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Review article: Quality protein maize (QPM): Genetic manipulation for the nutritional fortification of maize

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... Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a procedure that has been developed to avoid problems associated with phenotypic selection, replacing the selection of the phenotype by selection of genes, both directly and indirectly (Francia et al. 2005). The development of QPM requires manipulation of various genetic systems such as o2, endosperm modifiers and amino acid modifiers and as such conventional breeding procedures are quite laborious and the results sometimes frustrating (Sofi et al., 2009). It is very tedious to continuously select for optimum level of one trait while maintaining desired level of other. ...
... An appropriate application of such markers will greatly enhance the efficiency of selection for improvement of grain protein in maize besides cutting down at cost and time (Sofi et al., 2009). Babu et al. (2005) used MAS Advances in Life Science and Technology www.iiste.org ...
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Providing maize cultivars with an improved amino acid profile, for communities that rely heavily on maize as the main staple food is one of the main target in the modern maize breeding program worldwide. After efforts have been made by many researchers, several quality protein maize (QPM) populations and pools possessing different ecological adaptation, maturity, grain color, and texture were developed. Consumption of QPM instead of conventional maize (CM) leads to a 12% increase in the rate of growth in weight and a 9% increase in the rate of growth in height in infants and young children with mild to moderate under nutrition from populations in which maize is a significant part of the diet. The development of high lysine/tryptophan maize involves manipulating three distinct genetic systems: (1) The simple recessive allele of the opaque-2 gene, (2) Modifiers/enhancers of the o2o2-containing endosperm to confer higher lysine and tryptophan and (3) Genes that modify the opaque-2-induced soft endosperm to hard endosperm. An appropriate application of marker assisted selection will greatly enhance the efficiency of selection for improvement of grain protein in maize besides cutting down at cost and time.
... Results of some studies have shown that 15.3% of pregnant women in SSA are deficient in vitamin A (Aguayo and Baker, 2005; World Health Organization [WHO], 2009). This is because the normal endosperm maize that is commonly grown and used as staple food in the sub-region is nutritionally deficient in provitamin A (PVA) (Safawo et al., 2010;Venado et al.; and two essential amino acids -lysine and tryptophan -which, unfortunately, the human body cannot synthesize (Sofi et al., 2009;Nuss and Tanumihardjo, 2011;Le et al., 2016). This predisposes millions of people, who live mainly on maize as a staple food, to VAD and protein deficiency. ...
... Quality protein maize (QPM) has been proposed as a possible food source for ameliorating protein malnutrition not only in SSA but also in other parts of the world (Nuss and Tanumihardjo, 2011). Although efforts have been made to develop varieties of maize that can mitigate the effects of VAD and protein malnutrition (Fan et al., 2004;Krivanek et al., 2007;Sofi et al., 2009;Azmach et al., 2013;Suwarno et al., 2014;Badu-Apraku et al., 2015a,b;Menkir et al., 2017;Tandzi et al., 2017;Gebremeskel et al., 2018), maize varieties with combined PVA and quality protein characteristics that will simultaneously solve the problems of VAD and protein deficiency are yet to be developed and commercialized in SSA. ...
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This book contains 20 chapters, divided into two sections: (i) Quantitative Genetics: Plant Breeding, Bioinformatics, Genome Editing and G×E Interaction (Chapters 2-12) and (ii) Intersection of Breeding, Genetics and Genomics: Crop Examples (Chapter 13-20). Section 1 emphasizes the application of genomics, and genome and epigenome editing techniques, in plant breeding, bioinformatics, quantitative trait loci mapping, and the latest approaches of examining and exploiting genotype—environment interactions. Section 2 describes the use of cutting-edge molecular breeding and quantitative genetics techniques applied to wheat, rice, maize, root and tuber crops and pearl millet. Overall, the book focuses on using genomic information to help evaluate traits that can combat biotic/abiotic stresses, genome-wide association mapping, high-throughput genotyping/phenotyping, biofortification, use of big data, orphan crops, and gene editing techniques.
... Results of a meta-analysis by GUNARATNA et al. (2010) indicated that consumption of QPM leads to a 12% increase in the rate of growth in weight and a 9% increase in the rate of growth in height in infants and young children with mild to moderate undernutrition from populations in which maize is a significant part of the diet. On the other hand, many studies showed that QPM had a positive overall impact on the weight gain of both poultry and pigs (MBUYA et al., 2011;PANDA et al., 2010;SOFI et al., 2009). ...
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Maize is a poor source of protein both for humans and monogastric animals due to the lack of essential amino acids, such as lysine and tryptophan. Naturally occurring opaque2 (o2) mutation increases content of these amino acids, but also confers an undesirable phenotype leading to low yields. Quality protein maize (QPM) is agronomically acceptable and nutritionally improved opaque2 maize obtained through conventional breeding. Marker assisted breeding program aimed at developing QPM genotypes for growing in temperate regions is being conducted at Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRIZP). The results presented in this paper relate to foreground selection aimed to identify plants that attained homozygosity at o2 locus in BC2F2 generation in conversion of four MRIZP commercial inbred lines. Maize inbred line ZPL5 converted to its QPM counterpart and adapted to temperate climate was used as o2 donor to the four recurrent parents (RP). Foreground selection was carried out with gene-specific markers phi057 and umc1066, both segregating as per the expectation. The percentage of recessive homozygotes in BC2F2 generation was approximately 25% (24.6% in RP1, 23.3% in RP2, 25% in RP3 and 24.4% in RP4). After the self-pollination of selected recessive homozygotes, BC2F3 progenies were screened for phenotypic and biochemical characteristics to confirm their nutritional and agronomical superiority. The results of scoring endosperm modifications revealed over 95% of hard endosperm kernels. The average tryptophan content ranged from 0.070% in RP1 to 0.087% in RP3. Out of 39 derivations from four lines, 19 had tryptophan content above the QPM threshold (0.075%). A total of 16 derivations were chosen for their highest tryptophan content. Their quality index was increased by 2-46% relative to the recurrent parent. These line will serve as an important breeding material for developing QPM maize hybrids adapted to temperate regions.
... Maize contains 7-13 g/100 g proteins (d.m.). However, the quality of maize proteins is poor, because they are deficient in the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan [2,3] . ...
... Quant à l'hypothèse relative à la faible teneur en acides aminés essentiels, plusieurs études ont montré que malgré un taux élevé de protéines dans l'aliment, celui-ci doit pouvoir contenir qualitativement et quantitativement un certain nombre d'acides aminés essentiels à la bonne croissance des animaux. Il s'agit notamment de la lysine, de la méthionine et de la cystéine considérées comme facteurs limitants de la production de la volaille (Garcia et al., 2005 ;Sofi et al., 2009 ;Saengkerdsub et al., 2013). Certains de ces acides aminés essentiels seraient absents ou présents en très faible quantité dans les aliments formulés à base de tourteaux de graines de deux Cucurbitaceae (C. ...
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La valorisation des ressources phytogénétiques non conventionnelles pour l’amélioration de la qualité des aliments pour animaux a motivé cette recherche. L’étude menée à la ferme et aux Laboratoires de Génétique et de Biochimie de l’Université Nangui Abrogoua, à Abidjan, en Côte d’Ivoire, a été réalisée dans le but d’évaluer les effets des tourteaux de graines de Citrullus lanatus et de Lagenaria siceraria sur les performances croissance du poulet de chair, pendant 42 jours. Pour la réalisation de cet essai, les poussins ont été répartis au hasard dans sept box à raison de 40 sujets correspondant chacun à un aliment (BT0 ; BT1Cl (10%) ; BT2Cl (20%) ; BT3Cl (30%) ; BT1Ls (10%) ; BT2Ls (20%) ; BT3Ls (30%)). La pesée des différentes rations servies et des refus se faisait avant toute nouvelle distribution, pour l’évaluation de l’ingestion. Les animaux ont été pesés périodiquement pour la détermination de leur croissance journalière. Il ressort des résultats que, quel que soit l’âge, le poids des animaux nourris à la ration témoin a été plus élevée que ceux enregistrés au niveau des sujets soumis aux rations contenant les tourteaux de cucurbites. Il varie de 1127,77± 3,45 g à 748,75 ± 1,25 g avec l’aliment témoin ; de 455,12 ± 2,19 à 177,50 ± 1,50 g avec l’aliment contenant Citrullus lanatus (bebu) et de 470,51 ± 2,49 à 275,00 ± 1,61g avec l’aliment contenant Lagenaria siceraria. Le GMQ est plus élevé chez les sujets alimentés à la ration témoin que chez ceux ayant reçu les cucurbites dans leurs rations ; il varie de 84,52 ± 1,04 g / j à 62,38 ± 0,45 g / j avec l’aliment témoin ; de 28,57 ± 0,35 à 8,81 ± 0,16 g / j avec l’aliment contenant Citrullus lanatus (bebu) et de 22,86 ± 0,24à 9,76 ± 0,18g / j avec l’aliment contenant Lagenaria siceraria. Par ailleurs, les IC les plus intéressants ont été obtenus chez les sujets soumis aux rations contenant les cucurbites ; il varie de 1,78 ± 0,01 à 0,35 ± 0,01 avec la ration contenant Citrullus lanatus (bebu) ; de 1,83 ± 0,00 à 0,68 ± 0,01 avec l’aliment contenant Lagenaria siceraria et de 4,44 ± 0,01 à 1,47 ± 0,02 avec l’aliment témoin.
... Maize contains 7-13 g/100 g proteins (d.m.). However, the quality of maize proteins is poor, because they are deficient in the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan [2,3] . ...
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Physical properties like physical state at 25 0 C/ 1Atm, colour, odour, solubility, miscibility and physicochemical properties like density /specific gravity, viscosity, flash point, boiling point, saponification value, unsaponifiable value, iodine value, colour (Lovibond tintometer), peroxide value and refractive Index Corn oil were studied to evaluate the compositional quality of oils and also to investigate the effect on the use of same oil for repeated frying as it ultimately changes the nutritional, physicochemical, and sensory properties of the oil. The physicochemical analysis showed color values were 3.0 red maximum, density (g/mL)/specific gravity were 0.918 at 25 0 C, viscosity (millipoise) were 114.00, flash point were 305, boling point were 148 0 C, saponification value (mg) were 153.6, unsaponifiable value (gm) were 2.2, iodine value (g) were 15.77, peroxide value (meq/kg) were 0.165, refractive index (40 0 C) were 1.466. The analyses of fatty acid profile showed higher lenoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid contents and saturated fatty acid were 15.282, unsaturated fatty acid were 84.717 present in corn oil.
... Quality protein maize (QPM) has similar qualities as normal maize as regards tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as high yield (Sofi et al. 2009;Olawuyi et al. 2013). This reflected in the present study as most of the QPM varieties performed as much as some of the Abera et al. (2015) also reported significant higher mean grain yield of quality maize varieties (AMH760Q and BH-545) between 50 and 100 kgNha −1 . ...
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Low soil nitrogen (N) is one of the major abiotic stresses reducing maize yield in Africa. Twenty-five maize varieties which included quality protein maize (QPM), drought and Striga tolerant maize, and two low soil nitrogen (LN) tolerant maize as checks, were evaluated in two locations between 2017 and 2018 to identify varieties with tolerance to LN. The field was mopped of nitrogen by planting maize twice without fertilizer and the soil was analyzed before the trial. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete design in three replications. Urea fertilizer was applied in a split dose at 2 and 4 weeks after planting at rate of 30kgN/ha for low nitrogen (LN) and 90kgN/ha for high nitrogen (HN) plot. Data were collected on days to flowering, anthesis-silking interval, leaf death, grain yield, and other agronomic parameters. Data were subjected to analysis using SAS. Rank summation index (RSI) and cluster analysis were used to select the best varieties under LN. Apart from the two checks, varieties DT STR -Y2 SYN and TZE COMP3 DT had good yield of 1.99 tons/ha and 1.39tons/ha, respectively, under LN, with yield gap of 0 and 44%, respectively. The top ranked varieties under LN using RSI either appear singly or in a group under cluster analysis. They included drought and Striga tolerant varieties along with the two LN checks, implying that Striga tolerant maize also possesses the ability to tolerate LN. The varieties could, therefore, be involved in a breeding program for improvement for low soil nitrogen.
... www.nature.com/scientificreports/ quality breeding is mainly to increase protein content and improve the composition of base acids, especially to increase the content of essential amino acids such as lysine and tryptophan 23 . In this study, a total of 83,057 SNP markers were used to scan the whole genome, combined with moisture, protein, starch, oil, lysine content and other phenotypic traits and genotypes for association analysis. ...
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High quality is the main goal of today’s maize breeding and the investigation of grain quality traits would help to breed high-quality varieties in maize. In this study, genome-wide association studies in a set of 248 diverse inbred lines were performed with 83,057 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and five grain quality traits were investigated in diverse environments for two years. The results showed that maize inbred lines showed substantial natural variations of grain quality and these traits showed high broad-sense heritability. A total of 49 SNPs were found to be significantly associated with grain quality traits. Among these SNPs, four co-localized sites were commonly detected by multiple traits. The candidate genes which were searched for can be classified into 11 biological processes, 13 cellular components, and 6 molecular functions. Finally, we found 29 grain quality-related genes. These genes and the SNPs identified in the study would offer essential information for high-quality varieties breeding programs in maize.
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Maize is the most important staple food crop in southern Africa with human consumption averaging 91 kg/capita/year. Most smallholder farmers and weaning children depend on maize for much of the daily food requirements and it is the largest contributor of dietary proteins. Despite the development of quality protein maize (QPM) with high tryptophan and lysine content, stunting and kwashiorkor remain high in southern Africa partly due to low adoption of QPM varieties. The objective of this study was to compare the agronomic performance and farmer preferences of new generation of QPM with non-QPM varieties under conservation agriculture on-farm conditions. Eight QPM and four non-QPM varieties were tested on on-farm trials in Zimbabwe during the 2014/15 and 2015/16 cropping seasons at five different locations. Significant differences were detected among the genotypes for the measured traits in the two seasons. Similarly, genotype plus genotype × environment interactions were significant for both seasons for grain yield. Three QPM varieties, SC527, SC535 and SC643, recorded the highest and stable yield. Four QPM varieties, SC643, SC535, SC527 and MQ623, and a non-QPM variety, PAN413, were ranked high among farmers for overall ear characteristics as their most preferred varieties. The high-yielding and stable QPM varieties are likely to be adopted by farmers in southern Africa.
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Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major cereal crops in the World and stable food crops in developing countries. But almost all maize varieties cultivated in the Ethiopia are normal maize varieties, which are deficiency of essential amino acids such as lysine and tryptophan and exposed to malnutrition people feed maize as stable food. Due to this reason substituting the normal maize grown in developing country with QPM would substantially improve the protein status and greatly reduce the malnutrition problems of resource poor people depending on maize as staple food. Quality protein maize (QPM) is a maize variety that possesses significantly higher levels of two essential amino acids, lysine and tryptophan as compared to Normal Maize (NM) varieties, to the presence of the opaque-2 gene in a homozygous recessive state. Maize breeders began transferring opaque-2 genes into local maize varieties , and they enthusiastically rushed the new crop into production .The breeding of QPM involves the manipulation of three distinct genetic systems. The recessive mutant allele of the Opaque-2 gene is the first and central component, the second is comprised of the alleles of endosperm hardness modifier genes and the third is comprised of a distinct set of amino acid modifier genes (termed here "aa-modifiers") which affect the relative levels of lysine and tryptophan content in the grain endosperm. The undesirable characteristics include reduced yield than normal maize, low grain consistence and a farinaceous endosperm that retains water is a major challenge during early development of QPM dissemination. In order to overcome these apparent limitations for large scale use of such mutants, efforts were directed towards identification of alternative mutants that did not carry such disadvantages. The effort, spanning over the last decade, involved collaborative CIMMYT/donor funded projects with large components of flow through funding to enable the full participation of regional NARS. CIMMYT remained the major source of global QPM germplasm and hence QPM development in the region and Ethiopia heavily depended on the large pool of QPM source germplasm available at CIMMYT. Support from DFATD to Ethiopia has continued under the Nutritious Maize for Ethiopia (NuME) project since 2012. Now a day's six QPM varieties are released in Ethiopia for different Agro-ecology of maize production area, But still great effort was expected from maize breeders to convert normal maize to QPM to limit malnutrition in the country.
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Storage proteins account for about 50% of the total protein in mature cereal grains and have important impacts on their nutritional quality for humans and livestock and on their functional properties in food processing. Current knowledge of the structures and properties of the prolamin and globulin storage proteins of cereals and their mechanisms of synthesis, trafficking and deposition in the developing grain is briefly reviewed here. The role of the gluten proteins of wheat in determining the quality of the grain for breadmaking and how their amount and composition can be manipulated leading to changes in dough mixing properties is also discussed.
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The genetic mapping of polymorphic markers in a cross between two inbred plant lines has proven to be a powerful method for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying complex traits. However, existing methods of QTL mapping were developed for disomic inheritance of both marker and QTL loci in a diploid population. To map QTL influencing traits expressed in the endosperm, a triploid embryo-nourishing tissue resulting from double fertilization, existing QTL mapping models require modification to consider the trisomic inheritance of the endosperm and the generation difference between the mapping population and the endosperm. Such a model requires simultaneous use of two successive generations, which theoretically can lead to an increase in resolution for QTL mapping compared with the use of a single backcross or F(2) generation. Using a newly developed model based on these considerations, we demonstrate the improved resolution of QTL, influencing protein quality traits in maize endosperm. The increased resolution made possible with this approach makes identified QTL accessible to positional cloning.
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The nutrients in the human diet ultimately come from plants. However, all our major food crops lack certain essential vitamins and minerals. Although a varied diet provides adequate nutrition, much of the human population, particularly in developing countries, relies on staple crops, such as rice or maize, which does not provide the full complement of essential nutrients. Malnutrition is a significant public health issue in most of the developing world. One way to address this problem is through the enhancement of staple crops to increase their essential nutrient content. Here, we review the current strategies for the biofortification of crops, including mineral fertilization and conventional breeding but focusing on transgenic approaches which offer the most rapid way to develop high-nutrient commercial cultivars.
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