Article

Monoclonal antibodies against complement 3 neoantigens for detection of immune complexes and complement activation. Relationship between immune complex levels, state of C3 and numbers of receptor for C3b

Journal of Clinical Investigation (Impact Factor: 13.22). 11/1985; 76(4):1418-26. DOI: 10.1172/JCI112119
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

C3-bearing immune complexes and C3 activation products were detected by using two monoclonal antibodies, one specific for a neoantigenic determinant on C3c and the other for C3d. To quantitate immune complexes, the anti-C3c or anti-C3d antibodies were fixed to microtiter plates and reacted with test plasma. The binding of C3-bearing immune complexes in this plasma was then measured with radioisotope- or enzyme-labeled anti-human IgG. To test for C3 breakdown products, solid-phase monoclonal antibody to the C3d neoantigen was reacted with EDTA-plasma samples, and fixed iC3b or C3d was measured with a polyclonal anti-C3 antibody. Patients with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjogren's syndrome, and paracoccidioidomycosis were found to contain immune complexes bearing C3b/iC3b or C3d. In most conditions, there were more C3d-containing immune complexes than C3b/iC3b. Although CR1 (C3b receptors) rapidly converted immune complex-bound iC3b to C3dg/C3d and lupus patients had reduced CR1, no correlation between the state of C3 on circulating immune complexes or levels of immune complexes and CR1 numbers was seen. However, levels of C3-fixing ICs correlated with levels of C3 activation products. This assay system with monoclonal antibodies to neoantigens expressed on activated, but not native, C3 provides sensitive and specific means for detecting and classifying C3-fixing immune complexes and for assessing C3 activation.

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    • "At present ANTI-C3 ELISA and the conglutinin test are the most used antigen-nonspecific assays able to detect CIC according to the immunoglobulin isotypes contained (IgG- CIC, IgM-CIC and IgA-CIC) (Iida et al., 1987; Ruddy and Moxley, 1994; Lock and Unsworth, 2000). Unfortunately, both tests can detect false positive results (Aguado et al., 1985; Holmskov et al., 1992). It is obvious that a new sensitive and easy performing test for quantitative assessment of IgM-CIC and IgA-CIC would be actual. "
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC), containing IgG, IgM or IgA antibodies were detected in the sera of patients with autoimmune diseases. This might indicate a different biological meaning of the three isotypes of immunoglobulin (Ig) in the CIC. Each CIC assay detected only certain classes and subclasses of Ig in CIC material or fixed complement protein. In this study, a new method based on C3binding glycoprotein named CIF-ELISA and a well-known method ANTI-C3 ELISA, were used for quantitative assessment of IgM-CIC, IgG-CIC and IgA-CIC levels in human sera. A modified CIF-ELISA and ANTI-C3 ELISA for simultaneous detection of CIC, containing IgG, IgM and IgA, (stCIC), were also performed. The assays were evaluated on the same specially prepared samples: 55 normal sera, 99 sera from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 88 sera from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 27 sera from progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). We found that the sensitivity of the tests used varied depending on the diseases studied. CIF-ELISA displayed higher sensitivity of IgM-CIC when compared to ANTI-C3 ELISA in RA patients (40.0 and 20.95%, respectively) and PSS (44.43 and 37.04%, respectively). Results for the sensitivity of IgA-CIC were in adverse direction in the RA group (14.28 and 19.05%) and PSS (14.81 and 25.93%) by both methods. It was also established that the concordance of IgM-CIC positives by both methods was 48.84% in RA and 46.67% in PSS, while in SLE it was 18.78%. These results are most probably due to the different assay abilities to detect antibody isotype of the CIC material and help to explain what specific role each Ig isotype in CIC has in the course of the disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2003 · Clinical and Developmental Immunology
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    • "At present ANTI-C3 ELISA and the conglutinin test are the most used antigen-nonspecific assays able to detect CIC according to the immunoglobulin isotypes contained (IgG- CIC, IgM-CIC and IgA-CIC) (Iida et al., 1987; Ruddy and Moxley, 1994; Lock and Unsworth, 2000). Unfortunately, both tests can detect false positive results (Aguado et al., 1985; Holmskov et al., 1992). It is obvious that a new sensitive and easy performing test for quantitative assessment of IgM-CIC and IgA-CIC would be actual. "
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    ABSTRACT: The assessment of the soluble immune complexes (IC) in human sera is traditionally performed by the C1q binding assay. In the present study, a novel method for the quantity of immune complexes was reported. The methodology was based on measuring their deposition on solid-phase C3 binding glycoprotein (CIF), using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also used ELISA that employed anti-C3 antibodies to determined the quantity of immune complexes. The three assays were evaluated for their performance characteristics on the same specially prepared samples: 55 normal sera, 99 sera from RA, 88 sera from SLE, and 27 sera from PSS. The results were compared by reference to a common standard-heat aggregated IgG that possesses many activities of immune complexes. Three of the tests used displayed almost the same specificity (over 95%), while their relative sensitivity varied depending on the disease sera tested. The sensitivity of the assays used was recorded highest for C1q ELISA-28.97% of positive sera, followed by CIF-ELISA-19.63% and lowest for anti-C3 ELISA-17.29%. A well-expressed correlation was found between CIF-ELISA and anti-C3 ELISA data (r=0.42), and a week correlation was noted when comparing CIF-ELISA and C1q ELISA IC levels detected (r=0.28). When the correlation coefficients were calculated individually for each disease category, they were clearly different, and that reflected indirectly in different sensitivities of the test for various disease categories. We also found that the results from the simultaneous performance of the tests demonstrated low percentage positive results when three or two assays were used. This is most probably due to the different assay abilities to detect IC with different sizes and composition, which shows that a small part of IC in the tested sera can be detected simultaneously by more than one assay. On the basis of the results obtained, we concluded that optimal screening for IC could be achieved by parallel application of several different methods.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2001 · Journal of Immunological Methods
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    • "However, an overwhelming B-cell overactivity induced by signaling through membrane receptors cannot be excluded. In this context, stimulation via complement receptor 2 has been suggested to contribute to signaling abnormalities in lupus [8], since the ligand of this receptor, C3d, was identified to be part of immune complexes in lupus [9]. "
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