Phyto-preparations and phyto-compounds, by their natural origin, easy availability, cost-effectiveness, and fruitful traditional uses based on accumulated experiences, have been extensively explored to mitigate the global burden of obesity.
Aim of this review
The review aimed to analyse and critically summarize the prospect of future anti-obesity drug leads from the extant array of phytochemicals for mitigation of obesity, using adipose related targets (adipocyte formation, lipid metabolism, and thermogenesis) and non-adipose targets (hepatic lipid metabolism, appetite, satiety, and pancreatic lipase activity). Phytochemicals as inhibitors of adipocyte differentiation, modulators of lipid metabolism, and thermogenic activators of adipocytes are specifically discussed with their non-adipose anti-obesogenic targets.
Materials and methods
PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and SciFinder were accessed to collect data on traditional medicinal plants, compounds derived from plants, their reported anti-obesity mechanisms, and therapeutic targets. The taxonomically accepted name of each plant in this review has been vetted from “The Plant List” (www.theplantlist.org) or MPNS (http://mpns.kew.org).
Available knowledge of a large number of phytochemicals, across a range of adipose and non-adipose targets, has been critically analysed and delineated by graphical and tabular depictions, towards mitigation of obesity. Neuro-endocrinal modulation in non-adipose targets brought into sharp dual focus, both non-adipose and adipose targets as the future of anti-obesity research. Numerous phytochemicals (Berberine, Xanthohumol, Ursolic acid, Guggulsterone, Tannic acid, etc.) have been found to be effectively reducing weight through lowered adipocyte formation, increased lipolysis, decreased lipogenesis, and enhanced thermogenesis. They have been affirmed as potential anti-obesity drugs of future because of their effectiveness yet having no threat to adipose or systemic insulin sensitivity.
Due to high molecular diversity and a greater ratio of benefit to risk, plant derived compounds hold high therapeutic potential to tackle obesity and associated risks. This review has been able to generate fresh perspectives on the anti-diabetic/anti-hyperglycemic/anti-obesity effect of phytochemicals. It has also brought into the focus that many phytochemicals demonstrating in vitro anti-obesogenic effects are yet to undergo in vivo investigation which could lead to potential phyto-molecules for dedicated anti-obesity action.