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Experiential Learning Theory and The Learning Style Inventory: A Reply to Freedman and Stumpf

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Freedman and Stumpf's critique of experiential learning theory and the Learning Style Inventory (LSI) is seriously flawed. Their judgments concerning the validity of experiential learning theory rest primarily on an analysis of the internal characteristics of the LSI, with no attention to the construct validity of that instrument; and they are made without analysis or even awareness of the considerable research literature on experiential learning. Their questions concerning the reliability of the LSI stem from a lack of understanding of the role of variability and situational adaptation in the experiential learning process. Similarly, their criticism of the forced-choice format of the LSI fails to recognize the theoretical rationale for the LSI instrument structure.
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Academy
of
Management Review 1981,
Vol. 6, No. 2,
289-296
Experiential Learning Theory
and
The Learning Style Inventory:
A Reply
to
Freedman
and
Stumpf
DAVID
A.
KOLB
Case Western Reserve University
Freedman
and
Stumpfs critique
of
experiential learning theory
and the
Learning Style Inventory (LSI) is seriously
flawed.
Their judgments
con-
cerning
the
validity
of
experiential learning theory rest primarily
on an
analysis
of
the internal
characteristics
of
the LSI, with
no
attention
to the
construct validity
of
that instrument; and they
are
made without analysis
or even awareness
of the
considerable
research
literature
on
experiential
learning. Their questions
concerning
the reliability
of
the LSI stem from
a
lack
of
understanding
of
the role
of
variability and situational adaptation
in the
experiential learning
process.
Similarly, their
criticism
of
the
forced-
choice
format
of
the LSI
fails
to
recognize
the
theoretical rationale
for
the
LSI instrument structure.
The article
by
Freedman
and
Stumpf
in the
July
1980
issue
of
Review, "Learning Style Theory: Less
Than Meets the Eye" requires
a
reply
in
order: (1)
to
correct certain inaccuracies
in
their report, (2)
to re-
spond
to
their conclusion that
the
theory
of ex-
periential learning
has
little empirical support,
and
(3)
to
clarify
the
dialectical nature
of
experiential
learning theory
and the
attendant implications
for
reliability studies and the structuring
of
the Learning
Style Inventory (LSI). This rebuttal will show that
Freedman
and
Stumpf have improperly assessed
the
validity
of
experiential learning theory
by
basing
their judgment primarily
on an
analysis
of
the inter-
nal characteristics
of the LSI,
with only
the
most
superficial review
of
research
on the
theory. Their
conclusion that "independent research
has not sup-
ported the theory and suggests that its normative use
should
be
suspended"
[p. 445] is
based
on
casual
scholarship
and
faulty reasoning. Their criticism
of
the reliability
and
structure
of the LSI
represents
misapplications
of
statistical assumptions
of
stabili-
ty
and independence to a theory based on variability
and interdependence.
©
19S1
by the
Academy
of
Management 0363-7425
Empirical Support
for
Experiential Learning Theory
The most serious misstatement
of
fact
by
Freed-
man
and
Stumpf
is
their assertion that "empirical
evidence supporting learning style theory
and the
LSI
has
come from
a
single piece
of
unpublished
research." The
Learning
Style Inventory : Technical
Manual [Kolb, 1976b] describes
the
theory
of ex-
periential learning, the internal properties, and some
validity studies
of
the LSI.
The
1979 updating
of the
Bibliography
of
Research
on
Experiential Learning
Theory
and the
Learning Style Inventory published
in
the
Technical Manual lists over
60
articles
and
dissertations reporting research
on
experiential
learning and the
LSI.
Since then, over
30
new studies
have been compiled
for the
next manual revision.
That this literature is accessible
to
those who seek
it
out
is
indicated
by an
independent comparison
of
the
LSI
with other tests that assess learning style,
recently published
by
Kirby [1979]. Kirby gives
the
LSI good marks
on
literature citations, indicating
that
a
"fair amount"
of
supportive literature exists.
289
The central argument of the Freedman and Stumpf
paper is that experiential learning theory is invalid
because the LSI is unreliable and improperly struc-
tured in a forced-choice format that biases results in
favor of the theory. This argument is untenable
because it is based on a notion of scientific method
that fails to distinguish between a theory and the
operational measures of its variables. Experiential
learning theory can no more be proven invalid sole-
ly by an analysis of the internal characteristics of the
LSI than it can be proven valid by such an analysis.
Validation of a theory is a complex process accom-
plished by concurrent, predictive, and/or construct
validation of operational measures of variables in
the theory against
external
criteria predicted by the
theory as well as by more qualitative judgments con-
cerning the theory's ability to raise interesting and
practical questions for investigation. In addition, it
is preferable that variables in the theory be ad-
dressed by different methods in order to separate ir-
relevant method variance from variance in the con-
struct being measured [Campbell & Fiske, 1959].
Freedman and Stumpf concentrate primarily on
the internal characteristics of the LSI and hence can
draw conclusions about the utility of the instrument
but not about the validity of the theory on which it is
based. That requires a review of the construct valid-
ity of the LSI and other operational measures of the
variables in experiential learning theory. While such
a review is beyond the scope of this rebuttal, a
reading of the literature cited above would suggest
that there is substantial empirical support for the
theory of experiential learning using different opera-
tional definitions of the theory's constructs in addi-
tion to the LSI, and including replications of certain
findings by independent investigators [see, e.g.,
Carlsson, Keane, & Martin, 1976; Clarke, Oshiro
Wong,
&
Yeung, 1977; Fry, 1978; Gish, 1979, 1980;
Griggs, 1979; Gypen, 1980; Kolb, 1981; Manring,
1979;
Plovnick, 1975; Sims, 1980; Wolfe & Kolb,
1979].
The Utility and Reliability of the
Learning Style Inventory
Although I disagreed with some of the assump-
tions and data interpretations in Freedman &
Stumpfs earlier paper in the Academy of
Manage-
ment Journal [1978], I applauded its emphasis on
caution in the use of psychological tests for students
and other laypersons. In my opinion, the public is
quite naive about psychological tests and often
gives
test results more credibility than the scientific data
merit. For this reason, the
LSI
has a simple, straight-
forward format that does not lend itself to pseudo-
scientific puffery. In its use, we always emphasize
that the inventory is nothing more than it appears
to
be
the person's own self-description of how he
or
she learns compared with the similar
self-
descriptions of the normative sample. It is a nine-
item self-description questionnaire. Each item asks
the respondent to rank order four words in a way
that best describes his or her learning style. One
word in each item corresponds to one of four learn-
ing modes Concrete Experience (sample word,
feeling).
Reflective Observation {watching).
Abstract Conceptualization {thinking), and Active
Experimentation
{doing).
The LSI measures an indi-
vidual's relative emphasis on four learning abilities
Concrete Experience (CE), Reflective Observa-
tion (RO), Abstract Conceptualization (AC), and
Active Experimentation (AE)
plus two combina-
tion scores that indicate the extent to which an indi-
vidual emphasizes abstractness over concreteness
(AC—CE) and the extent to which an individual
emphasizes action over reflection (AE—-RO). All
published versions of the LSI [Kolb, 1976a; Kolb,
Baker, & Gish, 1979; Kolb, Rubin, & Mclntyre,
1979] stress that thç inventory is only a starting
point for understanding one's approach to learning
that should be supported by other data about how
one learns, and the Technical Manual states these
and other limitations on use of the Inventory for
selection purposes [Kolb, 1976b, p. 13].
The theory of experiential learning maintains that
learning is a process involving the resolution of
dialectical conflicts between opposing modes of
dealing with the world
action and reflection, con-
creteness and abstraction. Learning styles represent
preferences for one mode of adaptation over the
others; but these preferences do not operate to the
exclusion of other adaptive modes and will vary
from time to time and situation to situation. This
idea of variability seems essential, since change and
adaptation to environmental circumstances are cen-
tral to any concept of learning.
When it is used in the simple, straightforward,
and open way intended, the
LSI
usually provokes
an
interesting self-examination and discussion that
290
recognizes the uniqueness, complexity, and vari-
ability in individual approaches to learning. The
danger lies in the reification of learning styles into
fixed traits, such that learning style types become
stereotypes used to pigeon hole individuals and their
behavior.
Freedman and
Stumpf,
contrary to experiential
learning theory, do see learning styles as fixed traits.
They state that "test-retest reliability for the two
samples after only three weeks was rather low
(median r = .50), suggesting that the LSI is rather
volatile,
unlike the theoretical constructs
studied"
[p.
446, emphasis added].
An emphasis on process as opposed to fixed
psychological traits presents some special problems
in
assessing measurement error in the LSI. Concepts
of split-half and test-retest reliability are most
appropriate techniques for the assessment of
measurement error in independent psychological
traits that in theory are assumed to be fixed and un-
changing. The basic learning modes assessed by the
LSI,
however, are theoretically interdependent (i.e.,
any
action, including responding to the test, is deter-
mined in varying degrees by all four learning modes)
and
variable
(i.e., the person's interpretation of the
situation should to some degree influence which
modes are used). Thus, even if there were no
measurement error in the
LSI,
we would predict test-
retest and split-half reliability coefficients less than
1.0.
The dialectical interdependence of the learning
style modes should reduce both split-half and test-
retest reliability coefficients somewhat, because few
individuals in any sample would be pure types
[Myers, 1962, p. 19]. Test-retest reliability coeffi-
cients
should be further reduced by the hypothesized
situational variations in learning style modes. An
individual's learning style is conceived to be a modal
orientation that varies to some degree from situation
to
situation. Thus an abstract person might become
more concrete in viewing a painting, but still not ex-
perience it as concretely as a concrete person. In this
sense, learning styles are similar to concepts of
motivation, concerning which McClelland [in
Atkinson, 1957, Chap. 1] has argued that tradi-
tionally reliable (i.e., stable) measures in fact have
greater measurement error because they are not sen-
sitive to changes over time.
Thus we are left with a dilemma in assessing
measurement error in the
LSI
using reliability coeffi-
cients.
While we would theoretically predict lower
reliability coefficients in the LSI modes than on in-
dependent fixed psychological traits, we cannot
know whether lower reliability coefficients are in
fact a result of these theoretical considerations, or
are simply measurement errors in the LSI. To assess
measurement error, therefore, one must rely more
on the construct validity of the LSI. If the LSI shows
a consistent pattern of relationships with predicted
dependent variables, as it does in much of the em-
pirical literature previously cited, then that is an in-
dicator that the inventory is to some degree ac-
curately measuring the learning modes postulated
by experiential learning theory.
Results of the four test-retest reliability studies
reported in the
Technical
Manual plus those of a re-
cent study by Geller [1979] support the conclusion
that responses to the LSI are determined by variable
situational factors as well as a more stable personal
disposition. When these studies are arranged in a
hierarchy combining time between testings and
discontinuity of experience in the test-retest time
period from experience immediately preceding the
first administration of the LSI, we see that in general
test-retest reliabilities for the six LSI scales are
highest
when the test-retest time period is short and
experience in the test-retest period is highly similar
to previous experience
i.e., when
there is no great
change
in situational
circumstances
(see Table 1; the
1978 Freedman and Stumpf study is not included in
this table because the discontinuity-of-experience
variable could not be rated from the description pro-
vided in their paper). The studies by Geller and
Plovnick [1974], because they represent the shortest
time period between tests and the least discontinuity
of experience, probably give about the highest test-
retest reliabilities one could practically expect.
Although these results would not be satisfactory for
measurement of a stable psychological trait, they
are more acceptable for a construct that is
theoretically conceived of as situationally variable.
Split-half reliabilities for the LSI are better than
the test-retest coefficients as one might predict,
since they are unaffected by situational variability.
Table 2 shows split-half reliabilities obtained by ap-
plying the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula to
obtained correlations between LSI scale halves for
five different groups: two groups of about 50 MIT
Sloan Fellows (mid-career managers attending a
one-year master's program in management), a
291
Table 1
Learning Style Inventory Test-Retest Reliability Studies=
Time Between Discontinuity LSI Scales
Population Testing of Experience^ CE RO AC AE AC-CE AE-RO n
.56 .52 .59 .61 .70 .55 50
.48 .73 .64 .64 .61 .71 27
.48 .51 .73 .43 .51 .48 23
.46 .34 .64 .50 .53 .51 18
.49 .40 .40 .33 .30 .43 42
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
U.S.
students in foreign
medical schools'^
Boston U. senior medical
students'!
MIT MS students in
management
MJT MS students in
management
MIT Sloan Fellows
1 mo.
3 mos.
3 mos.
6 mos.
7 mos.
low
low
high
medium
high
^Reliability coefficients are Pearson product-moment correlations.
''Details of this rating are described in Geller, Lester. Reliability of the learning style inventory. Psychological Reports. 1979, 44, pp.
555-561;
and in Kolb, David A. Leaming style inventory: Technical manual. Boston: McBer & Co., 1976 (rev. eds. 1978 1979)
pp.
12-18.
"^Geller, 1979, p. 557.
''Plovnick, Mark. Individual leaming styles and the process of career choice in medical students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, MIT
Sloan School of Management, 1974, p. 32.
Table 2
Spearman-Brown Split-Half Reliability
Coefficients for the Learning Style Inventory
Sample
MIT Sloan
Fellows
MIT Sloan
Fellows
Active
Managers
Harvard
MBA's
Lesley College
Undergrads
Total
n
47
50
90
442
58
687
CE
.69
.43
.61
.50
.48
.55
RO
.37
.59
.58
.63
.63
.62
AC
.65
.81
.71
.74
.74
.75
AE
.64
.61
.62
.67
.65
.66
AC —CE
.78
.80
.78
.75
.82
.74
AE—RO
.78
.81
.85
.86
.86
.82
292
miscellaneous group of 90 practicing managers, 442
Harvard MBA's, and 58 female Lesley College
undergraduates.
The results show reasonable reliability coeffi-
cients for the two combination scores AC
CE
and
AE
—RO.
Coefficients of about .80 are consistent
across all five samples and are on a par with most
psychological self-report instruments. They are, for
example, almost identical with the split-half
reliabilities reported by Myers
[1962]
for the Jungian
type-combination scales of the Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator, a test that is widely used for counseling
and research. The coefficients for the four basic
scales
are somewhat less satisfactory, with the possi-
ble
exception of AC. It seems likely that these lower
coefficients are reflecting genuine measurement
error due to the shortness of the scales (only six
scored items). Based on these results, the cautious
recommendation is that researchers should rely on
the
combination scores AC —CE and
AE RO
and
use the single scales primarily for qualitative
description.
The Format of the
Learning Style Inventory
Freedman and Stumpf also raise questions about
the forced-choice ranking format of the LSI. The
choice of this format in constructing the LSI was
governed by two considerations. The first and most
important was the criterion of ecological validity
[Brunswick, 1943]. Because the theory of experien-
tial learning postulates that a learning response to
any
life situation requires the resolution of conflicts
among the four learning modes, it was reasoned that
a test
of learning styles should be constructed so that
it also
required a similar conflict among
choices.
The
second consideration was the social desirability
response set. Variation in responses to self-report in-
struments in Likert scale or true-false formats has
been
shown to be largely influenced by the tendency
to rate oneself highly on items that are socially
desirable [Edwards, 1953]. In constructing the LSI,
we attempted to select four words for each of the
nine ranking items that were of equally positive
social desirability, thus controlling for this response
bias.
Freedman and
Stumpf,
however, suggest that the
LSI is biased because of the forced-choice format.
They base their argument on two studies. The first,
by Lamb and Certo [1978], compared the responses
of 383 undergraduate students to the LSI and an in-
strument that asked subjects to rate the
24
scored
LSI
words independently on a seven-point Likert scale.
With the LSI, they found negative correlations be-
tween AC and CE scales and the AE and RO scales
similar to those of previous studies, as well as a
similar pattern of negative correlations among the
individual scale items. The Likert scale LSI,
however, showed all positive correlations among
the scales and the items. The conclusion they draw
from this comparison is that the forced ranking LSI
is biased because the Likert scale LSI did not show
the negative correlations between abstractness and
concreteness and between action and reflection
postulated in experiential learning theory.
This reasoning is not persuasive. First, it is likely
that it is the Likert scale LSI that is biased because of
social desirability response sets. Because the LSI
words were all deliberately chosen to be of equally
positive social desirability, one would predict that
the major variation in response would be due to this
positive bias in self-rating, producing high positive
intercorrelations among items. In another report of
the same data [Certo & Lamb, 1980], the authors
show that nearly all of the items in the Likert scale
LSI load heavily on a first factor, a pattern that is
consistent with other investigations of the social
desirability response set in psychological tests.
Although they, in neither report, show means and
standard deviations for items or scales using the
Likert scale LSI, I would predict, based on my own
experiments with a similar format, that the
self-
ratings would be highly skewed toward the high end
with restricted variance
a further indication of the
positive social desirability response set. Second, in
light of the earlier ecological validity consideration,
it is difficult to
see
how one can argue that the assess-
ment of how an individual will resolve conflicts
among alternative orientations will be achieved
more accurately by independently presenting the
orientations than by directly asking the person to
prioritize them. Finally, one would not argue in the
first place that the internal negative correlations be-
tween the AC and CE and between the AE and RO
scales are strong evidence for the validity of experien-
tial learning theory or even for the validity of the
LSI
instrument. What these statistics do is describe the
characteristics of the LSI to allow an assessment of
293
how adequately the instrument meets the assump-
tions of the theory it is designed to test. The LSI is
designed to meet the assumptions of interdepen-
dence and dialectical conflicts among adaptive
modes, not to test these assumptions. Freedman and
Stumpf are correct when they say 'The LSI cannot
fail to support the theory on which it is based"
[1980,
p. 466], if by that they mean the AC—CE
scales and AE—RO scales will be negatively cor-
related, since the forced-ranking format of the LSI
will necessarily produce negative correlations
among items and scales.
Testing the basic assumptions of experiential
learning theory requires controlling for the built-in
negative correlations in the LSI or validation of the
scales against external criteria. It is possible to con-
trol for the "bias" introduced by the forced-choice
format of the LSI by using data from the second
Certo and Lamb study
[1979]
cited by Freedman and
Stumpf.
Certo and Lamb generated 1,000 random
responses to the LSI instrument and intercorrelated
the resulting scale scores. The resulting correlations
measure the magnitude of the built-in negative cor-
relations in the LSI. If these correlations are used
as
the null hypothesis instead of the traditional zero
point to test for significance of difference, the
hypothesized negative relationships between AC
and CE and AE and RO can be tested with the
forced-ranking effect partialed out. Thus, when
Certo and Lamb's random correlations are com-
pared to the empirical correlations obtained from
807 subjects reported in the LSI
Technical
Manual,
using the formula provided by McNemar [1957, p.
148],
both the AC —CE correlations and AE—RO
correlations are significantly
more
negative than the
random correlations (random AC
CE
= -.26, em-
pirical = -.57, p of difference < .001; random
AE
RO = -.35, empirical = -.50, p of difference
< .001).
External validation of these negative relationships
comes from a recent study by Gypen [1980].
He
cor-
related ratings by professional social workers and
LSI Scales
Table 3
Pearson Correlation Coefficients Between
Learning Style Inventory Scales and
Ratings of Learning Orientations at Work*' ''
LEARNING ORIENTATIONS ON CURRENT JOB
Abstract Active
Concrete Reflective Conceptu- Experi-
Experience Observation alization mentation
Concrete
Experience (CE)
Reflective
Observation (RO)
Abstract
Conceptualization (AC)
Abstract
Experimentation (AE)
Abstract-Concrete
(AC-CE)
Active-Reflective
(AE-RO)
.49
p < .001
.03
n.s.
-.30
p< .05
.01
n.s.
-.42
p < .001
-.02
n.s.
-.17
n.s.
.22
p< .05
-.04
n.s.
-.09
n.s.
.06
n.s.
-.18
p< .08
-.37
p<.01
.12
n.s.
.27
p< .05
-.06-
n.s.
.36
p < .003
-.07
n.s.
.08
n.s.
-.34
p < .01
-.09
n.s.
.37
p< .01
-.07
n.s.
.43
p < .001
'n =58
''Gypen, Ian. Learning style adaptation in professional careers: The case of engineers and social workers. Unpublished doctoral disserta-
tion. Case Western Reserve University, 1980, p. 71.
294
comes
from a recent study by Gypen [1980]. He cor-
related ratings by professional social workers and
engineers of the extent to which they were oriented
toward each of the four learning modes in their cur-
rent job and their LSI scores obtained four to six
months earlier. Each mode was rated separately on a
seven-point scale describing the learning mode in a
way that attempted to minimize social desirability
bias.
Table 3 shows the correlations between the
subjects' LSI scores and self-ratings of their current
job orientation. These results provide strong sup-
port for the negative relationship between Concrete
Experience and Abstract Conceptualization and
somewhat weaker support for the negative relation-
ship
between Active Experimentation and Reflective
Observation.
The
Gypen study and the "corrected" internal cor-
relations among LSI scales both demonstrate em-
pirical support for the bipolar nature of the ex-
periential learning model that is independent of the
forced-ranking method used in the LSI.
Concluding Remarks
Whether experiential learning theory is more or
less than meets the eye depends in part on how
carefully one looks. An evaluation of the status of
experiential learning theory must await a more
thorough and evenhanded review of the theoretical
and empirical literature. Freedman and Stumpfs
critique of the LSI is an analysis of the instrument
from the perspective of a widely shared doctrine of
psychological testing
namely, that above all any
test must meet statistical criteria of independence
and stability. I hold that this doctrine is applied
inappropriately in cases such as the theory of
experiential learning, in which the theory is explicit-
ly based on assumptions of interdependence and
variability. No operational measure of a theory can
be used to test that theory if it is not constructed so
that it is faithful to the theory's premises.
Establishing better operational measures of the con-
structs in experiential learning theory does represent
an important item for the research agenda. Impor-
tant tasks on this agenda are the development of
behavioral as well as self-report measures of the
learning modes, assessment of the developmental
dimensions of experiential learning, and the assess-
ment of situational variability in response to en-
vironmental demands. In recent research studies, we
have made significant progress on some of these
issues [Kolb
&
Wolfe, 1980]. But there is much to be
done and the efforts of our colleagues who approach
this work, with whatever preconceptions, give
welcome assistance in this inquiry.
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David A. Kolb is Professor of Organizational Behavior at
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Received 9/10/80
296
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... En la primera fase se pone en juego lo concreto y abstracto, pasando desde la observación de una situación auténtica y abierta, hasta la conceptualización de un fenómeno que entrega un foco al proceso experiencial. En la segunda fase, interactúan procesos cognitivos prácticos y reflexivos, experimentando y luego reflexionando sobre la acción (Dewar y Walker, 1999;Kolb, 1981;1984). La Figura 1 muestra este modelo. ...
... La Figura 1 muestra este modelo. Kolb (1981;1984 A continuación, se describen las dos fases de este modelo y los dos modos de aprendizaje dentro de cada fase. Se ilustra cada modo utilizando ejemplos de la adultez tardía, haciendo alusión al área de aplicación que será explicada más adelante. ...
... Se trata de una etapa en que los estudiantes deben llevar a cabo un proceso de pensamiento inductivo, pasando desde experiencias reales, concretas y tangibles, a la interpretación y teorización de ellas, convirtiéndolas en experiencias abstractas. En la conceptualización se relaciona y profundiza lo vivido, integrando contenidos para complejizar su análisis (Kolb, 1981;1984). Los dos modos que componen esta fase son los siguientes: ...
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Se utilizó la metodología de aprendizaje experiencial en la asignatura de Psicología de la Adultez, de la carrera de psicología en una universidad chilena. El objetivo de este estudio de caso fue que los estudiantes pudieran aplicar y practicar sus conocimientos en una situación real y contextualizada, y que esto promoviera el logro de un aprendizaje profundo. La implementación se llevó a cabo por docentes y ayudantes en clases, ayudantías y actividades en terreno, en las que los estudiantes realizaron una variedad de actividades, entregando los productos correspondientes. La experiencia fue valorada por docentes y estudiantes, con efectos positivos en relación al desempeño de los estudiantes y a la forma en que se vincularon con el contexto y su futuro rol como psicólogos. Se concluye que el aprendizaje experiencial es una metodología de enseñanza valiosa, entregando directrices para incorporarla en el ámbito de la educación superior e introducir a los estudiantes a su rol profesional.
... First, learning style branches out from the discipline of psychology, that later developed into its own field. Kolb's (1981) learning style inventory (LSI) for example, is influenced by the work of the psychologists Kurt Lewin, John Dewey and Jean Piaget (Heineman, 1995). Gregorc's (1977) instrument emerges from Carl Jung's influence that incorporates behavioral, psychoanalysis, humanistic, and transpersonal theories (Heineman, 1995). ...
... Among the learning style instruments are Gregorc's Learning Style Delineator, designed to identify differences in learning (Heineman, 1995), Learning Style Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, 1972), Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI) (Kolb, 1981), Myers-Brigg Type Indicator (1980), Felder andSilverman Index of Learning Styles (1988), and Oxford's Style Analysis Survey (SAS) (Oxford, 1993). The instrument used in this research is Cohen, Oxford & Chi's (2002) Learning Style Survey (LSS), which is an improved version of SAS in the sense that it includes more dimensions to be tested. ...
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Communicating appropriately in a target language (English language) requires both ESL Malaysian learners and their counterparts Arab EFL learners to develop linguistic and pragmatic awareness in the target language. One aspect of such development is their use of linguistic hedges to modify their speech acts and realize politeness. However, little attention has been given to investigate these learners’ linguistic and pragmatic use of these devices. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap in the literature by conducting a study that examines the use of hedges in relation to politeness between these two groups of learners while exchanging their opinions in focused group discussions created on WhatsApp application. To this end, the current study used a descriptive design that employed quantitative and qualitative methods to identify the types, frequency, and pragmatic functions of hedges in relation to politeness. The sample consisted of four EFL Arab learners and five Malaysian ESL learners who study English in a Malaysian university. The data collected in forms of comments by means of focused group discussions were coded and analyzed based on Fraser’s (2010) Taxonomy of English Hedges. They were then uploaded to Excel to find the frequency and percentages of the types of hedges used. This was followed by a detailed pragmatic analysis based on Brown and Levinson’s (1987) Politeness Theory. The findings showed that both types of learners use hedges in stating their opinions. However, they use different categories and hedges types and realize politeness differently.
... Kolb defines "learning as the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience". The Experiential Learning model has the proper steps for its application in science learning, namely: 1) The stage of experience (concrete experience); 2) the stage of reflection observation (reflective observation); 3) the conceptualization stage (abstract conceptualization); and 4) the implementation stage (active experimentation) [7]. Learning activities using the Experiential Learning learning model can create new experiences to prepare for problems and difficulties in the real world. ...
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This study aimed to describe how the experiential learning model increases motivation and improves student learning outcomes in the knowledge domain. The research was a pre-experiment with a one-group pretest-posttest design. Junior high school (SMPN 1 Surabaya) students in the 7th grade were the subject. The research instruments are learning observation forms, pretest and posttest, and a motivation questionnaire. Data was collected using the learning method, student questionnaire, and pretest and posttest methods. The data analysis included examining learning implementation, test findings of enhanced motivation and learning outcomes using the Wilcoxon test and normalized gain analysis, and a checkup of motivation and student learning. The results showed that the learning model was implemented very well, with an average score of 93 percent at the first meeting and 96 percent at the second meeting. The students' motivation from the pretest was 59 percent with a strong category at the first meeting and then improved to 89 percent with an excellent classification at the second meeting. The second meeting had a higher percentage of 96 percent for student learning outcomes on knowing competency than the first meeting, with a measurement of 64 percent. In conclusion, the experiential learning preparatory in science learning can boost students' motivation and learning outcomes.
... Learning styles emerging from activity-centred models are recognised as versatile and malleable preferences (Armstrong et al., 2012). For instance, Kolb (1981) maintains that style preferences emerging from the LSI are not fixed psychological traits designed to pigeonhole individuals or predict behaviour. In other words, these styles predominantly represented preferences in a given learning situation, rather than general, context-free personal attributes that are not susceptible to change. ...
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Learning style inventories have been extensively used by management scholars to understand the different ways in which students process information and respond to academic tasks. However, the implications of these studies on teaching, learning, and research are largely unknown. This review analysed and critiqued 78 empirical studies adopting one or more learning style instruments. The findings were fourfold: (1) the effects of environmental factors on style preferences have rarely been considered, and the interpretation of learning styles is often decontextualised; (2) researchers attempted to transform students into more balanced learners, although there was no evidence that individuals with a balanced learning style outperformed their counterparts who possessed a single, dominant style; (3) there was no concrete evidence that matching teaching to students’ dominant learning styles contributed to learning; and (4) studies employing the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) and Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) showed relatively consistent results, but more research is required to understand their correlations with other personal and environmental factors. Overall, learning style inventories demonstrated limited usefulness in advancing teaching and learning in management education. Practical implications and future research directions are provided based on the discussion of key findings.
... Departing from the notion of cultural citizenship as a learning process in which citizenship is constructed and transformed, we aim to examine how the idea of learning itself is understood by community members. Whilst there are plenty of diverse theoretical accounts of individual (Kolb, 1981) and social (Bandura, 1977) learning, less research has been done on people's own explanations of what they consider as learning and how learning takes place. In our effort to grasp these phenomena, we draw on Bruner's (1996) notion of folk pedagogies, which incorporates diverse explanations for learning and perceptions of the interaction between mind and action (Bruner 1996;Ilić & Bojović, 2016). ...
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... Biggs classifies learning outcomes in five levels of increasing complexity/competency in which becoming a selfreliant thinker (e.g., ability to analyse, apply, criticise, reflect, hypothesise) involves reaching the two highest levels [2]. Encouraging students to achieve the highest levels of learning outcomes involves setting an engaging learning environment that covers Kolb's four learning styles [10] and a stimulating content using various media and targeting diverse sensory receivers to suit learning preferences of all students [18]. ...
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... From a conceptual point of view, Politis (2005) suggested that entrepreneurial learning is an experiential process where enterprising persons continuously develop their entrepreneurial knowledge throughout their professional lives, thereby improving their businesss performance. This conceptual argument is also supported by experiential learning theory (Kolb 1981). According to experiential learning theory, a firm that could enhance its performance by acquiring, assimilating, and organizing newly formed knowledge with preexisting structures (Holcomb et al. 2009). ...
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The examine Public- Private Partnership as a tool for sustainable development in Benue state, Nigeria. The study adopted the Social Contract theory. The design adopted for the study is descriptive survey with the population of 584, where the sample size of 237 was selected using Taro Yamane’s formula, both primary and secondary data were used. Data was collected via researcher’s designed questionnaires which were administered personally by the researcher. The study uses regression analysis to test the hypotheses with the aid of SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). The researcher found that; a significant number of infrastructural projects are largely funded by private companies or entities under public private partnerships agreements; public private partnerships lead to an increase in employment generation due to the creation of job vacancies which spring up as a result of several and big projects embarked upon by private companies; and there is significant effect of public private partnerships on education as a unit increase in public private partnerships will lead to a significant increase in education. The study concluded that the creation of public private partnerships significantly affects specific development goals which have far reaching influence on sustainable development. Public private partnerships specifically and significantly influence infrastructural development, create room for employment generation and induce education. This is possible because PPP provides the needed finances, expertise and skilled workforce from the private sector for key infrastructural development. Thus public private partnerships serve as a reliable strategy for sustainable development. The study recommended that; project should be well researched, structured and backed by credible, experienced players in order to attract the needed finance; There should be provision for enabling laws to be domesticated in each state of the federation on infrastructure development and employment; Government should as a matter of urgency improve the trust of the private sector and the general public on PPP policy issues through adherence to contractual agreements and a genuine commitment towards improving infrastructure and the lives of the people especially through job creation. Key words: Public, Private, Partnership, Sustainable Development
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Teos jakaantuu seitsemään osakokonaisuuteen: - Terveystiedon suhde pedagogisiin ja ainedidaktisiin teorioihin - Terveystiedon didaktiikkaan liittyvät teoriat - Terveysteidon opetussuunnitelma - Terveystiedon opetuksen suunnittelu ja toteutus - Oppimisympäristöt ja toiminnallinen oppiminen - Terveystiedon opetuksen ja oppimisen arviointi - Terveystiedon opettjan ammatillisuus, kasvu ja kehitys
Chapter
This chapter examines the ways in which members of a rural community in Western Uganda perceive and conceptualize diverse ways of learning to be a good citizen. It analyzes data generated by means of a tool called the ‘ladder of citizenship’, which facilitated explication of local ideas concerning good citizenship, and reflections on how one can ‘climb the ladder’, thus learning to be a better citizen. The chapter draws on, first, the concept of cultural citizenship, which understands citizenship as a continuous learning process that takes place through interaction in informal settings, and second, the notion of folk pedagogies that refers to people’s own conceptualizations of learning. The chapter establishes how the idea of good citizenship revolves mainly around one’s role in the local community. It further identifies five categories of participants’ ideas of learning citizenship, including heredity (obuzalirwaana), religion (ediini), copying and observation (kukopa), challenges (ebizibu) and education and training (kusomesebwa).
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A learning style theory [Kolb, 1971] has been used for theory building, research, and to provide pedagogical advice. Supporting evidence comes from an unreliable instrument designed so that its results spuriously corroborate the theory. Independent research has not supported the theory and suggests its normative use should be suspended.
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The R&D process has been the source of considerable interest in recent years to managers, and The Procter & Gamble Company has long been recognized for its outstanding success in this area. In this article, the authors describe how they developed a better understanding of the R&D process at Procter & Gamble by applying the David Kolb model of individual learning to the organizational learning process. The model which postulates a four-step repetitive cycle was validated through a number of experiments and the authors suggest ways in which the model might be used to improve the production of new knowledge in organizations.
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• This volume is the manual for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality measure. The purpose of the Indicator is to implement C. Jung's (1923) theory of type. The gist of the theory is that much apparently random variation in human behavior is actually quite orderly and consistent, being due to certain basic differences in the way people prefer to use perception and judgment. "Perception" is here understood to include the processes of becoming aware, —of things or people or occurrences or ideas. "Judgment" is understood to include the processes of coming-to-conclusions about what has been perceived. If people differ systematically in what they perceive and the conclusions they come to, they may as a result show corresponding differences in their reactions, in their interests, values, needs and motivations, in what they do best and in what they like best to do. Adopting this working hypothesis, the Indicator aims to ascertain, from self-report of easily reported reactions, people's basic preferences in regard to perception and judgment, so that the effects of the preferences and their combinations may be established by research and put to practical use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved) • This volume is the manual for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality measure. The purpose of the Indicator is to implement C. Jung's (1923) theory of type. The gist of the theory is that much apparently random variation in human behavior is actually quite orderly and consistent, being due to certain basic differences in the way people prefer to use perception and judgment. "Perception" is here understood to include the processes of becoming aware, —of things or people or occurrences or ideas. "Judgment" is understood to include the processes of coming-to-conclusions about what has been perceived. If people differ systematically in what they perceive and the conclusions they come to, they may as a result show corresponding differences in their reactions, in their interests, values, needs and motivations, in what they do best and in what they like best to do. Adopting this working hypothesis, the Indicator aims to ascertain, from self-report of easily reported reactions, people's basic preferences in regard to perception and judgment, so that the effects of the preferences and their combinations may be established by research and put to practical use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The study was designed to measure the relationship between probability of endorsement of personality items and the scaled social desirability of the items. Scale values were determined by applying the method of successive intervals to 140 personality trait items which had been administered to 152 subjects with pertinent instructions. The items were then administered to a different group of 140 students as a personality inventory. The proportion of "yes" answers was taken as a measure of the probability of endorsement and correlated against the social desirability scale value for the items. The high degree of relationship ( r = .871) is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
"Organismic achievement may extend in two main directions; (1) specificity regarding certain stimulus variables as antecedents or causes of reactions, and (2) specificity regarding certain results of organismic reaction." The probability character of the causal relationships in the environment demands a fundamental, all-inclusive shift in methodological ideology regarding psychology. If psychology wishes to deal with vitally relevant molar aspects of adjustment and achievement, it must become statistical throughout. Traditional statistical treatment is inadequate. The viewpoints of Lewin, Hull, and others are examined and their limitations noted. To establish the methodological unity of science, it will become increasingly important to emphasize thematic differences. There can be no truly molar psychology unless it gives up the nomothetic ideal in favor of a thoroughly statistical conception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)