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The Cognitive Structure of Emotion

Reviewed Work(s): The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. by Andrew Ortony, Gerald L.
Clore and Allan Collins
Review by: B. N. Colby
Contemporary Sociology
, Vol. 18, No. 6 (Nov., 1989), pp. 957-958
Published by: American Sociological Association
Stable URL:
Accessed: 08-09-2016 15:41 UTC
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three eliciting conditions, and usually form
part of a sequence that arises from different
perspectives and changes in the situation as
the action or situation unfolds.
The authors describe their theory as one of
successive differentiation, starting with a
topmost division of positive and negative
valence. Then, as- more information is
processed, "increasingly differentiated emo-
tional states may result." However, the
authors do not mean to produce a temporal or
sequential model that traces the flow of
information. They describe a logical structure
of the emotion space, which encompasses a
partially virtual value or appraisal structure
represented as a directed structure with
several types of linkages: sufficiency, neces-
sary, facilitative, and inhibitory. The struc-
ture is always in a dynamic state, as old goals
are replaced by new ones or as goal priorities
change. Added to this state are standards and
attitudes. The latter include tastes, which the
authors see as lacking the kind of underlying
logical or propositional structure of goals and
standards-although they are certainly com-
plex when one considers the importance of
taste as class markers and indicators of social
aspirations. Linked to these three components
of the appraisal structure are three central
intensity variables that are local to the
particular groups of emotions and values in
the theory: desirability for goals, praisewor-
thiness for standards, and appealingness for
Global variables influencing the intensity
of emotions across the board include sense of
reality, psychological proximity, unexpected-
ness, and existing level of arousal. The first
relates to the experience of "numbing" when
faced with enormously tragic circumstances
or losses through death. The others. are
The authors discuss the specific emotion
types, along with specifications, lexical
tokens, variables affecting intensity, and
examples, in four middle chapters of the
book. In all, the authors give specifications
for twenty-two emotion types. This section is
followed by a discussion of the theory
boundaries in the last chapter. Here the
authors suggest some preliminary rules for an
artificial intelligence system that would rea-
son about emotions, rules that would be
needed for natural language comprehension,
cooperative problem solving, and planning
The primary value of the book is in the
linking of emotions, in an intuitively sensible
classification, to conditions and value struc-
tures in a way never before mapped out so
explicitly and so well. Though developed by
cognitive psychologists, the theory involves
key areas of sociological and anthropological
interest. In this theory we have a new
landmark with implications for all the social
and behavioral sciences.
Theory and Methods
Ethnomethodology International
Klatsch: Zur Sozialform der Diskreten Indis-
kretion, by JORG R. BERGMANN. Berlin &
New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1987. 293 pp.
NPL paper.
L'Ethnomethodologie, by ALAIN COULON.
Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1987.
126 pp. NPL paper.
Establishing Agreement: An Analysis of
Proposal-Acceptance Sequences, by HAN-
Providence, RI: Foris, 1987. 205 pp. $27.90
Sequenties en Formuleringen: Aspecten van
de Interactionele Organisatie van Huisarts-
Spreekuurgesprekken, by PAUL TEN HAVE.
Dordrecht & Providence, RI: Foris, 1987.
367 pp. $25.00 paper.
Langage et action sociale: Aspects philoso-
phiques et semiotiques du langage dans la
perspective de l'ethnomethodologie, by JEAN
WIDMER. Fribourg: Editions Universitaires
Fribourg Suisse, 1986. 422 pp. NPL paper.
Washington University
Ethnomethodology has not only come in
from the cold, as Mullins (1973) argued, it is
here to stay. This essay reviews several recent
European publications that attest to both the
range and reach of the field and, with it,
conversation analysis. The books are at times
linguistically and even physically'less acces-
sible than one might wish, yet their scholarly
exposition and empirical rigor merit that
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... The emotional responses of members could then function as an extrinsic motivation for individual creativity (Connelly & Gooty, 2015;Glikson et al., 2018;Van Kleef et al., 2010). Consequently, the emotional emotions and creativity of team members will influence their job performance (Chi & Ho, 2014;Clore et al., 2001;Fredrickson, 2001;Ortony et al., 1988;Zhao et al., 2020). In this theory, when EASI is applied to leader-follower relationships in the organizational context, followers' perceptions of leaders' emotional expressions may attenuate either the positive or negative relationship between their emotional reactions, creativity, and work performance, depending on how they process the information of leaders' perceived emotional expressions, regardless of whether the leader intended it to. ...
... Leaders who demonstrate positive emotions may have a positive effect on the emotional reactions of their team members, hence enhancing their performance (Clore et al., 2001;Molines et al., 2020;Ortony et al., 1988;Visser et al., 2013). The emotional responses of members can impact their capacity to invest in their careers (Fredrickson, 1998(Fredrickson, , 2001Fredrickson & Branigan, 2005;Hobfoll, 1989). ...
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As a result of Korea's strong hierarchical tradition, leaders in Korean ICT service organizations frequently disregard the relevance of their emotional expressions, which may be associated with the overall outcomes of team members' creativity and performance. Consequently, the goal of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between team leaders' negative emotional displays and team members' positive and negative emotional responses, as well as the moderating effect of temporal diversity. Using data collected from 251 individuals in 50 teams across three Korean ICT businesses, structural equation models were evaluated. In order to explore the moderating effect of two temporal diversity theories based on emotion as social information theory, the model was separated into temporary and permanent teams. The findings of the global model reveal that members' emotional responses to perceived leaders' negative emotional displays are connected with their innovation and performance. Furthermore, only in a permanent team context do perceived leaders' negative emotional displays have a positive effect on team members' job performance. The findings have implications for how leaders might manage their emotional outbursts to boost the creativity and performance of their team members. This study added the context of ICT service firms to earlier research on emotion as social information theory. Field managers may find findings addressing the moderating influence of temporal diversity useful.
... For example, it has been claimed that emotions are bodily feelings (James, 1884;Whiting, 2006), evaluative feelings (Helm, 2009), feelings towards value (Mitchell, 2021), felt bodily attitudes (Deonna & Teroni, 2017), or a compound of bodily, cognitive, and conative feelings (Kriegel, 2014). All these theories (see also Cohen, 2020;LeDoux & Brown, 2017;Ortony et al., 1988;Reisenzein, 2012) would endorse the following claim: 2 (Feelings' Essentiality) ...
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Are feelings an essential part or aspect of emotion? Cases of unconscious emotion suggest that this is not the case. However, it has been claimed that unconscious emotions are better understood as either (a) emotions that are phenomenally conscious but not reflectively conscious, or (b) dispositions to have emotions rather than emotions. Here, I argue that these ways of accounting for unconscious emotions are inadequate, and propose a view of emotions as non-phenomenal attitudes that regard their contents as relevant to one's motivations.
... In other words, in A2, the paper sheets contained only the emotion labels. Before the data collection, the definitions of the four emotions, taken from [24], [25], were given to the participants. ...
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We investigate the recognition of the affective states of a person performing an action with an object, by processing the object-sensed data. We focus on sequences of basic actions such as grasping and rotating, which are constituents of daily-life interactions. iCube, a 5 cm cube, was used to collect tactile and kinematics data that consist of tactile maps (without information on the pressure applied to the surface), and rotations. We conduct two studies: classification of i) emotions and ii) the vitality forms. In both, the participants perform a semi-structured task composed of basic actions. For emotion recognition, 237 trials by 11 participants associated with anger, sadness, excitement, and gratitude were used to train models using 10 hand-crafted features. The classifier accuracy reaches up to 82.7%. Interestingly, the same classifier when learned exclusively with the tactile data performs on par with its counterpart modeled with all 10 features. For the second study, 1135 trials by 10 participants were used to classify two vitality forms. The best-performing model differentiated gentle actions from rude ones with an accuracy of 84.85%. The results also confirm that people touch objects differently when performing these basic actions with different affective states and attitudes.
... Scherer [37] further proposed emotional-based evaluation variables to determine the type of emotion. Moreover, the Ortony, Clore, and Collins (OCC) model of emotion proposed by Ortony et al. [38] is the earliest emotion-cognitive evaluation model that can be used for computer calculation. The model includes variables and functions that affect emotions and help explain the cognitive process that causes emotion. ...
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Identification of tourists’ sentiments is relevant to the destination’s planning. Tourists generate extensive User Generated Content (UGC)—embedding their sentiments—in the form of textual data when sharing experiences on the Internet. These UGC tend to influence tourists’ decision-making, thus, representing an important data source for tourism research and planning. By obtaining data from Mafengwo and Ctrip, sentiment analysis was conducted to shed light on the sentiment tendency of Chinese tourists in seven Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). Eleven thousand two hundred four reviews were obtained between January and March 2021. The data shows that Chinese tourists’ sentiments towards the PICTs are overall positive. Yet, they pay more attention to practical issues such as transportation, visa and fees, and their sentiment orientations are influenced by tourism resources, weather, and perceived safety. Moreover, the study demonstrates that the needs of Chinese tourists in the region are influenced by their physiology, security, self-esteem, belonging, and self-actualisation needs. The study contributes to theory and practice by constructing an exclusive set of Chinese sentiment lexicons for tourism research based on data from the PICTs. This lexicon complements but also contradicts previous studies. In addition to being relevant for the studied region, it can inform similar destinations that may or may not have a relevant Chinese tourism market.
... Some authors have addressed the identification of basic emotions, but there is no agreement on them [13]. Some authors propose a small set of basic emotions (between five and eight), with a certain consensus on a minimum of five: fear, anger, sadness, joy and disgust. ...
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Algorithm animations are a resource that assists in learning algorithms by visually displaying the behavior of an algorithm at a higher level of abstraction than source code. On the other hand, augmented reality is a technology that allows extending visible reality in a mobile device, which can result in greater emotional well-being for the student. However, it is not clear how to integrate algorithm animations with augmented reality. The article makes two contributions to this concern. On the one hand, we describe an architecture that allows generating interactive algorithm animations, integrating them appropriately in the context of immersive augmented reality. This way the user can watch the source code of the algorithm, augmented with textual explanations, visualizations and animations of its behavior. We illustrate the use of the architecture by instantiating it to the well-known Dijkstra’s algorithm, resulting in an augmented reality tool that generates text, 2D and 3D visualizations. On the other hand, the influence of the tool on the user’s emotions has been studied by conducting an experience with face-to-face and online students. The results show that, with the joint use of augmented reality and visualizations, the students: experienced significantly more positive than negative emotions, experienced more agitation and stimulation than inactivity or calm, enjoyed as much as they expected, and their feeling of boredom decreased during the experience. However, students felt anxiety from the beginning and it increased with the use of augmented reality. The study also found that the face-to-face or online learning model influences emotions and learning outcomes with augmented reality.
... Ekman and Plutchik's comparison of "fundamental emotions" was rejected by the Orthony, Clore, and Collins (OCC) [8] paradigm. However, they agreed that emotions emerged due to how people saw events and that the intensity of emotions varied. ...
... Ekman and Plutchik's comparison of "fundamental emotions" was rejected by the Orthony, Clore, and Collins (OCC) [8] paradigm. However, they agreed that emotions emerged due to how people saw events and that the intensity of emotions varied. ...
... Living in hope and living with hope makes sense". Within the framework of the cognitive-structural theory of emotions, hope is considered to be a prospective emotion, i.e. one that, unlike fear, is directed to the future (Ortony, Clore, & Collins, 1990). In his concept of hope as a cognitive style, Dispositional hope, i.e. as a trait, also correlates with positive emotions (Snyder, 2002). ...
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Purpose. This study attempts to show the level of basic hope and existential anxiety among younger adults/emerging adulthood and middle adult generations. Basic hope is seen as a positive feeling playing a fundamental motivational role in the regulation of human behavior. It has been pointed out that hope is a prospective emotion that, contrary to fear/anxiety, is directed toward the future. Existential anxiety is thought to be inversely related with hope which means that existential anxiety is associated with unresolved intra-psychic conflicts. Methods. A sample of 139 younger and adult participants from the general population was examined. They represented three stages of adulthood: emerging adulthood (59), early adulthood (28), middle adulthood (52). They completed two self-measure questionnaires focused on basic hope (Basic Hope Inventory – 12 by Trzebiński and Zięba) and existential anxiety (Existential Anxiety Questionnaire by Weems and associates). Results. The results indicate that the younger generation/emerging adulthood displays a higher level of existential anxiety and lower level of basic hope than other adult generations. Young people who feel higher existential anxiety do not believe that their future will be positive. Adult women display a higher level of basic hope than men while the level of existential anxiety is similar in both women and men Conclusions. The results document developmental characteristics of the stage named emerging adulthood. At this stage of development, people are particularly vulnerable, full of fear for their future, they have to make important decisions about their education, professional decisions, and close interpersonal relationships. As their hope is low and existential anxiety is high they do not perceive their future positively.
... Gao, Xu, & Wang, 2015) quienes permiten reconocer emociones al identificar las causas que las generan. Para reconocer las causas emplean el modelo OCC (Colby, Ortony, Clore, & Collins, 1989) el cual permite reconocer 22 emociones que se derivan de evaluar factores agrupados en tres ramas (resultados de eventos, acciones de agentes y aspectos de objetos). Estas evaluaciones se implementan como reglas de producción. ...
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El Aprendizaje Colaborativo Soportado por Computadora (ACSC) es una situación de aprendizaje donde dos o más estudiantes trabajan juntos con el objetivo de aprender. La comunicación mantenida por los grupos para llevar a cabo su trabajo puede ser sincrónica o asincrónica. La comunicación de tipo sincrónica demanda que los miembros concuerden en un horario para poder interactuar. Un ejemplo de aplicación que puede soportar este tipo de comunicación es el chat. En la comunicación asincrónica no es necesario que los miembros del grupo concuerden en un horario para poder interactuar. En ambos tipos de comunicaciones, los miembros pueden participar en el dialogo colaborativo estando en distintos lugares. Un ejemplo de aplicación que soporta la comunicación asíncrona es el foro. La interacción entre los estudiantes influye positivamente en los procesos cognitivos de los participantes cuando la colaboración es exitosa. Muchos factores pueden incidir en el éxito de un proceso de aprendizaje colaborativo. Uno de estos factores es la estabilidad emocional del grupo. Sin embargo, esta estabilidad emocional puede verse afectada por la ocurrencia de una diversidad de eventos, entre ellos, los conflictos. Los conflictos son desacuerdos entre dos o más miembros de un grupo causado por disposiciones individuales y la diversidad de objetivos, puntos de vista y experiencias previas. Cuando el conflicto se manifiesta en el seno del grupo hay una tendencia a que el sistema cognitivo se vea resentido. Esto ocurre debido a un incremento en la carga cognitiva que genera el conflicto. A su vez, este fenómeno conduce a que la capacidad de procesamiento del grupo se bloquee. Si bien existe una connotación negativa en los conflictos, es importante reconocer que existen distintos tipos de ellos. Se pueden identificar los conflictos cognitivos o de tarea, los conflictos de proceso y los conflictos de relaciones. De estos tipos de conflictos, se reconoce que los conflictos cognitivos pueden contribuir positivamente en el aprendizaje. Sin embargo, los otros dos tipos de conflictos también influyen en el rendimiento del grupo, tal es el caso de los conflictos de relaciones que impactan negativamente. A pesar de la negatividad de ciertos tipos de conflictos, la ocurrencia de conflictos abre la oportunidad a que los estudiantes aprendan a trabajar en grupo, una competencia demandada por el mercado laboral actual. Sin embargo, para que esto ocurra el docente debe guiar a los estudiantes hacia la resolución de los conflictos cuando aquellos no puedan hacerlo por sí mismos. Esto significa que el docente necesita poder responder en tiempo real a las situaciones de conflicto para ofrecer recomendaciones en cuanto al intercambio de roles, la compartición del liderazgo, realizar cambios en la carga de trabajo, promover la reflexión, entre otros. Para lograr esta función, el docente necesita realizar un seguimiento de las situaciones de conflicto. Sin embargo, realizar este seguimiento es una tarea que insume tiempo y mucho trabajo. Lo analizado anteriormente pone de manifiesto la necesidad de proveer a los entornos de ACSC, que emplean herramientas de comunicación síncronas basadas en texto para promover los procesos de aprendizaje en grupo, la funcionalidad de reconocimiento de conflictos para facilitar el monitoreo por parte del docente y propiciar su oportuna intervención. En esta tesis se planteó la hipótesis de que en las situaciones de ACSC síncronas basadas en texto, los mensajes de texto intercambiados entre los miembros del grupo pueden tener la suficiente información para detectar conflictos. Particularmente, se idearon dos técnicas que permiten reconocer conflictos teniendo en cuenta el intercambio de información socio-afectiva. La primera técnica implementada modela un diálogo colaborativo como un grafo dirigido donde los nodos representan a los estudiantes y las aristas indican la transferencia de sentimientos negativos durante las interacciones. Luego, aplicando conceptos de la teoría de grafos se emplea una matriz de commute time escalada para detectar miembros del grupo en conflicto. La segunda técnica se basa en la aplicación de aprendizaje máquina supervisado. Particularmente, se realiza la aplicación de algoritmos de aprendizaje ensamblados, formalizando el proceso de extracción de características y definiendo el concepto de valencia de interacciones atómicas como principal característica empleada para entrenar el clasificador supervisado. Para evaluar las técnicas propuestas se llevó a cabo una validación experimental que demandó la recolección de interacciones de estudiantes en situaciones de ACSC. Estas interacciones fueron analizadas aplicando una técnica de análisis de contenido y sirvieron de base para el posterior entrenamiento y validación de los clasificadores. Los resultados de las técnicas propuestas resultaron satisfactorios, obteniéndose un valor de F1 de 0.72 para la primera técnica, y un F1 de 0.81 para la segunda. Estos resultados muestran que es posible reconocer conflictos teniendo en cuenta el intercambio de emociones negativas. Esta tesis proporciona importantes contribuciones al campo del ACSC al permitir reconocer conflictos mediante la aplicación de técnicas de Aprendizaje Máquina (AM), Análisis de Redes Sociales (ARS) y Análisis de Sentimiento (AS).
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