Toxicity of Eosinophil Cationic Proteins for Guinea Pig Tracheal Epithelium In Vitro

Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905.
The American review of respiratory disease (Impact Factor: 10.19). 04/1989; 139(3):801-5. DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/139.3.801
Source: PubMed


We tested the effects of four eosinophil granule cationic proteins: major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), on guinea pig tracheal epithelium in vitro. Examination by inverted microscopy revealed that MBP, both the form stabilized by alkylation of sulfhydryl groups as well as the native form of the molecule, ECP, EPO by itself, as well as EPO + H2O2 + halide, but not EDN, cause dose-related damage to the tracheal epithelium. The lowest concentrations of MBP and ECP causing damage were 10 and 100 micrograms/ml, respectively. In contrast, EDN, although biochemically similar to ECP, did not damage the tracheal epithelium in concentrations of up to 200 micrograms/ml. MBP caused exfoliation, as well as bleb formation and ciliostasis. EPO in the presence of the H2O2-producing enzyme glucose oxidase (GO), Cl-, 0.11 M, and iodide caused ciliostasis, bleb formation, and exfoliation of epithelial cells at concentrations as low as 1 U/ml (3.9 micrograms/ml). EPO + GO in the presence of Cl-, 0.11 M, alone or with Cl- and l-, 10(-4) M, or Cl- and Br-, 5 x 10(-5) M, were all toxic to epithelium. Surprisingly, EPO by itself caused partial ciliostasis, bleb formation, and exfoliation of epithelial cells in a dose-related manner at concentrations as low as 10 to 30 U/ml (39 to 121 micrograms/ml). These results confirm prior observations showing the toxicity of MBP to tracheal epithelium and indicate that ECP and EPO alone, as well as EPO + GO + halide, cause damage. Thus, several eosinophil granule proteins are able to damage respiratory epithelium.

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    • "IL-5 is mainly produced from Th2 cells and/or mast cells. IL-5 can recruit eosinophil infiltration in the nasal mucosal tissue, where eosinophils can secrete cationic proteins, such as the major basic protein, peroxidase, and neurotoxin, leading to tissue damage [28]. The induction of AR increased the numbers of eosinophil infiltrates in the nasal mucosal tissues, accompanied by elevated levels of serum IL-5 in rats, further supporting the importance of eosinophil infiltration and IL-5 responses in the development of AR. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study is aimed at exploring the role of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) in the development of allergic rhinitis (AR) in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to induce AR. The rats were treated intranasally with saline, control, or NK-1R-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) before and during the challenge period. The numbers of sneezes and nose rubs and amount of nasal secretion in individual rats were measured. The levels of NK-1R expression in the nasal mucosal tissues after the last challenge were determined. The numbers of eosinophils in the collected nasal lavage fluid and the levels of serum interleukin (IL)-5 in individual rats were determined. The levels of NK-1R expression in the nasal mucosal tissues of the AR rats that had been treated with saline or control siRNA were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls and the rats treated with NK-1R-specific siRNA, demonstrating NK-1R silencing. Furthermore, knockdown of NK-1R expression significantly reduced the amounts of sneezing, nose rubbing, and nasal secretions in AR rats. Knockdown of NK-1R expression also significantly eliminated eosinophil infiltration in the nasal tissues and reduced the levels of serum IL-5 in rats. Knockdown of NK-1R expression decreased allergic inflammation in nasal mucosal tissues and alleviated the allergic rhinitis symptoms, suggesting that NK-1R may be a critical mediator of the development of AR.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Agents and Actions
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    • "Both destructive and non-destructive consequences have been found when analyzing various concentrations of the protein in interaction with the epithelium. High levels of ECP (5.4 μM/103 μg/mL) caused exfoliation of guinea-pig mucosal cells after 6 hr incubation with tracheal epithelium [79]. Confluent primary human corneal epithelial cells incubated with 0-100 μg/mL ECP, displayed a concentration-dependent gradual increase in morphological change and with the highest concentration, 100 μg/mL, being cytotoxic [98]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Eosinophil granulocytes reside in respiratory mucosa including lungs, in the gastro-intestinal tract, and in lymphocyte associated organs, the thymus, lymph nodes and the spleen. In parasitic infections, atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma, the numbers of the circulating eosinophils are frequently elevated. In conditions such as Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (HES) circulating eosinophil levels are even further raised. Although, eosinophils were identified more than hundred years ago, their roles in homeostasis and in disease still remain unclear. The most prominent feature of the eosinophils are their large secondary granules, each containing four basic proteins, the best known being the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). This protein has been developed as a marker for eosinophilic disease and quantified in biological fluids including serum, bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal secretions. Elevated ECP levels are found in T helper lymphocyte type 2 (atopic) diseases such as allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis but also occasionally in other diseases such as bacterial sinusitis. ECP is a ribonuclease which has been attributed with cytotoxic, neurotoxic, fibrosis promoting and immune-regulatory functions. ECP regulates mucosal and immune cells and may directly act against helminth, bacterial and viral infections. The levels of ECP measured in disease in combination with the catalogue of known functions of the protein and its polymorphisms presented here will build a foundation for further speculations of the role of ECP, and ultimately the role of the eosinophil.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Respiratory research
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    • "We [18] have previously shown that MBP directly elicits airway myocyte calcium mobilization. Others have shown that an indirect effect of MBP may be through an effect on epithelial-derived mediator release [32–34], increased epithelial permeability [35], cytotoxicity [36], or by inhibiting muscarinic M2 receptors [16]. These conflicting results may be due to the manner in which purified MBP is applied to tissues and cells in culture. "
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    ABSTRACT: Major basic protein (MBP) released from activated eosinophils may influence airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) by either direct effects on airway myocytes or by an indirect effect. In this study, human bronchi, freshly isolated human eosinophils, or MBP purified from human eosinophil granules were incubated for studying eosinophil infiltration and MBP localization. Eosinophils immediately adhered to intact human airway as well as to cultured human airway myocytes and epithelium. Following incubation 18-24 h, eosinophils migrated into the airway media, including the smooth muscle layer, but had no specific recruitment to airway neurons. Eosinophils released significant amounts of MBP within the airway media, including areas comprising the smooth muscle layer. Most deposits of MBP were focally discrete and restricted by immunologic detection to a maximum volume of approximately 300 microm(3) about the eosinophil. Native MBP applied exogenously was immediately deposited on the surface of the airway, but required at least 1 h to become detected within the media of the airway wall. Tissue MBP infiltration and deposition increased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these findings suggest that eosinophil-derived cationic proteins may alter airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in vivo by an effect that is not limited to the bronchial epithelium.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Mediators of Inflammation
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