BookPDF Available

The Cognitive Structure of Emotion

Authors:
Review
Reviewed Work(s): The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. by Andrew Ortony, Gerald L.
Clore and Allan Collins
Review by: B. N. Colby
Source:
Contemporary Sociology
, Vol. 18, No. 6 (Nov., 1989), pp. 957-958
Published by: American Sociological Association
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2074241
Accessed: 08-09-2016 15:41 UTC
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958 REVIEWS
three eliciting conditions, and usually form
part of a sequence that arises from different
perspectives and changes in the situation as
the action or situation unfolds.
The authors describe their theory as one of
successive differentiation, starting with a
topmost division of positive and negative
valence. Then, as- more information is
processed, "increasingly differentiated emo-
tional states may result." However, the
authors do not mean to produce a temporal or
sequential model that traces the flow of
information. They describe a logical structure
of the emotion space, which encompasses a
partially virtual value or appraisal structure
represented as a directed structure with
several types of linkages: sufficiency, neces-
sary, facilitative, and inhibitory. The struc-
ture is always in a dynamic state, as old goals
are replaced by new ones or as goal priorities
change. Added to this state are standards and
attitudes. The latter include tastes, which the
authors see as lacking the kind of underlying
logical or propositional structure of goals and
standards-although they are certainly com-
plex when one considers the importance of
taste as class markers and indicators of social
aspirations. Linked to these three components
of the appraisal structure are three central
intensity variables that are local to the
particular groups of emotions and values in
the theory: desirability for goals, praisewor-
thiness for standards, and appealingness for
attitudes.
Global variables influencing the intensity
of emotions across the board include sense of
reality, psychological proximity, unexpected-
ness, and existing level of arousal. The first
relates to the experience of "numbing" when
faced with enormously tragic circumstances
or losses through death. The others. are
self-explanatory.
The authors discuss the specific emotion
types, along with specifications, lexical
tokens, variables affecting intensity, and
examples, in four middle chapters of the
book. In all, the authors give specifications
for twenty-two emotion types. This section is
followed by a discussion of the theory
boundaries in the last chapter. Here the
authors suggest some preliminary rules for an
artificial intelligence system that would rea-
son about emotions, rules that would be
needed for natural language comprehension,
cooperative problem solving, and planning
programs.
The primary value of the book is in the
linking of emotions, in an intuitively sensible
classification, to conditions and value struc-
tures in a way never before mapped out so
explicitly and so well. Though developed by
cognitive psychologists, the theory involves
key areas of sociological and anthropological
interest. In this theory we have a new
landmark with implications for all the social
and behavioral sciences.
Theory and Methods
Ethnomethodology International
Klatsch: Zur Sozialform der Diskreten Indis-
kretion, by JORG R. BERGMANN. Berlin &
New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1987. 293 pp.
NPL paper.
L'Ethnomethodologie, by ALAIN COULON.
Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1987.
126 pp. NPL paper.
Establishing Agreement: An Analysis of
Proposal-Acceptance Sequences, by HAN-
NEKE HOUTKOOP-STEENSTRA. Dordrecht &
Providence, RI: Foris, 1987. 205 pp. $27.90
cloth.
Sequenties en Formuleringen: Aspecten van
de Interactionele Organisatie van Huisarts-
Spreekuurgesprekken, by PAUL TEN HAVE.
Dordrecht & Providence, RI: Foris, 1987.
367 pp. $25.00 paper.
Langage et action sociale: Aspects philoso-
phiques et semiotiques du langage dans la
perspective de l'ethnomethodologie, by JEAN
WIDMER. Fribourg: Editions Universitaires
Fribourg Suisse, 1986. 422 pp. NPL paper.
DEIRDRE BODEN
Washington University
Ethnomethodology has not only come in
from the cold, as Mullins (1973) argued, it is
here to stay. This essay reviews several recent
European publications that attest to both the
range and reach of the field and, with it,
conversation analysis. The books are at times
linguistically and even physically'less acces-
sible than one might wish, yet their scholarly
exposition and empirical rigor merit that
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... (1) Categorical Emotion Model [12][13][14][15]-The categorical emotion model is also referred to as a discrete emotion model. The basic idea behind the categorical model is that a few significant emotions are universally accepted. ...
... Plutchik states each emotion has varying degrees of intensity. The Orthony, Clore, and Collins (OCC) model [15] opposed the concept of "basic emotions", as stated by Plutchik and Paul Ekman. Herein, OCC claimed that emotions arise from how human beings perceive events, which differ in terms of their intensity. ...
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Online Social Media (OSM) like Facebook and Twitter has emerged as a powerful tool to express via text people’s opinions and feelings about the current surrounding events. Understanding the emotions at the fine-grained level of these expressed thoughts is important for system improvement. Such crucial insights cannot be completely obtained by doing AI-based big data sentiment analysis; hence, text-based emotion detection using AI in social media big data has become an upcoming area of Natural Language Processing research. It can be used in various fields such as understanding expressed emotions, human–computer interaction, data mining, online education, recommendation systems, and psychology. Even though the research work is ongoing in this domain, it still lacks a formal study that can give a qualitative (techniques used) and quantitative (contributions) literature overview. This study has considered 827 Scopus and 83 Web of Science research papers from the years 2005–2020 for the analysis. The qualitative review represents different emotion models, datasets, algorithms, and application domains of text-based emotion detection. The quantitative bibliometric review of contributions presents research details such as publications, volume, co-authorship networks, citation analysis, and demographic research distribution. In the end, challenges and probable solutions are showcased, which can provide future research directions in this area.
... Gao, Xu, & Wang, 2015) quienes permiten reconocer emociones al identificar las causas que las generan. Para reconocer las causas emplean el modelo OCC (Colby, Ortony, Clore, & Collins, 1989) el cual permite reconocer 22 emociones que se derivan de evaluar factores agrupados en tres ramas (resultados de eventos, acciones de agentes y aspectos de objetos). Estas evaluaciones se implementan como reglas de producción. ...
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El Aprendizaje Colaborativo Soportado por Computadora (ACSC) es una situación de aprendizaje donde dos o más estudiantes trabajan juntos con el objetivo de aprender. La comunicación mantenida por los grupos para llevar a cabo su trabajo puede ser sincrónica o asincrónica. La comunicación de tipo sincrónica demanda que los miembros concuerden en un horario para poder interactuar. Un ejemplo de aplicación que puede soportar este tipo de comunicación es el chat. En la comunicación asincrónica no es necesario que los miembros del grupo concuerden en un horario para poder interactuar. En ambos tipos de comunicaciones, los miembros pueden participar en el dialogo colaborativo estando en distintos lugares. Un ejemplo de aplicación que soporta la comunicación asíncrona es el foro. La interacción entre los estudiantes influye positivamente en los procesos cognitivos de los participantes cuando la colaboración es exitosa. Muchos factores pueden incidir en el éxito de un proceso de aprendizaje colaborativo. Uno de estos factores es la estabilidad emocional del grupo. Sin embargo, esta estabilidad emocional puede verse afectada por la ocurrencia de una diversidad de eventos, entre ellos, los conflictos. Los conflictos son desacuerdos entre dos o más miembros de un grupo causado por disposiciones individuales y la diversidad de objetivos, puntos de vista y experiencias previas. Cuando el conflicto se manifiesta en el seno del grupo hay una tendencia a que el sistema cognitivo se vea resentido. Esto ocurre debido a un incremento en la carga cognitiva que genera el conflicto. A su vez, este fenómeno conduce a que la capacidad de procesamiento del grupo se bloquee. Si bien existe una connotación negativa en los conflictos, es importante reconocer que existen distintos tipos de ellos. Se pueden identificar los conflictos cognitivos o de tarea, los conflictos de proceso y los conflictos de relaciones. De estos tipos de conflictos, se reconoce que los conflictos cognitivos pueden contribuir positivamente en el aprendizaje. Sin embargo, los otros dos tipos de conflictos también influyen en el rendimiento del grupo, tal es el caso de los conflictos de relaciones que impactan negativamente. A pesar de la negatividad de ciertos tipos de conflictos, la ocurrencia de conflictos abre la oportunidad a que los estudiantes aprendan a trabajar en grupo, una competencia demandada por el mercado laboral actual. Sin embargo, para que esto ocurra el docente debe guiar a los estudiantes hacia la resolución de los conflictos cuando aquellos no puedan hacerlo por sí mismos. Esto significa que el docente necesita poder responder en tiempo real a las situaciones de conflicto para ofrecer recomendaciones en cuanto al intercambio de roles, la compartición del liderazgo, realizar cambios en la carga de trabajo, promover la reflexión, entre otros. Para lograr esta función, el docente necesita realizar un seguimiento de las situaciones de conflicto. Sin embargo, realizar este seguimiento es una tarea que insume tiempo y mucho trabajo. Lo analizado anteriormente pone de manifiesto la necesidad de proveer a los entornos de ACSC, que emplean herramientas de comunicación síncronas basadas en texto para promover los procesos de aprendizaje en grupo, la funcionalidad de reconocimiento de conflictos para facilitar el monitoreo por parte del docente y propiciar su oportuna intervención. En esta tesis se planteó la hipótesis de que en las situaciones de ACSC síncronas basadas en texto, los mensajes de texto intercambiados entre los miembros del grupo pueden tener la suficiente información para detectar conflictos. Particularmente, se idearon dos técnicas que permiten reconocer conflictos teniendo en cuenta el intercambio de información socio-afectiva. La primera técnica implementada modela un diálogo colaborativo como un grafo dirigido donde los nodos representan a los estudiantes y las aristas indican la transferencia de sentimientos negativos durante las interacciones. Luego, aplicando conceptos de la teoría de grafos se emplea una matriz de commute time escalada para detectar miembros del grupo en conflicto. La segunda técnica se basa en la aplicación de aprendizaje máquina supervisado. Particularmente, se realiza la aplicación de algoritmos de aprendizaje ensamblados, formalizando el proceso de extracción de características y definiendo el concepto de valencia de interacciones atómicas como principal característica empleada para entrenar el clasificador supervisado. Para evaluar las técnicas propuestas se llevó a cabo una validación experimental que demandó la recolección de interacciones de estudiantes en situaciones de ACSC. Estas interacciones fueron analizadas aplicando una técnica de análisis de contenido y sirvieron de base para el posterior entrenamiento y validación de los clasificadores. Los resultados de las técnicas propuestas resultaron satisfactorios, obteniéndose un valor de F1 de 0.72 para la primera técnica, y un F1 de 0.81 para la segunda. Estos resultados muestran que es posible reconocer conflictos teniendo en cuenta el intercambio de emociones negativas. Esta tesis proporciona importantes contribuciones al campo del ACSC al permitir reconocer conflictos mediante la aplicación de técnicas de Aprendizaje Máquina (AM), Análisis de Redes Sociales (ARS) y Análisis de Sentimiento (AS).
... Therefore, we require a unified sentiment labeling rule. The Ortony, Clore, and Collins model suggests that emotions are generated during the process of cognitive evaluation, which is determined by the consequences of events (desirability), aspects of objects (attractiveness), and actions of agents (praise/blameworthiness) [39] . The system corresponds to emotions through inducing factors, conditions, and their intensity. ...
Article
Background: With outbreaks of COVID-19 around the world, lockdown restrictions are routinely imposed to limit the spread of the virus. During periods of lockdown, social media has become the main channel for citizens to exchange information with others. Public emotions are being generated and shared rapidly online with citizens using internet platforms to reduce anxiety and stress, and stay connected while isolated. Objectives: This study aims to explore the regularity of emotional evolution by examining public emotions expressed in online discussions about the Wuhan lockdown event in January 2020. Methods: Data related to the Wuhan lockdown was collected from Sina Weibo by web crawler. In this study, the Ortony, Clore, and Collins (OCC) model, Word2Vec, and Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory model were employed to determine emotional types, train vectorization of words, and identify each text emotion for the training set. Latent Dirichlet Allocation models were also employed to mine the various topic categories, while topic emotional evolution was visualized. Results: Seven types of emotions and four phases were categorized to describe emotional evolution on the Wuhan lockdown event. The study found that negative emotions such as blame and fear dominated in the early days, and public attitudes towards the lockdown gradually alleviated and reached a balance as the situation improved. Emotional expression about Wuhan lockdown event were significantly related to users’ gender, location, and whether or not their account was verified. There were statistically significant correlations between different emotions within the subtle emotional categories. In addition, the evolution of emotions presented a different path due to different topics. Conclusions: Multiple emotional categories were determined in our study, providing a detailed and explainable emotion analysis to explored emotional appeal of citizen. The public emotions were gradually easing related to the Wuhan lockdown event, there yet exists regional discrimination and post-traumatic stress disorder in this process, which would lead us to pay continuous attention to citizens lives and psychological status post-pandemic. In addition, this study provided an appropriate method and reference case for the government's public opinion control and emotional appeasement.
... SiFlo also uses the emotional architecture from BEN in order to consider the fear emotion. Indeed, BEN integrates an emotional model based on the OCC theory of emotions [50] and an emotion generation engine based on the work of [51]. In BEN, emotion is close to a belief and can modify the desire of the agent (and then the intention and plan). ...
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... Like empathy, gratitude and admiration are other-oriented emotions. However, gratitude and admiration fall specifically into the category of "other-praising" or "appreciation" emotions (Algoe & Haidt, 2009;Fagley, 2016;Ortony et al., 1988). Gratitude refers to feelings of thankfulness toward others for the benefits they provide or try to provide (Fagley, 2016). ...
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Some research suggests that self-enhancement is widespread and may exacerbate ingroup favoritism. What if, rather than engaging in self-enhancement, individuals focused on enhancing others? Could enhancing others produce less prejudice than self-enhancement? Three studies tested the effect of self-enhancement versus ‘other-enhancement’ on prejudice. In Study 1 (N=95), a repeated measures design showed that participants demonstrated less negative affect and less implicit bias after reflecting on another person’s positive traits relative to their own. In Study 2 (N=169), we extended this effect to outgroup enhancement. Participants who reflected on an outgroup strength showed less negative affect and less racism than those who reflected on an ingroup strength and those in a comparison condition. Study 3 (N=380) validated these experimental effects by showing that other-enhancement is negatively associated with racism and sexism, whereas self-enhancement is not. Study 3 also examined a theorized antecedent of other-enhancement – humility. We discuss the importance of enhancing others in reducing prejudice.
... Like empathy, gratitude and admiration are other-oriented emotions. However, gratitude and admiration fall specifically into the category of "other-praising" or "appreciation" emotions (Algoe & Haidt, 2009;Fagley, 2016;Ortony et al., 1988). Gratitude refers to feelings of thankfulness toward others for the benefits they provide or try to provide (Fagley, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Some research suggests that self-enhancement is widespread and may exacerbate ingroup favoritism. What if, rather than engaging in self-enhancement, individuals focused on enhancing others? Could enhancing others produce less prejudice than self-enhancement? Three studies tested the effect of self-enhancement versus 'other-enhancement' on prejudice. In Study 1 (N=95), a repeated measures design showed that participants demonstrated less negative affect and less implicit bias after reflecting on another person's positive traits relative to their own. In Study 2 (N=169), we extended this effect to outgroup enhancement. Participants who reflected on an outgroup strength showed less negative affect and less racism than those who reflected on an ingroup strength and those in a comparison condition. Study 3 (N=380) validated these experimental effects by showing that other-enhancement is negatively associated with racism and sexism, whereas self-enhancement is not. Study 3 also examined a theorized antecedent of other-enhancement-humility. We discuss the importance of enhancing others in reducing prejudice.
... Like empathy, gratitude and admiration are other-oriented emotions. However, gratitude and admiration fall specifically into the category of 'other-praising' or 'appreciation' emotions (Algoe & Haidt, 2009;Fagley, 2016;Ortony, Clore, & Collins, 1988). Gratitude refers to feelings of thankfulness toward others for the benefits they provide or try to provide (Fagley, 2016). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Some research suggests that self-enhancement is widespread and may exacerbate ingroup favoritism. What if, rather than engaging in self-enhancement, individuals focused on enhancing others? Could enhancing others produce less prejudice than self-enhancement? Three studies tested the effect of self-enhancement versus ‘other-enhancement’ on prejudice. In Study 1 (N=95), a repeated measures design showed that participants demonstrated less negative affect and less implicit bias after reflecting on another person’s positive traits relative to their own. In Study 2 (N=169), we extended this effect to outgroup enhancement. Participants who reflected on an outgroup strength showed less negative affect and less racism than those who reflected on an ingroup strength and those in a comparison condition. Study 3 (N=380) validated these experimental effects by showing that other-enhancement is negatively associated with racism and sexism, whereas self-enhancement is not. Study 3 also examined a theorized antecedent of other-enhancement – humility. We discuss the importance of enhancing others in reducing prejudice.
Chapter
The article is focused on the problem of identifying the sentiment of texts in Russian. This problem has a significant impact on a wide range of natural language processing tasks such as online feedback processing and review analysis. There are many approaches for solution of this problem, such as using fuzzy logic techniques, keyword techniques, machine learning, and knowledge-based techniques. All these approaches are described and comparatively analysed in the article. As a result of the research, a new model for sentiment extraction from natural language text was proposed and a software module was developed to prove the proposed method. The developed module was integrated into an existing software system based on the semantic network and frame semantics. The effectiveness of the developed system was tested on the previously data set that was evaluated by experts. The test results show the competitiveness of the proposed method in comparison with previous data.
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Celem artykułu jest ukazanie przejawów nadziei w narracjach o bliskim związku romantycznym u więźniów. Badaniami objęto 301 osadzonych z różnych więzień oraz 253 osoby niekarane stanowiące grupę porównawczą. Badani pisali narracje o swoim związku romantycznym. Jako narracyjne przejawy nadziei uznano: liczbę zakończeń pozytywnych historii, liczbę optymistycznych opisów sytuacji, te mporalne ujęcie narracji zorientowane na przyszłość oraz wskaźnik procesów mentalnych jako poznawczy komponent nadziei. Dokonano porównań międzygrupowych. Rezultaty wskazują, iż więźniowie posiadają mało optymistyczny obraz bliskiej relacji romantycznej, rzadziej formułują optymistyczne wizje na ten temat, charakteryzuje ich niższy wskaźnik procesów mentalnych. Ogólnie ich narracje o bliskiej relacji romantycznej osadzone są częściej w teraźniejszej i przyszłej perspektywie czasowej, co sugeruje obecność elementów nadziei. Ważnym czynnikiem stanowiącym bazę dla budowania zasobów osobistych wydaję się wgląd, który pozytywnie koreluje z optymistycznym patrzeniem w przyszłość.
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