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Application of Cognitive, Skill-Based, and Affective Theories of Learning Outcomes to New Methods of Training Evaluation



Although training evaluation is recognized as an important component of the instructional design model, there are no theoretically based models of training evaluation. This article attempts to move toward such a model by developing a classification scheme for evaluating learning outcomes. Learning constructs are derived from a variety of research domains, such as cognitive, social, and instructional psychology and human factors. Drawing from this research, the authors propose cognitive, skill-based, and affective learning outcomes (relevant to training) and recommend potential evaluation measures. The learning outcomes and associated evaluation measures are organized into a classification scheme. Requirements for providing construct-oriented evidence of validity for the scheme are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... While the ISD model provides a useful framework for thinking about training, as noted by Kraiger (2003), "modern" research on T&D has been influenced by three papers published in the late 1980s: Baldwin and Ford (1988) on transfer of training, Howell and Cooke (1989) on cognitive models of learning, and Noe (1986) on training effectiveness. Howell and Cooke, and then later Kraiger, Ford, and Salas (1993) and Ford and Kraiger (1995) drew the focus of research away from training as an intervention inward to the mental processes of the learner. What happens when we learn? ...
... Training evaluation is the systematic collection of data in order to answer the question(s) of whether learning objectives were achieved and/or whether accomplishment of those objectives resulted in enhanced performance on the job (Kraiger et al., 1993). As noted by Kraiger (2003), learning is multidimensional, and hence the question of whether or not instructional objectives were achieved will normally require multiple measures of different types of outcomes; for example, measures of changes in declarative knowledge (knowing more), skilled behavior (doing things better), and self-efficacy for transfer (positive affective change). ...
... As noted by Kraiger (2003), learning is multidimensional, and hence the question of whether or not instructional objectives were achieved will normally require multiple measures of different types of outcomes; for example, measures of changes in declarative knowledge (knowing more), skilled behavior (doing things better), and self-efficacy for transfer (positive affective change). Kraiger (2003) referenced influential conceptual work by Kraiger et al. (1993) and Kraiger (2002) as a foundation for understanding the multidimensional nature of learning. Another recent learning taxonomy can be found in Anderson et al. (2001). ...
... According to Hadlaczky et al (2014), public health's educational programs effectiveness should be evaluated by measuring the cognitive (knowledge), skill (behaviour) and attitude (affective) acquired by participants. This is also consistent with Kraiger's et al (1993) model of training evaluation; in which, the model explains that training effectiveness can be evaluated by determining the learning performance that can increase participants' knowledge, skills, and affective. Therefore, the perception of public health's educational effectiveness via online training should be measured using the knowledge, skill, and attitude learned during training. ...
... Further, several researchers, including Talati et al (2018); Moreno-Rodriguez et al (2021); McKay et al (2022) have evaluated online training effectiveness using scores of learning perception by comparing the pre-and post-evaluation; in which, their findings indicated that online training was effective when there was a significant increase of learning between preand post-training evaluation. This is consistent with Kirkpatrick (1996); Kraiger et al (1993) suggestion to evaluate training effectiveness by comparing the pre-and post-training evaluation. These have demonstrated that the public health's online training can be evaluated by comparing participants' learning perception in the pre-and post-training evaluation. ...
... Findings are consistent with previous research that found public health's educational programs to the society were effective to increase learning performance among participants attending classroom training including those by (Campbell et al., 1998;Hadlaczky et al., 2014;Soe et al., 2018). Findings are also consistent with previous research that found public health's educational programs were effective to increase learning performance among participants attending online training in specific samples including those by (Moreno-Rodriguez et al., Kraiger's et al (1993) model of training evaluation that suggests participants acquire knowledge (cognitive), skill, and attitude (affective) outcomes during training programs because of training effectiveness; in which, it is demonstrated that online training to deliver the public health's educational programs can also provide suitable cognitive, skill, and affective outcomes to the society. However, the difference between current and previous research is that the current research used a sample of online training with participants from the general society that compose of various demographic backgrounds. ...
... Information gathering and feedback on the different learning methods can be achieved by assessing the learning outcomes and evaluating the functionality of the process (Kraiger, Ford and Salas, 1993). Annual appraisals can be used as a competence develop tool, to highlight both organisational and individual training needs. ...
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Recent scientific approaches and practical work-life developments aim to increase actor engagement to form expert communities. Solving common issues motivates stakeholders to collaborate and build trust to enable the co-creation of knowledge. This research is based on reading materials to understand how the engagement of actors in expert communities becomes viewed. The purpose of research-based development is to include actors in co-creation contexts. Gap analysis can be used to aid the planning of training implementation. Development processes are continuous and cyclical in nature. An open mind for change and a desire to learn are key to building competence. A plan for implementing development measures can help select learning methods that promote knowledge sharing and searching for new information. Measuring and evaluating learning can provide valuable feedback, which is needed to identify critical competencies and competence risks, and to promote the creation of a culture of learning.
... Teori penilaian keberkesanan Kirkpatrick kini merupakan model yang paling terkenal dan digunakan untuk menilai program latihan (Alliger & Janak, 1989;Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2006;Phillips, 2003). Tidak menghairankan, ia telah dikritik selama lima dekad yang lalu (Alliger & Janak, 1989;Brinkerhoff, 1987;Bushnell, 1990;Hilbert, Preskill, & Russ-Eft, 1997;Holton, 1996;Kraiger, Ford, & Salas, 1993 ;Spitzer & Conway, 2002;Swanson, 2001). Walaupun terdapat kritikan, dan pengembangan model penilaian komprehensif lain, model Kirkpatrick masih banyak digunakan kerana kesederhanaan dan kepraktisannya (Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2006;Twitchell, 1997). ...
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Buku ini dimulakan denganmembincangkan teori klasik dalam pembentukan identiti etnik iaitu teori primordial, teori instrumental dan teori konstruktivisme. Ketiga-tiga teori ini adalah perintis kepada perbahasan identiti etnik sehingga terbentuknya identiti ‘biracial’ dan identiti ‘multiracial’ dan persoalan identiti nasionalisme. Walaupun teori ini telah muncul lebih kurang 60 tahun lampau, sehingga kini masih digunakan oleh para sarjana dalam membuktikan kesahihan kajian mereka. Amat penting mengenal dan mendalami kesemua teori ini dalam mengenal pasti bagaimana sesebuah kumpulan etnik menentukan identiti etnik mereka sehingga menjadi satu gugusan etnik yang kukuh sehingga hari ini. Teori primordial melihat identiti adalah tetap dan sudah tersedia ada dalam setiap kumpulan. Manakala teori instrumental dan konstruktivisme pula berada dalam kategori situasional iaitu identiti etnik adalah mengikut situasi. Sumbangan dan kritikan terhadap teori-teori tersebut turut dibincangkan dengan lebih jelas dalam bab ini.
... The accuracy of parents in treating their children will affect their children's learning outcomes. The expected learning outcomes are something new and normative in both cognitive and attitudinal aspects, and skills (Kraiger et al., 1993). Achievement of learning outcomes student learning outcomes are also determined by the treatment of parents. ...
Families, especially parents , give an example to their children and also give good treatment to the children in learning in order to obtain a good learning result and can achieve the desired goals, and can be useful for their families in the days to come. However, of the phenomena that occur in the field can be seen many deviations behavior of children and adolescents . One reason is the lack of parenting good parenting on children , such as failure to adequately monitor children , disciplining children are less effective, and the lack of parental affection to their children and lack of responsibility to provide for the actions of their children. This study classified quantitative descriptive correlational study. This sample is 2 Padang SMP students numbering 125 people. This research instruments such as questionnaires about parenting parents and student learning outcomes in the form of grades 1 semester of school year 2013/2014. Data were analyzed using statistical techniques Product Moment Correlation through assistance programs Microsoft Office Excel and SPSS version 16.0
... These authors proposed that successful transfer depends on factors such as the similarity between the training and the work environments, the relevance of the training to the employee's tasks and responsibilities, and the employee's willingness to apply what has been learned. On the other hand, the model proposed by Kraiger et al. (1993) suggests that training evaluation should consider three types of outcomes: cognitive signals, affective learning, and skills learning. ...
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Workplace safety is a constant concern in the industry, especially in activities with a high risk of accidents, such as the operation of heavy machinery, material handling, and work with electricity. Risk situation training is a fundamental tool for accident prevention and promoting a safety culture in the workplace. However, these training practices are often seen as boring, tiresome, and ineffective, leading to low employee motivation and engagement. This article presents a survey conducted with training managers to understand training taught via traditional methods, and a rapid review performed to examine the literature on the benefits of using games with a purpose to support risk situation training and make them more playful, engaging and motivating. The survey results point out problems such as low engagement levels in training that applied traditional methods. The rapid review studies support the benefits of games with a purpose in risk situation training, where researchers indicate that strategies such as immediate feedback, participatory approaches, and scenario-based training can increase the effectiveness of risk situation training, improve employee motivation and engagement, and promote a more effective safety culture in the workplace. As a contribution, this article presents insights that can support the trainers in the adoption of learning strategies that may help to achieve training sessions more playful, engaging and motivating. In addition, this work serves to provide relevant information in the discussion on using games with a purpose for risk situation training in the industry.
... Various research nowadays discusses the impact of games on learning. An organisation scheme of learning outcomes that covered the aspects of cognitive, affective, and motor skills was proposed (Kraiger, Ford, & Salas, 1993). ...
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Play-based learning is a pedagogical approach that emphasises the use of play in promoting multiple areas of children’s development and learning. Free and guided play are two types of play-based learning that guide early learning. The children acquire concepts, skills, and attitudes that lay the foundation for lifelong learning through play pedagogies. Exposing learners to a rich vocabulary through reading, story-telling, and social interaction is key in play-based learning. This research aimed to explore the impact of play-based learning on the development of children in mobile Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) centres. Social constructivism theory was used to understand the impact of play-passed learning on children’s development in ECE. Using convenience sampling, the research followed an interpretive qualitative case study, and eight (8) practitioners were selected to participate. Data sources included practitioners’ interviews and the centres’ observations. Using the thematic approach, the findings revealed that the practitioners in rural areas had an insufficient understanding of teaching using play pedagogies. This had a negative impact on standard provisions for play pedagogies suited for young children, where appropriate suggestions are offered to the practitioners on the planning, implementation, and support of play practices within early learning. Furthermore, there is a shift in the early learning curricula incorporating advanced academic skills, a beneficial tool to aid children’s learning and development.
... TRMN is commonly considered a vital component in personalities, needs, and motivation theories of individuals (e.g., goal setting), cognitive choice theories of motivation (e.g., decision-making), and the integrative theory of training motivation (e.g., motivation to learn and transfer) (Kraiger et al., 1993;Mathieu & Martineau, 1997;Colquitt et al., 2000;Beier & Kanfer, 2009). These theories conceptualise TRMN as trainees' ability to think, concentrate, learn, and master new skills after realising the importance of the training programme (Colquitt et al., 2000;Beier & Kanfer, 2009). ...
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Research Aims: This study examines the effect of training content on trainee outcomes and the mediating role of trainees’ motivation in the relationship between training content and organisational citizenship behaviour. Design/Methodology/Approach: A cross-sectional research design was employed to collect 320 survey questionnaires from employees at the Malaysian federal government’s central agencies in Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory. The SmartPLS software programme was utilised to assess the quality of the instrument and subsequently test the hypotheses. Research Findings: The results demonstrate that training content significantly determines trainee outcomes. Trainees’ learning motivation significantly mediates the relationship between training content and organisational citizenship behaviour. Theoretical Contribution/Originality: This study reveals that training motivation mediates the relationship between training content and organisational citizenship behaviour in the organisational sample. This finding supports and broadens previous studies conducted in South East Asian and other countries. Managerial Implication in the South East Asian context: The study findings can assist managers in understanding different paradigms of trainees’ motivation construct and formulate employee-oriented training instructions to maintain and upgrade organisational sustainability. Research Limitation & Implications: This study has certain methodological and conceptual limitations that must be addressed in future research to strengthen its findings. Keywords: Malaysian federal government’s central agencies, organisational citizenship behaviour, SmartPLS, trainees’ motivation, training content
People employed in a very wide range of occupations around the world can be exposed to violence in the course of their work. This chapter examines the issue of violence occurring in relation to the workplace and considers training as one element of a multidimensional approach to tackling the problem. It examines the concept of training and the diverse ways in which training programs tailored to specific occupations and settings have been developed. It then focuses on healthcare services, in particular where violence prevention and management training has been developed and tested to the greatest degree. It concludes with a discussion of relevant techniques for delivering training and some suggestions for best practice in this area.
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Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi oleh fenomena yang terjadi pada hasil belajar siswa kelas 3 semester satu di Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Nurul Huda Ngampelsari. Sidoarjo. Hasil belajar menunjukkan tidak memenuhi kriteria ketuntasan minimal dengan p-value 75 pada materi Iman Malaikat pelajaran Aqidah Akhlak. Penelitian dan pengembangan ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan media pembelajaran perputaran roda Smart dalam pembelajaran akhlak materi akidah agama pada malaikat Allah. Jenis penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian dan pengembangan. Model pengembangan yang digunakan peneliti adalah model pengembangan Borg and Gall dengan rancangan pembelajaran sembilan tahap. Hasil pengembangan media pembelajaran kincir pintar memenuhi kriteria dengan hasil validasi ahli materi mencapai 100%. Hasil validasi ahli desain mencapai 100%. Hasil uji coba individu mencapai 100%. Hasil uji coba kelompok kecil adalah 83%. Hasil uji coba kelompok besar mencapai 94,67%, hasil analisis uji t dengan taraf signifikansi 0,05 menunjukkan nilai p-velocity statistik uji t adalah 0,00 < 0,05 maka dapat disimpulkan Ho ditolak dan Ha diterima. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap nilai rata-rata pre-test dan post-test. Kesimpulannya adalah media pembelajaran smart wheel yang dikembangkan efektif dalam meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa semester 3 di Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Nurul Huda Ngampelsari. Sidoarjo.
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