (No. 17) lost her appetite for
three days and was mildly constipated for a few days.
During the session she related her nausea to thoughts and
feelings about her parents when they were in German
concentration camps. After an unsuccessful attempt to
vomit, the nausea and negative feelings stopped. Two
subjects felt mildly nauseated during the evening after the
session and one other subject was constipated for a day.
Three subjects reported difficulty walking during the
session. Two reported feeling cold during sessions. Many
others mentioned coldness early in the sessions-though
not as a problem-and it usually lasted for less than 30
minutes. Two other subjects mentioned sweating during
sessions. but it too was a common occurrence that was
only mentioned in passing.
The following undesirable physical symptoms were
each reported by only one subject: jittery vision early in
the session; lip swelling. shakiness. and numb hands and
face. all during sessions; headache late in the session;
fainting the evening of the session (subject No. 16. who
thought it was psychosomatic because she had been think-
ing about her difficult relationship with her boyfriend
when it occurred): anorgasmia the day after: and de-
creased sexual desire for one to two days.
Pulse and blood pressure were measured in two sub-
jects. Subject No. 10 had a baseline pulse of60 and blood
Vol. 18(4)
pressure of90/50. During the session, the maximum pulse
recorded was 112, and the maximum blood pressure was
128170. Subject No. II had a baseline pulse of 64 and
blood pressure of 110178. His pulse reached 100, and his
blood pressure went up to 154/88. Readings were taken 35
minutes after ingestion. when the subjects reported the
first sensations of MDMA. and after one hour and 20
minutes, when side effects were felt most intensely.
Sixteen ( 16) subjects reported undesirable emotional
symptoms. Five reported anxiety or nervousness during
the session, including subject No. 19. Two subjects expe-
rienced mild depression the day after. One subject re-
ported mental fatigue and one reported mild emotional
inflation, both for a day. One subject reported feeling
lonely or sad for brief periods during his session. One
other felt one to three minutes of fear and paranoia early in
his session. and then a flattened affect later in the evening.
One subject (No. 18) described waves of physical and
emotional "crud" during his session and over the next
few days. He believed it had built up over the previous few
days and felt he was "letting go" of it during the session.
One subject reported feeling simply more emotional after
her session. and subject No. 17 felt more emotionally
vulnerable and off center for three to four days. including
a few hours of nonspecific anger two days after her ses-
Four subjects described undesirable cognitive symp-
toms. One had a "racing mind" and one reported confu-
sion. both during the evening of their sessions. Subject
No.6 said it was hard to work the next day because there
was "too much going on" inside her mind, and she felt
confused about her relationship with her boyfriend for two
days. One subject reported five to seven days of "negative
self-talk. "
Realization of the Session's Purpose
All but one subject had some purpose or goal, other
than curiosity, for having a session and most had multiple
reasons. Sixteen (16) of these felt that their purpose was
completely realized. four reported significant progress
made toward all their goals, and seven felt that some goals
were realized while others were not. One reported that his
curiosity was satisfied, but that no new learning about
himself occurred.
Nine subjects implied they wanted more cognitive
understanding of themselves and expressed it in several
ways: self-analysis; rational self-examination; learning
about themselves: understanding losses, fears or attitudes;
gaining insight into life patterns; objectivity with insights
into feelings and behavior; and clarifying thinking. Three
of these subjects felt that this goal was fully achieved, one
said progress was made. one was less than satisfied with
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
the results, and four reported no results at all in this area.
Of the eight subjects who wanted a peak experience
of a visionary or mystical nature-or a sense of whole-
ness, connectedness or enlightenment-six felt that they
realized such a goal and two felt that they did not. Two of
the six and three others desired personal or spiritual
growth or self-exploration, and all five felt that this pur-
pose was fully realized.
Six subjects wanted enhanced communication with
someone (often their spouse) taking MDMA with them.
Five felt that this occurred and one was less than satisfied.
One of the five also desired to have more open com-
munication with people after the session and reported
possible progress. Three other subjects desired closeness
with their mates during the session, and all said that they
achieved it.
As mentioned previously, five subjects had low-dose
(50 mg) sessions specifically for the purpose of facilitat-
ing their creative writing. All reported being satisfied with
the results.
Four subjects mentioned fun or enjoyment as a goal.
One of these and two others wanted increased awareness.
All six said that these goals were attained.
Three subjects wanted to change their personality or
behavior patterns in some lasting way. Two reported
progress and one was less satisfied than he wanted or
expected to be. One of the two, and two others, wanted to
work or move through emotional blocks. All three said
they made significant progress. One subject sought to
resolve inner conflicts regarding her husband, from whom
she was separated, and she also made progress.
Two subjects wanted to experience a different state
of consciousness, and two others desired more awareness
of their feelings. All four felt they realized these goals.
One subject desired psychotherapy for sadness at being
alone, and one other wanted to lessen his fear of rejection
during a session with friends. Both reported fully reaching
these goals.
Changes in Psychiatric Disorders
All nine subjects with Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-/I1) (American Psy-
chiatric Association 1980) diagnoses reported significant
relief from their problems. Two subjects reported full and
lasting remissions: subject No. 17 with a dysthymic dis-
order (follow-up after nine months) and subject No. 23
with a postabortion simple phobia of sexuality and possi-
ble pregnancy. All three subjects with atypical or mixed
personality disorders (Nos. 5, 9 and 13) and the four other
subjects with depressive disorders (adjustment disorders
with depressed mood in Nos. 6 and 22, dysthymic dis-
order in No. 17, and atypical depression in No. 16)
Vol. 18(4) Oct-Dec, 1986
reported improvement.
Mood Changes
Eighteen (18) subjects described positive changes in
their mood or emotional state, lasting from several hours
to several weeks, and averaging about one week. Fourteen
(14) reported having more good feelings. Five of these
specifically mentioned euphoria or improved mood and
four mentioned an increase in energy. Eleven (I I) re-
ported feeling more relaxed, calm, detached, serene and!
or less anxious or agitated. Two reported increased alert-
ness for at least a few weeks (one had just begun a leave of
absence from work) and two others felt more amorous or
sexual after their sessions. In addition, one subject felt
more physical relaxation after his session.
Attitudinal Changes
Twenty-three (23) subjects reported posrtrve
changes in attitude that lasted from a week to a follow-up
time of two years. Again, the average duration was rough-
ly a week. Eleven (II) of these specifically mentioned
increased self-esteem. Ten (10) subjects said they felt
more acceptance of negative experiences or more patient
in some way, four of these in relation to achieving their
life goals. Four subjects reported simply feeling more
positive. Three mentioned feeling less guilty, three re-
ported having a more spiritual orientation in their lives and
two felt more powerful. One subject each reported an
increase in the following characteristics: self-awareness;
hopefulness; satisfaction; lucky to have her position in life
with her husband and friends: and flexibility to openness
to change. self-discipline and commitment. Another sub-
ject described a clear and brisk feeling with a sense that
there is more love in the world. One felt less self-
defeating. one felt less self-conscious and inhibited, and
one felt less needy.
Some attitude changes were primarily interpersonal
in nature and wi
be described below. Negative changes
reported by seven subjects were previously discussed. but
four of these also had some of the positive changes men-
tioned above.
Five subjects reported changes in their attitudes
toward death since their sessions. Two now see death as a
change and not an end. two others feel less fear of their
own or their parents' deaths. and one subject found that he
thought more about death. though his feelings about it
were no different.
Belief Changes
Sixteen (16) subjects reported belief changes that
persisted after the sessions. but rarely did two report the
same specific change. All changes resulted in more posi-
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
tive beliefs about themselves, individually or in relation to
others or the world in general. Six subjects reported
greater self-acceptance. self-confidence. independence,
self-control. or appreciation of being alive. Four express-
ed more interest or ability in pursuing spiritual growth and
three others reported a sense of unity with people, with the
world or with "being." Four perceived an increased
willingness to love. a greater appreciation of others or a
greater capacity for interpersonal warmth. Four learned
new ways to deal with psychological problems, two said
their beliefs in their limited possibilities were diminished
and one reported that his beliefs about himself and the
universe were strengthened and deepened.
Relationship Changes
Only two subjects reported negative changes in their
interpersonal relationships after sessions. One subject
(No. 22) felt more guilt around men for "a while." She
thought it resulted from an insight gained during the
session concerning the childhood death of her brother.
She also proceeded with a divorce, having separated from
her husband before the session. The other subject (No. 19)
has been mentioned above.
Every subject except No. 25 reported positive
changes in their relationships after sessions, and he said,
"It is possible that I have become more capable of ex-
pressing myself without having as much hesitation about
how people will respond to my openness." The closeness
and enhanced communication present during sessions
continued for a few days to two years (at follow-up) for
three of the five couples. In the two couples who had prior
difficulties. they resolved significant conflicts after the
session. Three subjects whose spouses were present, but
not using MDMA. also reported more closeness and/or
improved communication with them-two briefly. but
the other still at follow-up after 10 and a half months. In
addition to the three couples, 14 subjects reported the
same changes with people other than their mates. In six of
these. the changes were still present at follow-up between
four and 24 months later. and in three others changes
lasted from one to several weeks.
Ten ( 10) subjects reported that soon after their ses-
sions they resolved conflicts with others. and for five of
these people the conflicts concerned partners who did not
have a session with them. Two of the latter (one being
married) and two others (whose partners were also not
present for the session) reported the continued decline and
eventual termination of primary romantic relationships
that were already failing before the sessions. On the other
hand. two subjects who both had solo sessions subse-
quently got married (though not to each other).
An increase in the interpersonal expression of feel-
Vol. 18(4) Oct-Dec. 1986
ings after sessions was reported by seven subjects. An
increase in acceptance and/or tolerance of others after-
ward was reported by six subjects. Three said that they
now avoid superficial social interactions, two specifically
mentioning cocktail parties. Three subjects reported
seeing others as more autonomous and less in terms of
their own needs and/or projections. Two said they found it
easier to ask for help or make demands. One couple
reported enhanced sexual enjoyment afterward-partly
due to delayed orgasm-and one couple gained more
awareness of their prior sexual problems.
Subject No. 17reported feeling closer to her mother,
seeking out people like herself more often (while avoiding
egotistical people), and being able to state her beliefs
more easily to others. All other relationship changes were
reported by one subject each and included the following:
feeling more compassionate; having greater freedom to
have friends and a willingness to risk more with them;
actually making more close friends; feeling more forgive-
ness toward others (along with receiving feedback from
friends about "positive changes in the heart"); feeling
comfort and rightness with wife; having a more confident
and comfortable attitude toward wife without fear (with
more confident and direct social behavior); experiencing
an increased awareness of wife and others, with more
empathy; having greater interest in others; recognizing
how he distances others while wanting to be close; and
understanding better the relationships with friends who
shared the session.
Occupation Changes
Sixteen (16) subjects reported positive changes in
their work since their sessions. Six felt better on the job in
some way: less driven, compulsive, tense, stressed, tem-
peramental or burned out; more patient and tolerant; or
reported having more fun working or having more energy
to do their work. Four had improved work relationships
with more patience and tolerance, connectedness, accep-
tance or just getting along better with others. Most sub-
jects did not say how long these changes lasted, but some
indicated a range of one to 10 days.
Three subjects reported an increase in income since
their sessions. One had changed jobs, one had graduated
from school and begun her professional career and one
had switched from the technical side of his work to the
management side, where he enjoys spending more time
with people. One subject (No. 19) reported increased job
satisfaction, while another reported a decrease, but neith-
er attributed the change to their sessions. One subject said
he had become more active since his sessions and one
subject said he had become more active in his independent
professional work.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Two subjects reported negative changes. Subject
No.6 found it harder to work the day after a session and
subject NO.7 found it harder to deal with demands and
was less interested in work, but did not say for how long.
Activity Changes
Six subjects reported changes in their involvement
with activities other than work. Two subjects joined
groups for spiritual growth. One noticed an improvement
in his creative writing abilities during the months after his
session, when he took a leave of absence from work to
complete a book of poetry. One subject was able to
resume golf (his lifetime sport) after years of back pain,
which had required multiple surgeries, ceased. Subject
No. 19 took up woodworking for the first time, and one
subject said he enjoyed his hobbies more. One reported a
decrease in political activity, but did not attribute it to the
Spiritual and Physical Practice Changes
Fourteen (14) subjects reported positive changes in
their regular practices for improving their spiritual or
physical well-being. Six subjects began some sort of
meditation or spiritual practice after their sessions. Twoof
these described MDMA-like states occurring during
meditation, and one other subject said her meditation had
improved. One subject. who continued a previous prac-
tice. felt that meditation was more important and medi-
tated more often with clearer goals in mind. One subject
reported looking at Buddhism (which he practiced) more
analytically than emotionally or spiritually, but placed no
value judgment on the change.
Three subjects had started new exercise programs by
the time of follow-up. while one had stopped a previous
routine. Two others increased prior exercise routines,
though one said that it was due more to advancing age than
to his session. One subject became more interested in
health foods and improved his diet.
Substance Use Changes
Fourteen (14) of the 28 subjects who answered
follow-up questionnaires reported a decrease in the use of
mind- or mood-altering substances, and three reported
increases. Six reported a decrease in alcohol intake: two
continued to drink less at follow-up, with one reporting a
marked decrease in his inclination to do so; two stopped
drinking completely; and one of the remaining two said
the decrease lasted two to four weeks. One subject re-
ported an increase in consumption from three to five beers
a week. One other subject did not feel like drinking
alcohol, coffee or tea (as was her custom) after her ses-
sions, but did not mention changes in long-term use.
Vol. 18(4) Oct-Dec. 1986
Six subjects decreased their marijuana intake: one
for only two to four weeks, but the rest continued to use
less at follow-up, four to 18 months later. One stopped
entirely and another reported a decrease in his desire for
marijuana. One of the six said marijuana enhanced the
sensations she remembered from MDMA sessions, even
though her actual use decreased significantly. One subject
had increased his marijuana use by follow-up time at nine
Five subjects reported a decreased caffeine intake. In
four the change lasted, with one stopping entirely. In the
one remaining subject, the decrease lasted several days.
One subject who drank six to eight cups of coffee a day
also stopped completely, but he does not relate it to his
MDMA sessions. One noncoffee drinker now drinks it
two to three times a week, and another increased his use,
but not soon after his session.
. Two subjects continue to smoke less tobacco. One
other reported a greater urge to smoke after sessions.
One subject had continued to refrain from cocaine
use for the four and a half months between his session and
follow-up. Another reported a decreased desire for
cocaine, without mentioning a change in use. These were
the only two frequent users of cocaine in this study.
One subject reported less LSD use, one said he
desired all psychedelics less, while one said he desired
them more. One subject had a much more introspective
psychedelic experience, and one had a more enhanced
experience than usual, after MDMA sessions. One sub-
ject said she would be interested only in MDMA to alter
her state of mind in the future because she "learned from
it. "
Changes in Life Goals
Fifteen (15) subjects changed some of their life goals
after sessions, all implying that they were positive. Five
said they felt more commitment to the same goals or felt
that their goals were closer or that they felt more intense or
"emergent." Four others reported a change toward seek-
ing more self-awareness, personal growth and/or well-
being. Another four had given up pursuing goals that were
not being achieved or were trying less hard to reach their
goals. Two subjects' goals had shifted away from con-
cerns with money and financial security. Individuals re-
ported the following varied changes: a shift from avoiding
the negative to seeking the positive in life; greater desire to
communicate and bond with husband; having a new goal
of understanding relationships; becoming more active in
work, and a greater interest in intellectual activities.
Changes in Experiences Being Sought Out
Nine subjects reported desirable changes in the kinds
journal of Psychoactive Drugs
of experiences they seek out in life. Four sought more
trust, honesty. openness, closeness, or direct communica-
tion in their relationships-in addition to actual changes
in their relationships described above. One subject now
wants to be with more spiritually oriented people, and
another seeks to offer more loving service to people.
Two subjects sought both to experience more love
and open-heartedness as well as more freedom to be
creative and/or artistic. Another two reported now having
a more spiritual orientation in their lives, while two others
found themselves more amorous or sexual after their
sessions. Subject No. 19sought intensive psychotherapy.
Changes in Experiences Being Avoided
Nine subjects described positive changes in the kinds
of experiences they avoided in life. Three now avoid
superficial socializing (two mentioning cocktail parties),
while another avoids egotistical people, and one now
avoids habitually taking care of others in her rela-
Two subjects now avoid "sloth" or boring things.
One reports accepting negative experiences more (less
avoidance of them), and another (No. 19) chose to face
problems rather than avoid them. The latter is also avoid-
ing all psychoactive drugs. One subject is trying to avoid
"negative karma" for herself and others.
Changes in Attitudes Preventing Self-actualization
Thirteen (13) subjects reported changes in this area,
all for the better. Seven reported gaining lasting insight
into psychological problems during their sessions. Three
said they experience less guilt, such as that over enjoying
small pleasures. Two reported a decrease in limiting be-
liefs about their possibilities. One of these individuals also
now feels less self-defeating and recognizes how he dis-
tances others while he wants to be close. One subject feels
less defensive and compulsive, one sees that she can
change her defenses and one feels less impatient and
rebellious. One reported feeling less strongly that emo-
tions should not be expressed, one feels less self-
conscious and inhibited and one feels less bound by anxi-
ety. Subject No. 17 said she "literally got rid of a lot of
negative material I had carried around with me forever,"
and now takes more risks in life. Nine months after her
session, she said, "L'rn continually getting better, bright-
er, happier, clearer and more grounded." One subject
reported dissolving' 'useless structures within the mind,"
and one said that her sessions accelerated her
MDMA was apparently physically safe for all 29
Vol. 18(4) Oct-Dee, 1986
subjects in this study. No side effects were serious and
only one subject had a side effect last more than a week.
Vital signs recorded in two subjects revealed some in-
crease in blood pressure and heart rate. These increases
would be safe in a healthy person, but not in anyone with
vascular disease. Other contraindications are standard for
any sympathomimetic drug.
Only one subject (No. 19) experienced postsession
psychological difficulties that were disabling or of more
than a few days duration. He had been briefly disabled by
the same symptoms of anxiety a few years earlier. During
the session, he became afraid that he would become
overwhelmed by unwanted emotions. He worked at pre-
venting this from happening and became intermittently
anxious in the process. He felt that other events in his life
were the causes of his postsession anxiety. A year later he
felt that his session was probably beneficial. Subject
also had a past history of disabling anxiety attacks,
but she had already received a long course of psychother-
apy for them. In any case, there is an indication that
MDMA may predispose people to a recurrence of previ-
ous psychological disabilities.
In future studies, informing subjects in detail of
possible risks in taking MDMA and emphasizing them
should be mandatory and will appropriately discourage
some prospective subjects. Exclusion of those with a prior
psychological disability-or an inability or unwillingness
any disturbing experience that might occur during
or after the session-should result in a safe population for
clinical trials. It is also recommended that people who
want MDMA to cure their problems should be excluded,
whereas people who want to use it to learn about them-
selves should make good candidates.
In regard to the efficacy of MDMA for treating
psychiatric disorders. all nine subjects with
agnoses reported significant benefit. with two reporting
lasting remission. A trend also exists toward relieving low
self-esteem and increasing self-acceptance and self-
confidence. One subject (No. 21) reported relief of back
pain from which he had suffered for a few years. It is most
likely that the psychosomatic component in this disorder
as opposed to any anatomic abnormality.
MDMA might be useful in other medical conditions in-
volving a psychological factor, though there is no support-
ing evidence from this study.
In general. it is reasonable to conclude that the single
best use of MDMA is to facilitate more direct communica-
tion between people involved in a significant emotional
relationship. Not only is communication enhanced during
the session, but afterward as well. Once a therapeutically
motivated person has experienced the lack of true risk
involved in direct and open communication, it can be
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
practiced without the assistance of MDMA. This ability
can not only help resolve existing conflicts, but it can also
prevent future ones from occurring due to unexpressed
fears or misunderstandings. Regardless of the mecha-
nism, most subjects expressed a greater sense of ease in
relating to their partners. friends and co-workers for days
to months after their sessions.
MDMA's use as an adjunct to insight-oriented
psychotherapy was specifically recommended by six sub-
jects. Many felt that MDMA enhanced self-understanding
and was useful in their personal and spiritual growth.
A value in treating at least mild alcohol and other
drug abuse is indicated by the decreased use (reported by
subjects) of substances that have psychological depen-
dence potential. Some subjects mentioned that these sub-
stances seemed less appealing after experiencing
MDMA. The ability not only to feel free of conflict-
which can be provided by many drugs of abuse-but also
to learn how to prevent conflicts in everyday life seems
unique to MDMA as a therapeutic adjunct.
In addition, MDMA's diminished pleasurable
effects and markedly increased side effects when taken in
either large doses or with greater frequency distinguish it
from most drugs of abuse. Subjects Nos.
four 50 mg supplemental doses after their initial dose.
They found the fourth dose to cause only more agitation
and confusion without any pleasant effects at all. Some
subjects reported using MDMA on their own, but only
subject No. 22 used it twice in the same week. The second
experience was therapeutically useful, but left her de-
pressed and exhausted for about two days. Therefore,
both the positive experience of MDMA and the impracti-
cality of using it frequently can motivate people to find
other ways to achieve a desirable state of mind in everyday
life. Sixteen
subjects began or increased their medita-
tion practices or exercise programs, which supports this
Providing the reports of these 29 subjects' experi-
ences will hopefully encourage further research into the
beneficial effects of MDMA. Presenting evidence estab-
lishing the limits of its usefulness should discourage any
movement to promote it as a social or psychological
The authors wish to thank Jack Downing, M.D.,
Stanislav Grof, M.D., Robert Hausner, M.D., Rodney
Houghton, M.D., Will Macl-lendrie, M.D., Ralph Metz-
ner, Ph.D. and John Perry. M.D. for serving as the peer
review committee for this project; Alexander Shulgin,
Ph.D. and Ann Shulgin for their support and instruction;
326 Vol. 18(4) Oct-Dec. 1986
and Mary Greer and Ron Romanik, M.D. for editorial
American Psychiatric Association. Taskforce on Nomenclature and
Statistics. 1980. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Dis-
orders 105M-III). 3rd ed. Washington. D.C.: American Psychiatric
Shulgin. A.T.
Braun. G. 1980. Centrally active N-
substituted analogs of 3.4-methylenedioxyphenylisopropylamine
O.4-methylenedioxyamphetamine). journal ofPharmaceutical Sci-
ences Yol. 69(2): 192-195.
California Board of Medical Quality Assurance. 1980. Personal com-
journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Shulgin, A.T. 1980. Personal communication.
Shulgin. A.T.
Nichols. D.E. 1978. Characterization of three new
psychotomimetics. In: Stillman. R.C.
Willette. R.E. (Eds.). The
Phurmacologv of Hallucinogens, New York: Pergamon.
Younger. E.J. 1978. Opinion of Evelle J. Younger. Attorney General.
State of California. on questions from the State Board of Pharmacy,
May 2. (Reference Nos. CY 76/212
CY 77/236).
Yol. 18(4) Oct-Dee, 1986
... Most randomized controlled studies of MDMA have tested it as an adjunct to therapy for PTSD [1,71], as early data suggested that MDMA's effects were particularly well suited to helping patients recall and process aversive and traumatic memories [147]. Two small studies have also tested MDMA assisted therapy for social anxiety in autistic adults [148], and for alcohol use disorder [149] respectively. ...
... In several species [68][69][70]152], MDMA can produce an array of affiliative and prosocial behaviors. MDMA may also modify the sensitivity to social reward in mice, an effect lasting weeks after a single dose [153], reminiscent of the integration therapy process after an MDMA experience [147]. Insight into relevant social circuitry came from a seminal series of studies on the mechanism of pair-bonding in voles which focused attention on oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to play critical roles in social and affiliative behaviors [154,155]. ...
... Scales used in clinical trials are primarily designed to detect presence or absence of a disease state rather than a dimension of behavioral change and are thus poorly equipped to answer this question. However, studies of healthy volunteers and secondary analyses of therapeutic trials suggest that for psychedelics and entactogens, respectively, similar acute and long-term behavioral effects occur regardless of the initial disease state [26,83,147,209,210]. ...
Recent clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that psychedelics and entactogens may produce both rapid and sustained therapeutic effects across several indications. Currently, there is a disconnect between how these compounds are used in the clinic and how they are studied in preclinical species, which has led to a gap in our mechanistic understanding of how these compounds might positively impact mental health. Human studies have emphasized extra-pharmacological factors that could modulate psychedelic-induced therapeutic responses including set, setting, and integration-factors that are poorly modelled in current animal experiments. In contrast, animal studies have focused on changes in neuronal activation and structural plasticity-outcomes that are challenging to measure in humans. Here, we describe several hypotheses that might explain how psychedelics rescue neuropsychiatric disease symptoms, and we propose ways to bridge the gap between human and rodent studies. Given the diverse pharmacological profiles of psychedelics and entactogens, we suggest that their rapid and sustained therapeutic mechanisms of action might best be described by the collection of circuits that they modulate rather than their actions at any single molecular target. Thus, approaches focusing on selective circuit modulation of behavioral phenotypes might prove more fruitful than target-based methods for identifying novel compounds with rapid and sustained therapeutic effects similar to psychedelics and entactogens.
... In addition to the emotional positivity bias, MDMA has also been found to increase prosocial attitudes, speech, and behaviours, including mutual trust with the therapist, cooperation, openness, closeness to others, emotional empathy, and direct and open communication (e.g. Baggott et al., 2016;Baggott et al., 2015;Bedi et al., 2014;Bedi et al., 2010;Frye et al., 2014;Gabay et al., 2018;Gabay et al., 2019;Greer & Tolbert, 1986). Patients have also reported reduced fear responses and greater experience of safety when engaging with their traumatic experience and less avoidant behaviours during their sessions with MDMA (Barone et al., 2019;Greer & Tolbert, 1986;Greer & Tolbert, 1998). ...
... Baggott et al., 2016;Baggott et al., 2015;Bedi et al., 2014;Bedi et al., 2010;Frye et al., 2014;Gabay et al., 2018;Gabay et al., 2019;Greer & Tolbert, 1986). Patients have also reported reduced fear responses and greater experience of safety when engaging with their traumatic experience and less avoidant behaviours during their sessions with MDMA (Barone et al., 2019;Greer & Tolbert, 1986;Greer & Tolbert, 1998). Given that PTSD is characterized by interpersonal difficulties, hypervigilance, hyperarousal, and avoidant behaviours (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), these aforementioned effects could bolster the patient's ability to engage with their traumatic experience without being emotionally overwhelmed and without applying avoidant coping mechanisms. ...
The application of MDMA in conjunction with psychotherapy has in recent years seen a resurgence of clinical, scientific, and public interest in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Clinical trials have shown promising safety and efficacy, but the mechanisms underlying this treatment form remain largely unestablished. This article explores recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that the treatment's efficacy may be influenced by the mnemonic effects of MDMA. We review data on the effects of MDMA on fear extinction and fear reconsolidation and the utility of these processes for PTSD treatment. We corroborate our findings by incorporating research from cognitive psychology and psychopharmacology and offer recommendations for future research.
... 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was originally synthesized by the pharmaceutical company Merck in 1912 as part of a research program on anticoagulating agents. Early case reports suggested that MDMA could be a remarkably effective catalyst in both individual and couples psychotherapy [73,74] for a variety of psychological issues. The psychedelic-like effects of MDMA were eventually immortalized by Alexander and Ann Shulgin in their book, PiHKAL [75]. ...
Full-text available
The clinical investigation of psychedelic medicines has blossomed over the last 5 years. Data from a Phase 3 industry trial and a multicenter Phase 2 industry trial, in addition to multiple early phase investigator-initiated and industry trials, have now been published in peer-reviewed journals. This narrative review summarizes both the recent data and the current clinical trials that are being conducted with various classes of "psyche-manifesting" substances, which may prove beneficial in the treatment of a broad range of conditions. Methodological considerations, unique challenges, and next steps for research are discussed in keeping with the uniquely "experiential" nature of these therapies.
... In parallel, several psychotherapists utilized MDMA in their clinical practices throughout the late 1970s and early 1980s prior to it being placed on the Schedule I list of controlled substances. Although no controlled trials were conducted at the time, several case studies were published on the findings of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy, including with couples, that demonstrated improvements in anxiety, interpersonal communication and introspection (Greer and Tolbert, 1986). This prompted the formation of the non-profit research organization, the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS), which has spearheaded clinical research with MDMA since the early 1990s (Doblin, 2002). ...
Psychedelic substances are under investigation in several drug development programs. Controlled clinical trials are providing evidence for safe and effective use of psychedelic therapies for treating mental health conditions. With the anticipated FDA approval of MDMA-assisted therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in 2023 and psilocybin therapy for depression disorders soon after, now is the time for the medical community to become informed on best practices and to actively participate in developing standards of care for these new treatments. Given the emergence of numerous drug sponsors and other companies developing therapeutic modalities for combination with psychedelic medications, it is essential that the medical professional field is at the forefront of communicating unbiased information related to safety and effectiveness. Gold standards have long been a part of medicine and serve to distinguish treatments and assessments as the highest quality by which all others can be compared to. For a treatment to be established as a gold standard, several factors are considered including the quantity and quality of the supporting data, the rigor of trials, and the safety and efficacy compared to other treatments. In this article, we review the origins of psychedelic-assisted therapy (PAT), minimum requirements for safe use of psychedelics, criteria for gold standards in mental health, and the nuances regarding how to establish gold standards in psychedelic medicine and guide clinical decision making.
... 49, 165 Studies with MDMA have also demonstrated that it is not only safe but may also be beneficial to relationships when two individuals share the dosing experience. 131,166 Pertinent to caregivers, an upcoming clinical trial will investigate the use of MDMA-assisted therapy for the treatment of adjustment disorder in dyads of cancer patients and their concerned significant other (NCT05584826). Therefore, it may be helpful in some circumstances to consider including both the caregiver and care recipient in a combined medication session or a joint psychotherapy process, assuming that the care recipient has no contraindications to treatment and is willing to participate. ...
Full-text available
Background: More than 50 million people in the United States serve as uncompensated informal caregivers to chronically ill friends or family members. Providing care to a sick loved one can contribute to personal growth but can also cause significant strain. Caregiver distress refers to a constellation of physiological, psychological , interpersonal, and spiritual impairments that typically result when an individual's own health becomes affected while caring for another. Caregiver distress is highly prevalent, affecting an estimated 30-70% of individuals across various caregiver populations. Although evidence-based treatments for care-giver distress exist, they do not sufficiently address all its components. In recent years, clinical trials have demonstrated that psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy (PAP) may have applications for treating a range of medical and psychiatric conditions that have significant overlap in symptoms to those seen in caregiver distress. While no studies to date have examined PAP for caregiver distress, this article provides a rationale for investigating PAP as a potential novel treatment for this indication. Methods: A narrative review on the effects and clinical applications of PAP that significantly overlap with the dimensions of caregiver distress was conducted. Safety considerations, psychedelic selection, and therapeutic structure for studying PAP in the treatment of caregiver distress were also examined. Results: Psychologically, PAP has been shown to treat anxiety, depression, and reduce suicidal ideation. Physiologically, evidence suggests that psychedelics have anti-inflammatory properties, which may aid caregivers suffering from chronic inflammation. Interpersonally, PAP has been demonstrated to enhance feelings of empathy, connectedness, and strengthen social relationships, which can often become strained while caregiving. Spiritually, PAP has been shown to ameliorate existential distress and hopelessness in cancer patients, which may similarly benefit demoralized caregivers. Conclusion: PAP has the potential to comprehensively treat all biopsychosocial-spiritual dimensions of caregiver distress.
... It was included as an experimental drug by the US government in its 'truth serum' mind control program [36] and was the subject of research by psychiatrists, led by Alexander Shulgin [37]. However, although clinical trials showed promising results [38,39], MDMA was banned by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1985. ...
Full-text available
Psychedelics are experiencing a strong renaissance and will soon be incorporated into clinical practice. However, there is uncertainty about how much harm they can cause at what doses. This review aimed to collect information on the health-hazardous doses of psychedelic substances, to be aware of the risks to which patients may be subjected. We focused on ergolamines, simple tryptamines, and phenylethylamines. We reviewed articles published in major medical and scientific databases. Studies reporting toxic or lethal doses in humans and animals were included. We followed PRISMA criteria for revisions. We identified 3032 manuscripts for inclusion. Of these, 33 were ultimately useful and gave relevant information about effects associated with high psychedelics doses. Despite having different molecular structures and different mechanisms of action, psychedelics are effective at very low doses, are not addictive, and are harmful at extremely high doses. For LSD and psilocybin, no dose has been established above which the lives of users are endangered. In contrast, MDMA appears to be the most dangerous substance, although reports are biased by recreational missuses. It seems that it is not only the dose that makes the poison. In the case of psychedelics, the set and setting make the poison.
As psychedelic compounds gain traction in psychiatry, there is a need to consider the active mechanism to explain the effect observed in randomized clinical trials. Traditionally, biological psychiatry has asked how compounds affect the causal pathways of illness to reduce symptoms and therefore focus on analysis of the pharmacologic properties. In psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy (PAP), there is debate about whether ingestion of the psychedelic alone is thought to be responsible for the clinical outcome. A question arises how the medication and psychotherapeutic intervention together might lead to neurobiological changes that underlie recovery from illness such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This paper offers a framework for investigating the neurobiological basis of PAP by extrapolating from models used to explain how a pharmacologic intervention might create an optimal brain state during which environmental input has enduring effects. Specifically, there are developmental "critical" periods (CP) with exquisite sensitivity to environmental input; the biological characteristics are largely unknown. We discuss a hypothesis that psychedelics may remove the brakes on adult neuroplasticity, inducing a state similar to that of neurodevelopment. In the visual system, progress has been made both in identifying the biological conditions which distinguishes the CP and in manipulating the active ingredients with the idea that we might pharmacologically reopen a critical period in adulthood. We highlight ocular dominance plasticity (ODP) in the visual system as a model for characterizing CP in limbic systems relevant to psychiatry. A CP framework may help to integrate the neuroscientific inquiry with the influence of the environment both in development and in PAP. Appeared originally in Front Neurosci 2021; 15:710004.
Full-text available
Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a world-leading cause of disability. The available treatments are not effective in all patients, and there is a significant need for more effective treatment options. Here we present the protocol for an investigator-initiated and publicly funded trial of MDMA-assisted therapy (MDMA-AT) for MDD. This single-site, open-label study investigates the proof of principle and safety of MDMA-AT in participants with MDD and provides an initial impression of treatment effectiveness. Methods A total of 12 participants [>18 years] with DSM-5 diagnosis of MDD will receive a flexible dose of MDMA in a therapeutic setting on two dosing days over a 4 week period preceded by three preparatory sessions. Each MDMA dosing session will be followed by three integration sessions. The primary outcome is change in MDD symptom severity, as measured by the mean change in MADRS scores from Baseline to 8 weeks after the second MDMA session. The secondary outcome is change in functional impairment, as evaluated by the mean change in Sheehan Disability Scale scores from Baseline to 8 weeks after the second MDMA session. Safety measures include vital signs, the incidence of Adverse Events and suicidality as measured by the Colombia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Discussion This proof of principle trial will inform the development of fully powered clinical trials, optimize the protocol for the administration of MDMA-AT in participants with MDD and explore uncertainties including barriers to recruitment, retention and acceptability of MDMA-AT as a treatment for MDD. Clinical trial identification EudraCT number 2021-000805-26.
Full-text available
Participants in MDMA- and psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy often emerge from these treatments with new beliefs about themselves and the world. Studies have linked changed beliefs with mystical experiences reported by some participants during drug sessions. While there has been some debate about the epistemic value of drug-induced mystical experiences, and about the need for consent to treatments that may alter metaphysical beliefs, less attention has been given to the sense of authenticity that attends these experiences. In this paper, I consider the intersubjective context in which these changed beliefs arise. I suggest that the sense of authenticity people experience with MDMA- and psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy derives from a simultaneous feeling of knowing and being known. The medications used in these treatments reduce the defensive barriers which ordinarily prevent powerful feelings from being intersubjectively shared, allowing the subject to experience knowing and being known with the therapist and/or internalized or imagined others. In explaining this thesis, I discuss Ratcliffe's “existential feeling;” ipseity in incipient psychosis and psychedelic states; Winnicott's notions of the True Self, omnipotence, creativity, and transitional phenomena; implicit relational knowing and moments of meeting; infant-mother dyad research; predictive processing and the relaxed beliefs model of psychedelic action; the role of the “partner in thought” in knowing and feeling known. I propose that a “transitional space” model of MDMA- and psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy is well-suited for working through “not-me” or dissociated experience
The known central nervous system activity of 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylisopropylamine and its N-methyl homolog prompted the synthesis of a series of analogs with substituents on the nitrogen atom. Most of these analogs (R = alkyl, alkenyl, hydroxy, alkoxy, and alkoxyalkyl) were prepared by the reductive alkylation of 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylacetone with the appropriate amine and sodium cyanoborohydride. Hindered isomers were synthesized indirectly. Measurements of their pharmacological activity in several animal assays and in human subjects indicated that the central activity decreased with the increasing bulk of the N-substituent.
The known central nervous system activity of 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylisopropylamine and its N-methyl homolog prompted the synthesis of a series of analogs with substituents on the nitrogen atom. Most of these analogs (R = alkyl, alkenyl, hydroxy, alkoxy, and alkoxyalkyl) were prepared by the reductive alkylation of 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylacetone with the appropriate amine and sodium cyanoborohydride. Hindered isomers were synthesized indirectly. Measurements of their pharmacological activity in several animal assays and in human subjects indicated that the central activity decreased with the increasing bulk of the N-substituent.
Personal communication Characterization of three new psychotomimetics The Phurmacologv of Hallucinogens
  • A T Shulgin
  • A T Shulgin
  • D E Nichols
Shulgin, A.T. 1980. Personal communication. Shulgin. A.T. & Nichols. D.E. 1978. Characterization of three new psychotomimetics. In: Stillman. R.C. & Willette. R.E. (Eds.). The Phurmacologv of Hallucinogens, New York: Pergamon. Younger. E.J. 1978. Opinion of Evelle J. Younger. Attorney General. State of California. on questions from the State Board of Pharmacy, May 2. (Reference Nos. CY 76/212 & CY 77/236).
Opinion of Evelle J. Younger. Attorney General. State of California. on questions from the State Board of Pharmacy
  • E J Younger
Younger. E.J. 1978. Opinion of Evelle J. Younger. Attorney General. State of California. on questions from the State Board of Pharmacy, May 2. (Reference Nos. CY 76/212 & CY 77/236).
Taskforce on Nomenclature and Statistics Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 105M-III)
  • American Psychiatric Association
American Psychiatric Association. Taskforce on Nomenclature and Statistics. 1980. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 105M-III). 3rd ed. Washington. D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.