ArticlePDF Available


Peel essential oil of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) growing in Tunisia was separated by hydrodistillation and obtained in a yield of 9.7%. The oil composition was investigated using GC and GC-MS with two columns HP-1 and HP-Innowax. Fifteen compounds accounting for 98.52% of the oil were identified. The oil was characterized by high content of limonene (59.21%), linalool (9.51%) and linalyl acetate (16.83%).
Apr. 2010, Volume 4, No.4 (Serial No.29)
Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, ISSN 1934-7375, USA
Chemical Composition of Bergamot (Citrus Bergamia
Risso) Essential Oil Obtained by Hydrodistillation
Bouzouita Nabiha
, El Omri Abdelfatteh
, Kachouri Faten
, Casabianca Hervé
and Chaabouni Mohamed
1. Higher Institute of Food Industries of Tunis, 58, Avenue Alain Savary, Tunis 1003, Tunisia
2. National Centre of the Scientific Research, Echangeur de solaize, Vernaison B .P. 22-69390, France
Received: October 9, 2009 / Accepted: October 27, 2009 / Published: April 30, 2010.
Abstract: Peel essential oil of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) growing in Tunisia was separated by hydrodistillation and obtained in
a yield of 9.7%. The oil composition was investigated using GC and GC-MS with two columns HP-1 and HP-Innowax. Fifteen
compounds accounting for 98.52% of the oil were identified. The oil was characterized by high content of limonene (59.21%), linalool
(9.51%) and linalyl acetate (16.83%).
Key words: Citrus bergamia Risso, bergamot peel oil, essential oil composition, limonene, linalyl acetate.
1. Introduction
Citrus peel oils are widely used in the perfume and
cosmetic industries. Among them, bergamot (Citrus
bergamia Risso) peel oil is the most valuable essential
oil due to its unique fragrance and freshness. The
essence composed of a volatile part and non-volatile
fraction find application in the cosmetic, pharmace-
utical and food industries [1-3]. In the volatile fraction,
the oxygenated compounds are included in a superior
amount to that contained in other citrus essential oils
extracted from peels. This oxygenated terpene fraction
provides much of the characteristic flavor of bergamot
oil and its high amount makes this citrus essential oil
unique by its fragrance and aroma [4].
Many studies
concerning the chemical composition of the peel of
different varieties of citrus have been reviewed [5-9].
The bergamot essential oil produces in Reggio
Calabria, Italy, has been ranked as the highest quality at
the international trading market [10]. In 1994,
Corresponding author: Chaabouni Mohamed Moncef,
professor, research field: Valorization of the natural com-
pounds of origin vegetable. E-mail: chaabouni.medmon-
Mondello et al. [11] studied the chemical composition
of bergamot essential oil. They detected more than 100
volatile compounds in Italian bergamot oil, of which
linalyl acetate and linalool were predominant in
addition to limonene. In 1995, Giacomo and Mincione
[12] reviewed this chemical composition.
This study aims to investigate the oil composition of
bergamot peel obtained by hydrodistillation and to
compare it with composition of bergamot essential oil
provided by the Bergamot Consortium of Reggio
Clabria, Italy [10].
2. Experiment
Bergamot fruit was collected in November 2004
from Tunisia. Grated peel (50 g) were mixed with 200
ml H
O and subjected to hydrodistillation using
Dean-Stark apparatus (until there was no significant
increased in the volume of oil collection) to give the
following yield (w/w): 9.7%. The oil was dried over
anhydrous sodium sulfate and stored under N
at 4 .
The determination of retention data and the area
percentage of the identified constituents were carried
out on a two GC-FID systems.
Chemical Composition of Bergamot (Citrus Bergamia Risso) Essential Oil Obtained by Hydrodistillation
(1) An Agilent 5890 system equipped with HP-1 (ref
1909 1 Z-115) column (50 × 320 µm, 0.5 µm film
thickness). GC oven temperature was kept at 80 °C for
8 min and programmed to 220 °C at a rate of 2 °C /min.
(2) An Agilent 6890 system equipped with
HP-Innowax (ref 19091 N-216) column (60 m x 320
µm i.d., 0.5 µm film thickness). GC oven temperature
was kept at 60 °C and programmed to 245 °C at a rate
of 2 °C /min, then constant at 250 °C for 20 min.
The split ratio was adjusted to 1/100. The injector
temperature was 250 °C. The FID detector was kept at
250 °C. The carrier gas was helium (1.3 ml/min).
GC-MS analysis was carried out using the first
system, Agilent 5890 equipped with HP-1 column. The
mass spectra was recorded in the electron impact mode
at 70 eV using the aforementioned chromatographic
conditions. Individual components of bergamot peel
essential oil were identified by their retention indices
compared with literature values [13, 14] and their mass
spectra were interpreted on the basis of the WILEY 275
L computer library.
3. Results and Discussion
The compounds identified in the Tunisian Citrus
bergamia peel oil are listed in Table 1. The forty six
identified components constituted 98.52% of the total
oil. GC and GC–MS analysis showed that the oil
consisted of three main groups of constituents named
monoterpenes hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoter-
penes and sesquiterpenes. Bergamot peel oil studied
here contained 66.37% of monoterpenes hydrocarbons
with limonene as the major component (59.21%).
Furthermore, the oil contained 31% oxygenated
monoterpenes, the main components being linalyl
acetate (16.83%) and linalool (9.51%). The oil had
1.15% of sesquiterpenes. The main sesquiterpenes
were β-Bisabolene (0.47%) and Trans α-Bergamotene
Table 1 Chemical composition of peel Citrus bergamia
essential oil from Tunisia.
Kovats Indices
Compound Percentage HP-1 HP-Innowax
α-Thujene 0.01 924 1028
α-Pinene 0.48 932 1028
Camphene 0.02 945 1074
Sabinene 0.73 966 1126
β-Pinene 4.38 973 1118
Octanal 0.02 979 1273
Myrcene 1.23 981 1163
α-Phellandrene 0.07 993 1163
p-Cymene 0.03 1014 1271
Limonene 59.21 1029 1214
β- Phellandrene 0.14 1029 1219
(Z)-β-Ocimene 0.01 1033 1234
(E)-β-Ocimene 0.05 1037 1251
γ-Terpinene 0.01 1051 1251
(E)-Thujan-4-ol 0.01 1053 1463
(Z)-Linalool Oxide 0.02 1053 1451
(E)-Linalool Oxide 0.03 1072 1463
Terpinène 0.01 1080 1273
Linalool 9.51 1087 1542
(Z)-Limonene Oxide 0.18 1117 1451
(E)-Limonene Oxide 0.06 1124 1463
Citronellal 0.02 1131 1470
Terpinen-4-ol 0.05 1162 1601
α-Terpineol 1.09 1173 1691
Decanal 0.02 1184 1475
Octyl acetate 0.06 1192 1475
Nerol 0.28 1210 1788
Neral 0.28 1214 1681
Geraniol 0.62 1236 1833
Linalyl acetate 16.83 1244 1559
Geranial 0.27 1256 1730
Bornyl acetate 0.01 1270 1589
Terpinen-4-yl acetate 0.33 1287 -
Linalyl propionate 0.08 1331 1606
Citronnellyl acetate 0.18 1333 1681
Neryl acetate 0.4 1342 1721
Geranyl acetate 0.64 1360 1751
β-Bourbonene 0.01 1386 -
Decyl acetate 0.01 1392 -
(Z)-α-Bergamotene 0.02 1411 1574
β-Caryophyllene 0.1 1419 1606
(E)-α-Bergamotene 0.32 1433 1589
(E)-β-Farnesene 0.03 1447 1663
α-Humulene 0.01 1452 1677
γ-Muurolene 0.11 1471 1695
Germacrene D 0.02 1480 1720
Bicyclogermacrene 0.02 1493 1751
β-Bisabolene 0.47 1501 1728
Caryophyllene oxide 0.02 1571 1990
α-Bisabolol 0.01 1669 -
Total (%) 98.52
Chemical Composition of Bergamot (Citrus Bergamia Risso) Essential Oil Obtained by Hydrodistillation
(0.32%). The results obtained were compared with
those reported in the literature (bergamot oil produced
Reggio Calabria in Italy). The proportion of
limonene in bergamot peel essential oil from Tunisia is
high (59.21%) compared with that in essential oil
produced in Reggio Calabria (37.2%). It is know that
the ratio of linalool to linalyl acetate “essence degree”
is one of the quality indices of bergamot essential oil
and affects the aroma of the essence of bergamot. The
value of this ratio is 0.6 in the present work. The mean
ratio of bergamot oil produced in Reggio Calabria has
been reported to be approximately 0.3 [10].
According to the existing literature the oil of
bergamot peel obtained by cold-pressing consists of
limonene, linalool, linalyl acetate and non volatiles
compounds such as Bergamottin, Bergapten and
Citropten [1, 9]
which may be deleterious.
Pervaporation is reported as an alternative process to
the traditional techniques (steam distillation and
solvent extraction) used nowadays for extraction of
aroma compounds from natural matrixes [1]. The
extraction of essential oil from bergamot fruit with
enzymatic pre-treatment has been studied; the enzymes
have the function to degrade cell membrane and wall
allowing the almost total release of aroma compounds
[15]. Supercritical fluid chromatography was used in
order to investigate the possibility of detoxification of
this essential oil [9]. However, this purification may be
detrimental to the flavor of the oil, since the processed
oil will have a lower content of the oxygenated
terpenes which are responsible for the olfactory
characteristics [9].
4. Conclusions
The results of the oil composition obtained by
hydrodistillation showed a high proportion of limonene
(59.21%) and a high ratio of linalool to linalyl acetate
(0.6). This oil presents a good essence degree which is
better than thus of Calabria essential oil obtained by
[1] A. Figoli, L. Donato, R. Carnevale, R. Tundis, G.A. Statti,
F. Menichini, E. Drioli, Bergamote essential oil extraction
by pervaporation, Desalination 193 (2006) 160-165.
[2] S. Raeissi, C.J. Peters, Experimental determination of
high-pressure phase equilibria of the ternary system
carbon dioxide+limonene+linalool, J. Supercritical Fluids
35 (2005) 10-17.
[3] E. Franceschi, M.B. Grings, C.D. Frizzo, J. Vladimir
Oliveira, C. Dariva, Phase behavior of lemon and
bergamot peel oils in supercritical CO
, Fluid Phase
Equilibria 226 (2004) 1-8.
[4] P. Marco, M. Antonio, G. Francesco, C. Domenico,
Supercritical carbon dioxide separation of bergamot
essential oil by countercurrent process, Flavour Fragr. J.
18 (2003) 429-435.
[5] P. Dugo, L. Mondello, L. Dugo, R. Stancanelli, G. Dugo,
LC-MS for the identification of oxygen heterocyclic
compounds in Citrus essential oils, J. Pharm. Biomed.
Anal. 24 (2000) 147-154.
[6] L. Mondello, P. Dugo, K.D. Bartle, G. Dugo, A. Cotroneo,
Automated HPLC-HRGC: A powerful method for
essential oils analysis. Part V. identification of terpene
hydrocarbons of bergamot, lemon, mandarin, sweet
orange, bitter orange, grapefruit, clementine and Mexican
lime oils by coupled HPLC-HRGC-MS (ITD), Flavour
Fragr. J. 10 (1995) 33-42.
[7] G.A. Statti, F. Conforti, G. Sacchetti, M. Muzzoli, C.
Agrimonti, F. Menichini, Chemical and biological
diversity of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) in relation to
environmental factors, Fitoterapia 75 (2004) 212-216.
[8] M.L. Lota, D. Rocca Serra, F. Tomi, J. Casanova,
Chemical variability of peel and leaf essential oils of 15
species of mandarins, Biochemical Systematics and
Ecology 29 (2001) 77-104.
[9] P. Subra, A. Vega, Retention of some components in
supercritical fluid chromatography and application to
bergamot peel oil fractionation, J. Chromatogr. A 771
(1997) 241-250.
[10] M. Sawamura, Y. Onishi, J. Ikemoto, Thi Minh Tu N, Thi
Lan Phi N, Characteristic odour components of bergamot (
Citrus bergamia Risso) essential oil, Flavour Fragr. J. 21
(2006) 609-615.
[11] L. Mondello, K.D. Bartle, P. Dugo, P. Gans, G. Dugo.
Automated LC-GC: a powerful method for essential oil
analysis. Part IV. Coupled LC-GC-MS (ITD) for bergamot
oil analysis, J. Microcolumn Separations 6 (1994)
[12] A. Di Giacomo, B. Mincione, In Gli Olii Essenziali
Agrumari in Italia: Olio Essenziale di Bergamatto, Laruffa
Editore Reggio Calabria, 1995.
[13] N.W. Davies, Gas chromatographic retention indices of
monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes on methyl silicone and
Carbowax 20M phases, J. Chromatogr 503 (1990) 1-24.
[14] W. Jennings, T. Shibamoto, Quantitative Analysis of
Flavor and Fragrance Volatiles by Glass Capillary Gas
Chromatography, Academic Press, New York, 1980.
[15] A. Figoli, A. Tagarelli, A. Mecchia, A. Trotta, B.
Cavaliere, R. Lavecchia, G. Sindona, E. Drioli,
Enzyme-assisted pervaporative recovery of concentrated
bergamot peel oils, Desalination 199 (2006) 111-112.
... Thus, their removal (deterpenation) aims to separate the hydrocarbons from the oxygenated compounds, which are highly odoriferous and flavored [33]. In this scenario, the fractionation of the pair limonene/linalool, found in citrus EO [52,53], has been deeply investigated in the literature using ILs [11,12,16,18,25,34,35,54,55], due to the importance of this particular oil. Figure 3 shows that the highest capacity of linalool is observed in [C 12 mim]Cl, favored by the increase in the cation alkyl chain length. ...
Full-text available
The potentialities of methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) as solvents were evaluated for some relevant separation problems—terpene fractionation and fuel processing—studying selectivities, capacities, and solvent performance indices. The activity coefficients at infinite dilution of the solute (1) in the IL (3), γ13∞, of 52 organic solutes were measured by inverse gas chromatography over a temperature range of 333.2–453.2 K. The selected ILs are 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C4mim][PF6], and the equimolar mixture of [C4mim][PF6] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [C4mim]Cl. Generally, low polar solutes follow γ1,C4mimCl∞ > γ1,C4mimPF6+C4mimCl∞ > γ1,C4mimPF6∞ while the opposite behavior is observed for alcohols and water. For citrus essential oil deterpenation, the results suggest that cations with long alkyl chains, such as C12mim+, promote capacity, while selectivity depends on the solute polarity. Promising results were obtained for the separation of several model mixtures relevant to fuel industries using the equimolar mixture of [C4mim][PF6] and [C4mim]Cl. This work demonstrates the importance of tailoring the polarity of the solvents, suggesting the use of ILs with mixed anions as alternative solvents for the removal of aliphatic hydrocarbons and contaminants from fuels.
... However significant differences were observed between the limonene contents of C. bergamia. In accordance with the present results, previous studies showed that the major volatile compounds of C. bergamia essential oil were limonene, linalool and linalyl acetate [26]. ...
Full-text available
Safe and health-beneficial citrus oils can be employed as natural preservatives, flavorings, antioxidants, and as antibacterial and antifungal agents in a wide variety of food products. In this research, using GC–MS methodology, the major volatile composition of Citrus bergamia EO, obtained by hydro-distillation, was determined to consist of limonen (17.06%), linalool (46.34%) and linalyl acetate (17.69%). The molecular fingerprint was obtained using FTIR spectroscopy. The antibacterial effect of C. bergamia EO at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 µg/mL) was tested against different pathogen species (Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes), based on disc diffusion assay. The in vitro antifungal activity of C. bergamia EO oil against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum was evaluated using agar disc diffusion assay. Clear inhibition zones were formed by C. bergamia EO against selected species of pathogens. Almost all of the concentrations were revealed to have antifungal activity against selected fungal pathogens. The highest inhibition rate of A. niger at 6 incubation days was 67.25 ± 0.35 mm with a 20 µL dose, while the growth in the control was 90.00 ± 0.00 mm. In addition, the highest inhibition rate of P. expansum was 26.16 ± 0.76 mm with a 20 µL dose, while the growth was 45.50 ± 2.12 mm in the control fungus. A higher antifungal effect of C. bergamia EO against P. expansum was obtained. It was observed that the growth of fungi was weakened with increasing concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20 µL dose) of C. bergamia EO. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) results were obtained for the antibacterial and antifungal effects of C. bergamia EO. The findings from the research may shed light on the further use of C. bergamia EO obtained from peels in innovative food engineering applications in order to maintain food quality, food safety, and food sustainability.
... As the QSI activity of peppermint and thyme was reported before (Husain et al. 2015;Myszka et al. 2016), we used them as a control in evaluating the effect of the newly identified QSI materials; bergamot and aspidosperma. Bergamot essential oil is known to contain a high proportion of limonene (59.21%), linalool (9.51%), and linalyl acetate (16.83%) (Bouzouita et al. 2010). On the other hand, the medicinal properties of aspidosperma are mainly attributed to the presence of terpenoid indole alkaloids, which constitutes 6% (w/w) of the stem bark of the plant. ...
Full-text available
Quorum sensing (QS) represents a major target for reducing bacterial pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. This study identifies bergamot and aspidosperma as new potential sources of anti-QS agents. We investigated the anti-QS activity of plant materials on both Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of plant materials using a broth microdilution method. Subsequently, we tested the effect of sub-MIC concentrations on QS-regulated traits and virulence factors production in test bacteria. Results revealed that bergamot and aspidosperma inhibited the ability of C. violaceum to produce violacein. Other QS-controlled phenotypes of C. violaceum, namely chitinolytic activity, motility, and biofilm formation, were also reduced by both plant materials. Moreover, QS-linked traits of P. aeruginosa were also reduced. Bergamot inhibited swarming but not swimming motility, while aspidosperma diminished both motility types in P. aeruginosa. Both plant materials also demonstrated antibiofilm activity and inhibited the production of protease and pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, we tested the anti-QS effect of plant materials on the transcriptional level using RT-qPCR. Bergamot dramatically downregulated the C. violaceum autoinducer synthase gene cviI and the vioB gene involved in violacein biosynthesis, confirming the phenotypic observation on its anti-QS activity. Aspidosperma also reduced the expression of cviI and vioB but less drastically than bergamot. In P. aeruginosa, downregulation in the transcripts of the QS genes lasI, lasR, rhlI, and rhlR was also achieved by bergamot and aspidosperma. Therefore, data in the present study suggest the usefulness of bergamot and aspidosperma as sources of antivirulence agents.
Full-text available
Sesquiterpenoids constitute the largest subgroup of terpenoids that have numerous applications in pharmaceutical, flavor, and fragrance industries as well as biofuels. Bergamotenes, a type of bicyclic sesquiterpenes, are found in plants, insects, and fungi with α-trans-bergamotene as the most abundant compound. Bergamotenes and their related structures (Bergamotane sesquiterpenoids) have been shown to possess diverse biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and insecticidal effects. However, studies on their biotechnological potential are still limited. This review compiles the characteristics of bergamotenes and their related structures in terms of occurrence, biosynthesis pathways, and biological activities. It further discusses their functionalities and potential applications in pharmaceutical, nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and pest management sectors. This review also opens novel perspectives in identifying and harnessing bergamotenes for pharmaceutical and agricultural purposes.
Full-text available
New research has begun to develop safe and effective alternatives to feed-antibiotics as growth enhancers in response to mounting pressure on the poultry sector to do so. There is a significant demand for poultry products all across the world right now. To achieve this goal, key performance indicators are optimized, such as the rate of chicken growth, the amount of feed used, and the health of the flock as a whole. As a result of this growing need, various alternatives to antibiotics have entered the market. New approaches are desperately needed to keep poultry productivity and efficiency at a high level in the face of mounting pressure to limit the use of antibiotics. Recent years have seen an uptick in interest in the potential of aromatic plant extracts as growth and health boosters in poultry. The great majority of plants' positive effects are accounted for by essential oils (EOs) and other secondary metabolites. EOs have been proven to promote digestive secretion production, improve blood circulation, exert antioxidant qualities, reduce levels of dangerous microbes, and maybe improve the immune status of poultry. EOs are often believed to be safe, non-toxic alternatives because they are all-natural, chemical-free, and devoid of potentially harmful deposits. EOs are extracted from plants, and while there are thousands of them, only approximately 300 have been deemed to have significant commercial value. Many different types of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites have been shown to be negatively affected by EOs in multiple studies conducted both in vitro and in vivo. The review covers the fundamentals of EOs, their anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory capabilities, their growth-promoting benefits, and their effectiveness against numerous diseases in poultry.
Full-text available
Book Available online at: PREFACE Chemical sciences and Biological science play an important role in the evolutionary concept of the living world. This book Recent Trends Innovation Chemical and Biological Science: An Approach towards Qualitative and Quantitative Studies and Applications is a considerable effort taken by different authors in the discipline to provide new methodologies of research, its applications, and practical inducements of chemical sciences and Biological Science. The various themes in the book such as application of biological organisms, ethnomedicinal used in different human disorder, biological activity of Indian medicinal plants, Ethnobotanical study, Ecofriendly energy, Transplastomic plants, Role of Sacred Groves in Biodiversity Conservation, Medicinal property rich plants comphora and different traditional parts in India its application. It covers topic from environment science like effect of toxic chemical on environment. Also covered point from pharmacognosy like as the pharmacological property of Euphorbiaceae. It cover topic like phytochemistry biochemistry and active ingredients Indian medicinal plants. From chemical science subject like organic and inorganic and as well as applied chemistry included such Activities. It also cover there under medicinal and computational chemistry. This book acts as an intermediary manual between Chemical sciences with other disciplines paving a way for ideas to new research in the respective arena. The experiments described in the boom chapters are such as should be performed by everyone beginning the study of chemistry, and would also serve as an excellent introduction to a course of qualitative and quantitative analysis. All scientists, academicians, researchers, and students working in the fields of chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering, among other fields, will find this book quite valuable. This book with valuable book chapters from eminent scientists, academicians, and researchers will surely be a part of almost information for the coming new research taken by the researchers in the field of chemical sciences and other disciplines in the future. Dr. Bassa Satyannarayana Mr. Mukul Machhindra Barwant CONTENT
Full-text available
Microbiota plays a crucial role in human health and disease; therefore, the modulation of this complex and yet widely unexplored ecosystem is a biomedical priority. Numerous antibacterial alternatives have been developed in recent years, imposed by the huge problem of antibioresistance, but also by the people demand for natural therapeutical products without side effects, as dysbiosis, cyto/hepatotoxicity. Current studies are focusing mainly in the development of nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with herbal and fruit essential oils (EOs) to fight resistant pathogens. This is due to their increased efficiency against susceptible, multidrug resistant and biofilm embedded microorganisms. They are also studied because of their versatile properties, size and possibility to ensure a targeted administration and a controlled release of bioactive substances. Accordingly, an increasing number of studies addressing the effects of functional nanoparticles and plant products on microbial pathogens has been observed. Regardless the beneficial role of EOs and NPs in the treatment of infectious diseases, concerns regarding their potential activity against human microbiota raised constantly in recent years. The main focus of current research is on gut microbiota (GM) due to well documented metabolic and immunological functions of gut microbes. Moreover, GM is constantly exposed to micro- and nano-particles, but also plant products (including EOs). Because of the great diversity of both microbiota and chemical antimicrobial alternatives (i.e., nanomaterials and EOs), here we limit our discussion on the interactions of gut microbiota, inorganic NPs and EOs. Impact of accidental exposure caused by ingestion of day care products, foods, atmospheric particles and drugs containing nanoparticles and/or fruit EOs on gut dysbiosis and associated diseases is also dissected in this paper. Current models developed to investigate mechanisms of dysbiosis after exposure to NPs/EOs and perspectives for identifying factors driving EOs functionalized NPs dysbiosis are reviewed.
Full-text available
In recent years, essential oils extracted from different plant species have become increasingly popular in the production of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and foods. The essential oil from orange (Citrus sinensis) is important in large-scale applications due to its antibacterial, antioxidant activities, and pleasant aroma. In this study, factors affecting the production of orange essential oil on a distillation device with an operating capacity of 50 L/batch, including the ratio of material to water, temperature, and time distillation, have been surveyed. Through the survey, it was found that the raw materials were pureed, the materials: water ratio was 1:3 g/g, the water heating temperature was 130 °C, and the distillation time was 140 min. The yield of the essential oil was 1.8 mL/g with compounds limonene accounting for 98%, α-Pinene (0.655–0.734%), and β-Pinene (1.114 and 1.163%) by the GC-MS method. The review also found that the hydrodistillation equipment was designed to be suitable for the semi-industrial scales of orange essential oil due to its stable yield and volatile compounds contained in the essential oil.
Inherited beta-thalassemia is a major disease caused by irregular production of hemoglobin through reducing beta-globin chains. It has been observed that increasing fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production improves symptoms in the patients. Therefore, an increase in the level of HbF has been an operative approach for treating patients with beta-thalassemia. This review represents compounds with biological activities and pharmacological properties that can promote the HBF level and therefore used in the β-thalassemia patients' therapy. Various natural products with different mechanisms of action can be helpful in this medication cure. Clinical trials were efficient in improving the signs of patients. Association of in vivo, and in vitro studies of HbF induction and γ-globin mRNA growth displays that in vitro experiments could be an indicator of the in vivo response. The current study shows that; (a) HbF inducers can be grouped in several classes based on their chemical structures and mechanism of actions; b) According to several clinical trials, well-known drugs such as hydroxyurea and decitabine are useful HbF inducers; (c) The cellular biosensor K562 carrying genes under the control of the human γ-globin and β-globin gene promoters were applied during the researches; d) New natural products and lead compounds were found based on various studies as HbF inducers.
Full-text available
Peel and leaf oils of 58 mandarin cultivars, belonging to 15 different species were obtained from fruits and leaves collected on mandarin-trees submitted to the same pedoclimatic and cultural conditions. Their chemical composition was investigated by capillary GC, GC/MS and NMR and the results were submitted to a cluster analysis and a discriminant analysis. Three major chemotypes, limonene, limonene/γ-terpinene and linalyl acetate/limonene, were distinguished for peel oils while three other chemotypes, sabinene/linalool, γ-terpinene/linalool and methyl N-methylanthranilate, were observed for leaf oils.
The high-pressure phase behavior of the ternary system carbon dioxide+limonene+linalool was determined experimentally by a synthetic method. All the experiments were carried out in an approximately constant molar concentration of carbon dioxide equal to 98.00%. The ratio of limonene to linalool was varied from 0 to 1 through 12 different concentrations. Under these conditions, no liquid–liquid immiscibility was observed for this system. The data included bubble points, critical points and dew points within a temperature and pressure range of 293–349K and 5–14MPa, respectively. The results were compared with ternary data of ethane+limonene+linalool at similar conditions of constant supercritical fluid concentration and varying limonene to linalool ratios. The results indicated that supercritical extraction of citrus oils could be carried out at lower pressures if ethane is used instead of carbon dioxide.
A fully automatic on-line LC-GC-MS system for the analysis of bergamot essential oil has been used. The system allows the pre-separation by LC of the oil into compound classes by gradient elution followed by the transfer of these fractions into a capillary GC column and detection by MS (ITD) and FID. Combining LC-GC-MS produces data which are considerably more informative than data from GC-MS of the whole essential oil.
The volatile components of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) essential oil produced in Reggio Calabria in Italy were investigated using GC, GC–MS and gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC–O). Fifty-five compounds in the oil were identified by GC and GC–MS. The major compounds were limonene (37.2%), linalyl acetate (30.1%), linalool (8.8%), -terpinene (6.8%) and β-pinene (6.2%). In sensory analysis, odour description and flavour dilution (FD) factors of each component were evaluated by GC-sniffing and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). Bergamot-like odour components were (Z)-limonene oxide, decanal, linalyl acetate and geraniol. A mixture of eight other components, such as limonene, linalool, -terpinene and others, in addition to the four bergamot-like aroma compounds, brought about an aroma model of bergamot odour with the similarity of 7.1 by the nine-point-score sensory test. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A fully automated HPLC-HRGC-MS(ITD) system was used for the analysis of the terpene hydrocarbon fraction of eight essential oils: bergamot, lemon, mandarin, sweet orange, bitter orange, grapefruit, clementine and Mexican lime. The system allows the isolation by LC of the hydrocarbon fraction followed by transfer into the GC and identification of the single components by MS(ITD). LC-GC-MS coupling gives more accurate results than those obtained from GC-MS analysis of the whole essential oil. The results obtained were compared with those reported in the literature, and represent a reference for the characterization of the citrus essential oils.
The efficiency of separation of bergamot essential oil, performed by a countercurrent column filled with Raschig rings and using supercritical carbon dioxide as partition solvent, is affected by various parameters. In the experiments explained in this work, the direct effect of CO2 density was shown and the ratio between the amount of oil loaded to on the column and the amount of CO2 used were discussed. The conditions that produced extracts with a similar volatile fraction composition of starting material and with a high yield (more than 80% of recovery) were those with a low feed:solvent ratio; the lowest bergaptene content was obtained at low CO2 density or at high feed:solvent ratio. A good result was observed at a CO2 density of 206 g/dm(3) (8 MPa of pressure and a temperature gradient of 46-50-54degreesC) and a feed:solvent ratio of 9.4-9.6; in this separation, a yield of 74-77% and a bergaptene content lower than 0.01% was measured. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
Supercritical fluid chromatography was used in order to investigate the possibility of detoxification of an essential oil. Bergamot peel oil contains phototoxic compounds, the psoralens, which must be removed prior to its use. The retention of the major constituents of the oil was determined under various levels of pressure (from 75 to 160 bar) and temperature (37 to 57°C) of pure carbon dioxide. The highest selectivity against psoralens, and specifically, against bergapten was obtained at low pressure and high temperature. Bergapten elimination was then successfully achieved by adsorption from a supercritical feed.
Bergamot peel oil is the most valuable essential oil due to its unique fragrance and freshness. The essence finds application in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. However, strong limitations have been imposed on its use since bergamot oil contains several coumarins and psoralens which may be photoactive. Qualitative and quantitative analyses with GC–MS were carried out to evaluate the aroma flavour bouquet of the bergamot essential oil obtained by pervaporation (PV). In all PV experiments, made at different ethanol feed concentration and temperature, the bergapten was not detected in the permeate while the aroma components, present in the feed, permeate through the commercial Pervap 1070 membrane. Bergapten is a photoactive component of bergamot essential oil which, in combination with UV radiation, promotes melanogenesis and causes thickening of the stratum corneum. Therefore, PV is a valid alternative for the high quality of essential oil produced without bergapten to the traditional techniques employed in which the bergapten can be removed after an extra-chemical treatment.
The concentration of bergamot peel oils by pervaporation, with and without enzymatic pre-treatment, is studied. The influence of different PV membranes, industrial enzymes and operational parameters on the PV process are also investigated. GC-MS analyses are carried out to evaluate the recovery of the main aroma compounds such as linalool, linalyl acetate and limonene.