ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

Individual- and Organizational-Level Consequences of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis. [Article]

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

: Although one of the main reasons for the interest in organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) is the potential consequences of these behaviors, no study has been reported that summarizes the research regarding the relationships between OCBs and their outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a meta-analytic examination of the relationships between OCBs and a variety of individual- and organizational-level outcomes. Results, based on 168 independent samples (N = 51,235 individuals), indicated that OCBs are related to a number of individual-level outcomes, including managerial ratings of employee performance, reward allocation decisions, and a variety of withdrawal-related criteria (e.g., employee turnover intentions, actual turnover, and absenteeism). In addition, OCBs were found to be related (k = 38; N = 3,611 units) to a number of organizational-level outcomes (e.g., productivity, efficiency, reduced costs, customer satisfaction, and unit-level turnover). Of interest, somewhat stronger relationships were observed between OCBs and unit-level performance measures in longitudinal studies than in cross-sectional studies, providing some evidence that OCBs are causally related to these criteria. The implications of these findings for both researchers and practitioners are discussed., (C) 2009 by the American Psychological Association
Content may be subject to copyright.
Individual- and Organizational-Level Consequences of Organizational
Citizenship Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis
Nathan P. Podsakoff
University of Arizona
Steven W. Whiting and Philip M. Podsakoff
Indiana University Bloomington
Brian D. Blume
University of Michigan, Flint
Although one of the main reasons for the interest in organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) is the
potential consequences of these behaviors, no study has been reported that summarizes the research
regarding the relationships between OCBs and their outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to
provide a meta-analytic examination of the relationships between OCBs and a variety of individual- and
organizational-level outcomes. Results, based on 168 independent samples (N51,235 individuals),
indicated that OCBs are related to a number of individual-level outcomes, including managerial ratings
of employee performance, reward allocation decisions, and a variety of withdrawal-related criteria (e.g.,
employee turnover intentions, actual turnover, and absenteeism). In addition, OCBs were found to be
related (k38; N3,611 units) to a number of organizational-level outcomes (e.g., productivity,
efficiency, reduced costs, customer satisfaction, and unit-level turnover). Of interest, somewhat stronger
relationships were observed between OCBs and unit-level performance measures in longitudinal studies
than in cross-sectional studies, providing some evidence that OCBs are causally related to these criteria.
The implications of these findings for both researchers and practitioners are discussed.
Keywords: organizational citizenship behaviors, contextual performance, meta-analysis, customer satis-
faction, withdrawal
If the number of articles that have been published over the past
quarter century is any indication, it would appear that organiza-
tional citizenship behaviors (OCBs) are firmly embedded in the
fabric of the fields of organizational behavior and industrial–
organizational psychology. For example, since Organ and his
colleagues (Bateman & Organ, 1983; Smith, Organ, & Near, 1983)
first coined the term in the early part of the 1980s, over 650 articles
have been published on OCBs and related constructs such as
organizational citizenship performance (Borman, 2004), prosocial
organizational behavior (Brief & Motowidlo, 1986; George, 1990,
1991; George & Bettenhausen, 1990), extrarole behavior (Van
Dyne, Cummings, & Parks, 1995), organizational spontaneity
(George & Brief, 1992; George & Jones, 1997), voice behavior
(LePine & Van Dyne, 1998; Van Dyne, Ang, & Botero, 2003; Van
Dyne & LePine, 1998), and contextual performance (Borman &
Motowidlo, 1993, 1997). Perhaps more impressive is the fact that
the vast majority of these articles (66%) have been published since
the turn of the 21st century.
Organ (1988) originally defined organizational citizenship be-
havior as “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or
explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the
aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization”
(p. 4). However, more recently, he modified this definition to say
that OCB is “performance that supports the social and psycholog-
ical environment in which task performance takes place” (Organ,
1997, p. 95). The advantage of this revised definition is that it (a)
maintains the distinction that has empirically been shown to exist
between task performance and OCBs (MacKenzie, Podsakoff, &
Fetter, 1991; Motowidlo & Van Scotter, 1994; Rotundo & Sackett,
2002), (b) is more consistent with Borman and Motowidlo’s
(1993) definition of contextual performance, and (c) avoids some
of the difficulty with viewing OCBs as discretionary behavior for
which an individual might not receive formal rewards. Neverthe-
less, regardless of which of Organ’s definitions one relies on, one
of the main reasons for the interest in OCBs is that they are
expected to be positively related to measures of organizational
effectiveness.
Of course, if one assumes that OCBs have an effect on organi-
zational performance, it makes sense to identify those variables
that increase these behaviors in organizational settings. That is
probably why most of the research in this domain has focused on
the potential antecedents of OCBs, such as personality traits (cf.
Borman, Penner, Allen, & Motowidlo, 2001; Konovsky & Organ,
Nathan P. Podsakoff, Department of Management and Organizations,
University of Arizona; Steven W. Whiting and Philip M. Podsakoff,
Department of Management, Indiana University Bloomington; Brian D.
Blume, Department of Management Studies, University of Michigan, Flint.
An earlier version of this article was presented at the annual Society for
Industrial and Organizational Psychologists Conference, San Francisco,
California, April 2008. Portions of this research were completed while
Steven Whiting was at Georgia State University.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Nathan
P. Podsakoff, Department of Management and Organizations, Eller College
of Management, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721. E-mail:
podsakof@email.arizona.edu
Journal of Applied Psychology © 2009 American Psychological Association
2009, Vol. 94, No. 1, 122–141 0021-9010/09/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/a0013079
122
1996; Organ & Ryan, 1995), employee attitudes (Bateman &
Organ, 1983; Konovsky & Pugh, 1994; Organ & Ryan, 1995),
employee perceptions of fairness (Moorman, 1991; Niehoff &
Moorman, 1993), leader behaviors (Pillai, Schriesheim, & Wil-
liams, 1999; Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990),
and a variety of task characteristics (Piccolo & Colquitt, 2006;
Podsakoff, MacKenzie, & Bommer, 1996).
However, this does not mean that researchers in the field have
completely neglected the effects that OCBs have on employee and
organizational outcome variables. Indeed, an examination of the
literature indicates that there is a growing interest in the relation-
ships between OCBs and their potential consequences (e.g., Allen
& Rush, 1998; X.-P. Chen, 2005; Dunlop & Lee, 2004; Ehrhart &
Naumann, 2004; Koys, 2001; MacKenzie et al., 1991; Podsakoff
& MacKenzie, 1997; Walz & Niehoff, 2000). At the individual
level, these consequences include performance evaluations, man-
agers’ reward allocation decisions, and employee withdrawal,
whereas at the organizational level they include a variety of
objective effectiveness measures (e.g., productivity, efficiency,
costs, and profitability).
There are several good reasons for the growing interest in the
effects that OCBs have on these types of outcomes. First, if OCBs
do have positive relationships with organizational effectiveness
criteria, then it is important for us to quantify these effects so that
we have a more complete picture of the potential impact that OCBs
have on the “bottom line” of the organization. Second, it is
important to examine the relationships between OCBs and orga-
nizational effectiveness criteria because, despite the fact that OCBs
are assumed to be positively related to unit or organizational
effectiveness, there is some evidence that this assumption is not
always true. For example, in their study of 116 insurance agencies,
Podsakoff and MacKenzie (1994) found that helping behaviors on
the part of sales agents actually decreased (rather than increased)
agency effectiveness as measured by a composite sales index.
Related to this, there is a growing body of literature regarding the
potential dysfunctional consequences of OCB, including increased
levels of role overload, stress, and work–family conflicts (Bolino
& Turnley, 2005). Thus, identifying the effects of OCBs on orga-
nizational effectiveness will allow researchers and managers alike
to more accurately weigh the potential positive and negative con-
sequences that may result from encouraging OCBs on the part of
employees. Finally, if OCBs and task performance both contribute
to managerial evaluations and reward allocation decisions, then it
is important to determine which of these variables managers give
the greatest weight to in their decision-making processes.
Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide a quantitative
summary of the empirical relationships between OCBs and indi-
vidual and organizational outcomes. As a first step in this process,
we review several theoretical explanations for why we expect
OCBs to influence both individual and organizational outcomes.
Following this, we conduct a meta-analytic review of the studies
examining these relationships. Finally, we discuss the implications
of these results and identify several avenues for future research.
This study makes several contributions to the literature. First,
although there have been a substantial number of meta-analyses
that have reported the relationships between OCBs and some of
their antecedents (Borman et al., 2001; Dalal, 2005; Hackett, Farh,
Song, & Lapierre, 2003; Ilies, Nahrgang, & Morgeson, 2007;
Judge, Thoreson, Bono, & Patton, 2001; LePine, Erez, & Johnson,
2002; Organ & Ryan, 1995; Podsakoff et al., 1996), we are not
aware of any meta-analytic review of the relationships between
OCBs and their consequences. Although Podsakoff, MacKenzie,
Paine, and Bachrach (2000) presented a narrative review of the
relationships between OCBs and some of their consequences, this
review was limited to a relatively small set of individual- and
organizational-level outcomes and these authors did not provide
quantitative estimates of these relationships. We think that this last
point is important, because confidence intervals, corrected esti-
mates, and measures of variability in correlations across studies
provide important evidence about the strength and consistency of
the relationships between two variables. Second, it is important to
note that whereas Podsakoff and his colleagues included 36 inde-
pendent samples in their narrative review, our meta-analysis in-
cludes almost six times this number (206 samples). Third, our
study examines the relationships between OCBs and a variety of
withdrawal-related criteria (i.e., turnover intentions, turnover, and
absenteeism) that have not been summarized in any previous
meta-analytic study. Fourth, our study also explores whether
OCBs can be accorded casual priority in relationships with unit-
level outcomes by comparing the differences in the correlations
obtained in studies that employed longitudinal designs with those
that employed cross-sectional designs. Finally, understanding the
relationships between OCBs and their consequences is important
from both a theoretical and a practical perspective. These relation-
ships are important theoretically, because of the key role that
consequences play in Organ’s (1988, 1997) definition of OCBs. In
addition, they are practically relevant because it is important for
practicing managers to know whether these behaviors actually
enhance organizational effectiveness.
Background and Hypotheses
The Dimensionality of OCBs
Although there are a number of ways in which OCBs have been
conceptualized over the years (cf. Bateman & Organ, 1983; Organ,
1988, 1990; Smith et al., 1983; Van Dyne, Graham, & Dienesch,
1994; Williams & Anderson, 1991), the two most popular concep-
tualizations are those developed by Organ (1988, 1990) and Wil-
liams and Anderson (1991). Organ (1988) originally proposed a
five-factor OCB model consisting of altruism, courtesy, conscien-
tiousness, civic virtue, and sportsmanship. However, he subse-
quently expanded this model (Organ, 1990) to include two other
dimensions (peacekeeping and cheerleading). There is good em-
pirical evidence (Bell & Menguc, 2002; Hui, Lee, & Rousseau,
2004; Lam, Hui, & Law, 1999; Podsakoff et al., 1990) that
managers have little difficulty distinguishing between Organ’s
(1988, 1990) sportsmanship, civic virtue, and conscientiousness
dimensions. According to Organ (1988), sportsmanship is defined
as a willingness on the part of employees to tolerate less than ideal
circumstances without complaining and making problems seem
bigger than they actually are; civic virtue is behavior indicating
that employees take an active interest in the life of their organi-
zation; and conscientiousness (often called compliance) is behav-
ior indicating that employees accept and adhere to the rules,
regulations, and procedures of the organization. However, empir-
ical research (Bachrach, Bendoly, & Podsakoff, 2001; MacKenzie
et al., 1991; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994) indicates that
123
CONSEQUENCES OF OCBS
managers often have difficulty making some of the distinctions
between the other dimensions identified in Organ’s conceptual
model, and that they tend to view altruism, courtesy, peacekeep-
ing, and cheerleading as part of an overall helping dimension.
Thus, helping behavior is probably best viewed as a second-order
latent construct comprising these four first-order dimensions, be-
cause as noted by Podsakoff, Ahearne, and MacKenzie (1997),
these dimensions “clearly involve helping others with or prevent-
ing the occurrence of work-related problems” (p. 263).
The second major conceptualization of OCBs is that proposed
by Williams and Anderson (1991). These authors organize OCBs
into categories on the basis of the target or direction of the
behavior. More specifically, they call behaviors directed toward
the benefit of other individuals OCBI, whereas behaviors directed
toward the benefit of the organization are called OCBO. Williams
and Anderson originally identified Organ’s (1988, 1990) altruism
dimension as an exemplar of OCBI. However, based on the fact
that courtesy, peacekeeping, and cheerleading behaviors are aimed
at helping other individuals, it is also appropriate to include them
in the OCBI category. Similarly, although Williams and Anderson
originally used Organ’s compliance (or conscientiousness) dimen-
sion as an exemplar of OCBO, other authors (Coleman & Borman,
2000; Hoffman, Blair, Meriac, & Woehr, 2007; LePine et al.,
2002) have also included civic virtue and sportsmanship in this
category. Thus, all of Organ’s (1988, 1990) OCB dimensions can
be captured by Williams and Anderson’s conceptual scheme.
In addition, Williams and Anderson’s (1991) categorization
scheme incorporates most other OCB-related constructs into it. For
example, OCBI captures not only Organ’s (1990) altruism, cour-
tesy, peacekeeping, and cheerleading dimensions but also Gra-
ham’s (1989) interpersonal helping, Van Scotter and Motowidlo’s
(1996) interpersonal facilitation, and Farh, Earley, and Lin’s
(1997) helping coworkers and interpersonal harmony constructs.
In a similar way, OCBO captures not only Organ’s (1990) com-
pliance, civic virtue, and sportsmanship dimensions but also Gra-
ham’s (1991) organizational loyalty; Borman and Motowidlo’s
(1993, 1997) endorsing, supporting, and defending organizational
objectives; Van Scotter and Motowidlo’s (1996) job dedication;
LePine and Van Dyne’s (1998) voice behavior; Morrison and
Phelps’s (1999) taking charge (or individual initiative); and Farh,
Zhong, and Organ’s (2004) promoting the company’s image con-
structs. As a result of this, and the fact that Organ (1997, pp.
94 –95) himself seems to be favorably disposed to this approach,
we used William and Anderson’s conceptualization in our study.
Effects of OCB at the Individual Level
We now turn our attention to the relationships between OCBs
and a number of individual-level outcomes, including perfor-
mance evaluations and reward allocation decisions, as well as a
variety of employee withdrawal-related activities (e.g., turnover
intentions, actual turnover, and absenteeism).
Effects on performance evaluations and reward allocation de-
cisions. There are a variety of reasons why managers may in-
clude OCBs in their performance evaluations and reward alloca-
tion decisions (Allen & Rush, 1998; Podsakoff, MacKenzie, &
Hui, 1993; Podsakoff et al., 2000). For example, managers may
recognize that OCBs such as helping, civic virtue, and sportsman-
ship make their own jobs easier. If this is the case, managers are
likely to reciprocate (Blau, 1964; Homans, 1961) by providing
higher performance evaluations and more organizational rewards
for employees who exhibit OCBs. In addition, Shore, Barksdale,
and Shore (1995) have noted that because OCBs are somewhat
more volitional than task performance, managers may use them as
indicators of how motivated employees are to make the organiza-
tion effective. As a result, OCBs may serve as behavioral cues of
an employee’s commitment to the success of the organization that
managers incorporate in their assessments of employee job per-
formance. Finally, Lefkowitz (2000) has argued that managers like
employees who exhibit OCBs, and that this liking subsequently
influences the manager’s performance ratings and reward alloca-
tion decisions. Taken together, the above arguments suggest that
employees who exhibit higher levels of OCB should receive higher
performance evaluations and more rewards than those who exhibit
lower levels of OCB. This is consistent with empirical evidence
that OCB-like behaviors are positively related to both performance
evaluations (Allen & Rush, 1998; MacKenzie et al., 1991; Werner,
1994) and reward recommendation decisions (Allen & Rush, 1998;
Johnson, Erez, Kiker, & Motowidlo, 2002). Therefore, we hypoth-
esize the following:
Hypothesis 1: OCBs are positively related to managers’ rat-
ings of employee performance.
Hypothesis 2: OCBs are positively related to the rewards
managers allocate to employees.
Effects on employee withdrawal behaviors. Chen and her col-
leagues (X.-P. Chen, 2005; X.-P. Chen, Hui, & Sego, 1998) have
argued that OCBs are relatively discretionary forms of behavior
and that, as a result, low or decreasing levels of these forms of
behavior may serve as an indication of an employee’s withdrawal
from the organization. Consistent with these expectations, several
studies (X.-P. Chen, 2005; X.-P. Chen et al., 1998; Mossholder,
Settoon, & Henagan, 2005) have shown that OCBs are negatively
related to both employee turnover intentions and actual turnover.
Therefore, we hypothesize the following:
Hypothesis 3: OCBs are negatively related to employee (a)
turnover and (b) turnover intentions.
Although Chen and her colleagues (X.-P. Chen, 2005; X.-P.
Chen et al., 1998) restricted their research to the effects that OCBs
should have on employee turnover and turnover intentions, it is
important to note that their theoretical rationale should also apply
to other forms of withdrawal behaviors, such as employee absen-
teeism. Indeed, one would expect that employees exhibit lower
levels of OCBs would also be those who exhibit lower attendance
levels at work. Therefore, we hypothesize the following:
Hypothesis 4: OCBs are negatively related to employee
absenteeism.
Potential Moderators of Individual-Level OCBs
In addition to providing point estimates of relationships, one of
the advantages of meta-analysis is that it also permits a researcher
to examine potential moderator variables. In this study, we exam-
ined two potential moderators of the relationships between OCBs
124 PODSAKOFF, WHITING, PODSAKOFF, AND BLUME
and individual-level outcomes: (a) the source of the OCB ratings
(same vs. different source) and (b) the target of the OCBs (OCBI
vs. OCBO).
Source of rating as a potential moderator. Several researchers
(cf. MacKenzie, Podsakoff, & Fetter, 1993; Podsakoff et al., 2000)
have noted that the strength of the relationships between OCB
ratings and performance evaluations may be affected by whether
these variables are obtained from the same source as opposed to
different sources. The reason for this is that when OCBs and
performance ratings are obtained from the same source, the rela-
tionship observed between the ratings may reflect not only “true”
systematic variation among these variables but also systematic
variation due to factors such as implicit performance theories,
consistency motifs, and leniency biases possessed by the rater
(Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003; Podsakoff &
Organ, 1986). Traditionally, the concern has been that these forms
of bias might inflate the relationships between these variables.
Consistent with this expectation, MacKenzie et al. (1993) reported
that OCBs accounted for substantially less variance in managers’
evaluations of employee performance in samples of 261 insurance
agents and 108 pharmaceutical sales managers when same source
variance was controlled than when it was not controlled. There-
fore, we expect the following:
Hypothesis 5: Rating source moderates the relationship be-
tween OCB and overall performance evaluations, such that
this relationship is more positive when ratings are obtained
from the same source as opposed to different sources.
OCB target as a potential moderator. As noted earlier, Wil-
liams and Anderson (1991) have distinguished between those
citizenship behaviors aimed at helping other individuals (OCBIs)
and those aimed at the organization (OCBOs). This distinction
may be important, because even though LePine et al. (2002) have
concluded that there are few differences in the nature of the
relationships between predictors of OCBO and OCBI, some recent
studies appear to raise questions about this conclusion. For exam-
ple, Ilies et al. (2007) reported that leader–member exchange
(which is an individually focused variable) was more strongly
related to individually focused citizenship behaviors (r
c
.38)
than to organizationally focused OCBs (r
c
.31); and Halbesle-
ben and Bowler (2007) reported that emotional exhaustion was
positively related to OCBI and negatively related to OCBO in two
studies, regardless of whether the OCB measures were obtained
from self, supervisory, or peer ratings. Similarly, Van Dyne and
her colleagues (Graham & Van Dyne, 2006; LePine & Van Dyne,
2001; Stamper & Van Dyne, 2001) have reported that employee
personality traits (e.g., agreeableness and self-esteem) and percep-
tions (e.g., justice beliefs and perceptions of bureaucratic organi-
zational culture) have different relationships with helping behav-
iors (a form of OCBI) than they do to voice behaviors (a form of
OCBO). Taken together, these results suggest that OCBOs and
OCBIs might have differential relationships with at least some
antecedents of OCBs.
However, we are not aware of any research that has attempted
to examine whether OCBIs and OCBOs are differentially related
to individual-level outcomes such as managerial evaluations or
reward allocation decisions, even though there may be some rea-
son to believe such differences do exist. For example, managers
might pay more attention to OCBOs than to OCBIs in making
performance evaluations and reward allocation decisions, because
behaviors that are directed at the organization are likely to impact
more people (i.e., have more leverage) than behaviors aimed at
helping specific individuals. Thus, an employee who makes sug-
gestions on how to improve the organization or takes the initiative
to make the necessary changes to solve an organizational bottle-
neck has the potential to help the manager (and the organization)
more than an employee who helps a coworker with a specific
problem he or she is facing. Although we do not provide any
specific hypotheses regarding these differences, we do examine the
potential moderating effects of OCB target (OCBI vs. OCBO) on
the relationships between OCB and individual-level outcomes in
our study.
Effects of OCB at the Unit and/or Organizational Level
In addition to the effects that OCBs are expected to have on
individual-level outcomes, these forms of behavior are expected to
have effects on unit or organizational outcomes as well. In this
section, we focus on hypotheses regarding three main types of
outcomes that have been examined in the literature: (a) organiza-
tional effectiveness; (b) customer satisfaction; and (c) group- or
unit-level turnover.
OCBs and group- or unit-level effectiveness. Several research-
ers (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993; Organ, 1988; Podsakoff et al.,
1997; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1997) have provided reasons why
OCBs might enhance unit- or organizational-level measures of
effectiveness. For example, experienced employees who exhibit
OCBs may enhance the productivity of less experienced peers by
showing them the ropes and/or teaching them best practices. Sim-
ilarly, employees who engage in civic virtue (or voice behavior)
may offer their manager useful suggestions that improve unit
effectiveness, reduce costs, or free up the manager to spend time
on more productive tasks such as strategic planning. Finally, OCBs
may also enhance team spirit, morale, and cohesiveness, thereby
reducing the amount of time and energy spent on team mainte-
nance functions and enhancing the organization’s ability to attract
and retain the best people. Consistent with this reasoning, a grow-
ing number of studies (Dunlop & Lee, 2004; Koys, 2001; Podsa-
koff et al., 1997; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994; Walz & Niehoff,
2000) have shown that OCBs are positively related to a variety of
unit or organizational effectiveness measures, including produc-
tion quantity, efficiency, profitability, and the reduction of costs.
Therefore, we hypothesize the following:
Hypothesis 6: OCBs are positively related to a variety of unit
and/or organizational effectiveness measures, including unit
productivity, efficiency, profitability, and the reduction of
costs.
OCBs and customer satisfaction. Yen and Niehoff (2004)
have noted that in addition to the effects they may have on internal
organizational effectiveness measures, OCBs may also influence
external effectiveness measures, such as customer satisfaction.
More specifically, they argue that employees who exhibit altruism
should encourage teamwork and cooperation among coworkers
and that this enhanced cooperation should allow the group to
deliver their goods or services more effectively, and subsequently
125
CONSEQUENCES OF OCBS
increase customer satisfaction. In addition, they note that more
conscientious and courteous employees should increase customer
satisfaction because these employees will stay more informed and
up-to-date about the products and services the company offers.
Finally, Yen and Niehoff argue that employees who exhibit civic
virtue or voice behavior by providing ideas on how to improve
customer service should also increase customer satisfaction. We
would add that employees who help the team deal effectively with
conflicts (peacekeeping) and avoid making petty complaints
(sportsmanship) should also help the team focus its energies on
customer-service-related activities and subsequently increase cus-
tomer satisfaction. Consistent with these arguments, Yen and
Niehoff have reported that OCBs were related to customer satis-
faction in a study of 26 branches of a retail bank located in Taiwan.
Thus, we expect the following:
Hypothesis 7: OCBs are positively related to customer
satisfaction.
OCBs and group or unit turnover. Many of the OCBs that
occur in organizational settings are directed at helping or providing
support to coworkers or peers. For example, employees who come
to the aid of a coworker who is having difficulty in his or her job
or who has fallen behind because of an illness are helping or
providing support. Similarly, employees who step in to alleviate
disagreements or conflicts between coworkers are helping them to
deal with their conflicts more effectively. Such behavior would be
expected to build stronger relationships (cohesiveness) among the
group members and subsequently reduce the likelihood that they
will leave the group. Indeed, there is a substantial amount of
evidence (cf. George & Bettenhausen, 1990; Kidwell, Mossholder,
& Bennett, 1997; Podsakoff et al., 1996) that OCBs are related to
group cohesiveness and that group cohesiveness is related to
employee turnover. Although these relationships are generally
assumed to be indicative of the fact that group cohesiveness is
likely to lead to OCBs, almost all of this research has been
conducted using cross-sectional designs, and we believe that it also
may provide support for the reverse causal ordering. That is,
groups that exhibit OCBs should enhance group members’ cohe-
siveness and their desire to maintain membership in the organiza-
tion. This line of reasoning is consistent with X.-P. Chen et al.’s
(1998) argument:
We may expect that groups (or organizations) that have higher levels
of OCB will have lower levels of turnover because interactions among
employees who exhibit high levels of OCB are likely to foster group
attractiveness and cohesiveness and subsequently to decrease volun-
tary turnover. (p. 928)
It is also consistent with preliminary empirical evidence (Richard-
son & Vandenberg, 2005; Sun, Aryee, & Law, 2007), which shows
that unit-level OCBs are negatively related to unit-level turnover.
Thus, we expect the following:
Hypothesis 8: OCBs are negatively related to group- and/or
unit-level turnover.
Potential Moderators of Unit-Level OCBs
There are a number of potential moderators of the relationships
between OCBs and their unit-level outcomes that we felt could
prove interesting to examine, including the target of the citizenship
behavior, the nature of the organizational compensation system
being used, and the type of industry. However, given the difficulty
associated with conducting unit-level research, it is not surprising
that there are much fewer studies reported in this domain, which
precluded us from examining these moderators. Nevertheless, we
were able to examine one important potential moderator of this
relationship: the nature of the research design.
Research design as a potential moderator. Although there are
good theoretical reasons (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993; Organ,
1988; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1997) to believe that the correla-
tion between OCB and unit-level performance is a reflection of the
fact that OCBs result in increased unit performance, it is possible
that this correlation reflects a reverse causal ordering. Units that
perform at higher levels might describe themselves as exhibiting
more OCBs than units that perform at lower levels. For example,
Bachrach et al. (2001) provided evidence that groups that were told
that their performance was high rated themselves as exhibiting
more OCBs than groups that were told that their performance was
low, even though the feedback was unrelated to the groups’ actual
performance. These findings raise questions about the nature of the
causal relationship between OCBs and unit-level performance.
Therefore, in order to explore whether there was any evidence for
a causal relationship between OCB and unit-level performance, we
separated those studies in our data set in which the measures of
OCB and unit-level performance were obtained during the same
period of time (cross-sectional studies) from those studies in which
the OCB measures were obtained before the measures of perfor-
mance (lagged studies), and then compared the correlation coeffi-
cients between these two subgroups.
Method
Literature Search
Studies included in our meta-analysis were identified using a
variety of methods. First, we conducted a computerized search of
the PsycINFO, ABI/INFORM, and ERIC databases using the key
words organizational citizenship behavior,organizational citizen-
ship performance,extra-role behavior,contextual performance,
organizational spontaneity,prosocial organizational behavior,al-
truism,helping,voice, and civic virtue. Second, we used these
terms to search the ProQuest dissertation abstracts database to
identify unpublished dissertations examining OCB– outcome rela-
tionships. Third, we conducted a manual search of the Academy of
Management and the Society for Industrial and Organizational
Psychology conference programs for the previous 3 years (2005–
2007) and contacted authors of papers that might report relation-
ships between OCBs and their consequences. Fourth, we con-
ducted a manual search of each issue from January 1983 through
October 2007 of several relevant academic journals (i.e., Academy
of Management Journal,Administrative Science Quarterly,Hu-
man Performance,Journal of Applied Psychology,Journal of
Management,Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psy-
chology,Journal of Organizational Behavior,Journal of Voca-
tional Behavior,Organizational Behavior and Human Decision
Processes, and Personnel Psychology) to obtain as many published
articles as possible that might contain correlations between OCB
and individual- and organizational-level outcomes. The year 1983
126 PODSAKOFF, WHITING, PODSAKOFF, AND BLUME
was chosen to begin the search because Bateman and Organ’s
(1983) and Smith et al.’s (1983) original articles on OCB were
published during that year. Finally, we examined all of the pub-
lished articles included in reviews of the OCB literature conducted
by Organ and Ryan (1995), Podsakoff et al. (2000), LePine et al.
(2002), Dalal (2005), and Organ, Podsakoff, and MacKenzie
(2006).
For a study to be included in the meta-analysis, it had to report
a Pearson product–moment correlation coefficient (or a phi matrix)
between a measure of OCB and an individual or unit-level crite-
rion variable. These decision rules omitted articles that reported
only the psychometric properties of the OCB scales, analysis of
variance results, and/or parameter estimates from structural equa-
tion or regression models. Our search yielded 168 independent
samples (N51,235 individuals) for individual-level outcomes
and 38 independent samples (N3,611 units) for unit-level
outcomes.
Coding of Relevant Information
Each of the studies identified were coded on seven criteria: (1)
the type(s) of OCB; (2) the nature of the criterion variables (e.g.,
individual or organizational level); (3) study characteristics (e.g.,
cross-sectional or lagged design); (4) sample size; (5) construct
reliabilities; (6) effect sizes; and (7) whether the OCBs and per-
formance evaluations were obtained from the same or different
sources. After we developed the coding scheme, two of the authors
independently coded half of the studies to assess the level of
agreement. Intercoder agreement on Criteria 1 and 2 was 100%,
whereas intercoder agreement on Criteria 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 was
97%, 88%, 93%, 95%, and 99%, respectively.
1
All discrepancies
among the coders were discussed by the first three authors until
consensus was reached for the final coding. The coding for the
remaining articles was conducted by one of the authors involved in
the original coding task. When a coding question arose, this author
would consult with two of the other authors to resolve the question.
The sample size (N) for each study was recorded as the number of
observations used to compute the correlation coefficient. In the case of
individual-level relationships, Nrepresents the number of respondents
who participated in the study; in the case of organizational-level
relationships, Nrepresents the number of groups or units included in
the analysis. Finally, when more than one study reported data from the
same sample, only correlations that were not reported in the study that
appeared first in the literature were included as data from the second
study.
Meta-Analytic Procedures
We used the meta-analytic procedures recommended by Hunter
and Schmidt (1990) to calculate the average, sample-weighted
correlations between OCBs and individual- and unit-level criteria.
The statistical significance of these correlations was judged using
a 90% confidence interval (Whitener, 1990). To provide the most
accurate point estimates, the weighted mean correlations were
corrected for measurement and sampling error. In those studies in
which there were multiple indicators of a focal construct, we
created linear composites of correlations. Linear composites are
generally considered superior to averaging techniques because
they provide a more construct-valid estimate of the true correlation
and avoid over- or underestimating the sampling error, thus im-
proving the precision of a meta-analysis (Hunter & Schmidt,
1990).
In addition to reporting estimates of the mean corrected corre-
lations, it is also important to describe variability in the meta-
analytic correlations. Accordingly, we report the standard devia-
tion of the corrected correlation (SDr
c
), which provides an index of
the variation in study results for a given relationship, as well as the
Qstatistic, which captures the variation between studies and is
used as evidence that potential moderators of a given relationship
may be present.
Results
Relationships Among the OCBs
Before turning our attention to the relationships between OCBs
and the individual-level outcomes, we examined the relationships
between OCBI, OCBO, and task performance. Table 1 reports the
meta-analytic estimates for the relationships between these con-
structs. This table indicates that (a) the OCBI and OCBO dimen-
sions are relatively independent of the task performance measures
(r
c
.47 for OCBI; r
c
.54 for OCBO) and (b) although the
OCBI and OCBO dimensions are relatively strongly correlated
(r
c
.75), they still share less than 57% of their variance. Thus, it
appears that ratings of OCBO and OCBI are fairly distinguishable
from each other and from ratings of task performance.
Relationships Between OCBs and Individual Outcomes
Table 2 summarizes the meta-analytic relationships between
OCBs and their individual-level consequences. In addition, be-
cause we wanted to provide a comparison of the relationships
between OCBs and performance ratings relative to the relation-
ships between task performance and this criterion variable, we also
reported this later relationship from the studies that we coded.
OCBs and job performance ratings. Consistent with Hypoth-
esis 1, the results in Table 2 show that overall OCBs are positively
related to job performance ratings (r
c
.60).
2
The table also
indicates that this relationship is somewhat stronger than the
relationship between task performance and job performance rat-
ings (r
c
.52). Thus, these findings indicate that overall OCBs are
at least as strongly correlated with job performance evaluations as
is task performance.
OCBs and reward allocation decisions. The results in Table 2
indicate that OCBs also have relatively strong, positive relation-
ships with reward allocation decisions (r
c
.57), although a
1
The initial interrater agreement figure for sample size was somewhat
lower than for the other criteria primarily because many of the dissertations
and conference presentations reported different Nvalues in their text, tables,
and figures. Generally, this resulted from authors of these manuscripts not
employing listwise deletion, conducting multiple analyses with different sam-
ple sizes, and/or not specifying the final sample size. Therefore, we rechecked
all the studies in our meta-analysis and coded the most conservative (lowest)
sample size reported in each study to ensure consistency.
2
To avoid repetition in our discussion of the results, we note that all of
the meta-analytic relationships are significant (90% confidence intervals
exclude zero) unless otherwise noted in the text.
127
CONSEQUENCES OF OCBS
breakdown of these findings suggests that OCBs had a stronger
relationship with reward recommendations (r
c
.77) than they did
with actual rewards (r
c
.26). Because the confidence intervals
for these latter relationships did not overlap, these findings suggest
that even though OCBs have a substantial impact on reward
recommendations, these recommendations do not always translate
into the actual administration of rewards. However, the correla-
tions for each of these relationships were significant, thereby
providing support for Hypothesis 2.
OCBs and employee withdrawal criteria. Consistent with Hy-
potheses 3a and 3b, the results reported in Table 2 show that overall
OCBs were negatively related to both turnover intentions (r
c
–.22)
and actual turnover (r
c
–.14). The results also provide support for
Hypothesis 4, in that there was a negative relationship (r
c
–.16)
between OCBs and employee absenteeism. Thus, employees who
exhibit higher levels of OCB are less likely than employees who
exhibit lower levels of these behaviors to think about leaving the
organization, to actually leave it, or to be absent from work.
Table 1
Relationships Among the OCB Dimensions and Task Performance
Relationship kN r
90% confidence
interval
r
c
SDr
c
QLower Upper
OCBI and OCBO 37 12,649 .56 .55 .57 .75 .14 69.96
ⴱⴱ
OCBI and task performance 24 7,947 .39 .37 .40 .47 .28 233.60
ⴱⴱ
OCBO and task performance 22 6,018 .40 .39 .42 .54 .30 125.44
ⴱⴱ
Note. k number of independent samples; Nsample size; raverage correlation coefficient; r
c
average correlation coefficient corrected for
measurement and sampling error; SDr
c
standard deviation of the corrected correlation coefficient; QQstatistic; OCBI organizational citizenship
behavior (OCB) directed toward other individuals; OCBO OCB directed toward the organization.
ⴱⴱ
p.01.
Table 2
Relationships Between OCBs and Individual-Level Outcomes
Relationship kN r
90% confidence
interval
r
c
SDr
c
QLower Upper
Performance ratings and rewards
OCB–job performance ratings 72 21,881 .49 .48 .50 .60 .26 648.36
ⴱⴱ
OCBI–job performance ratings 43 15,860 .46 .45 .47 .55 .25 529.55
ⴱⴱ
OCBO–job performance ratings 38 12,745 .46 .45 .48 .63 .26 166.89
ⴱⴱ
Task performance–job performance ratings 27 8,065 .46 .44 .47 .52 .23 191.42
ⴱⴱ
OCB–reward allocation decision 16 5,971 .46 .44 .47 .57 .24 67.27
ⴱⴱ
OCBI–reward allocation decision 11 5,144 .46 .44 .48 .54 .26 106.79
ⴱⴱ
OCBO–reward allocation decision 8 4,579 .44 .42 .46 .55 .19 36.21
ⴱⴱ
OCB–actual rewards 8 2,631 .21 .18 .24 .26 .11 22.28
ⴱⴱ
OCBI–actual rewards 6 1,779 .14 .11 .18 .17 .00 5.98
OCBO–actual rewards 5 1,527 .22 .18 .26 .28 .06 7.15
OCB–reward recommendations 10 4,330 .58 .56 .60 .77 .00 4.54
OCBI–reward recommendations 6 3,683 .59 .57 .61 .73 .00 5.28
OCBO–reward recommendations 4 3,370 .52 .50 .54 .72 .00 2.52
Withdrawal behaviors
OCB–turnover intentions 90 26,510 .17 .18 .16 .22 .17 513.22
ⴱⴱ
OCBI–turnover intentions 40 10,337 .09 .11 .08 .11 .10 106.31
ⴱⴱ
OCBO–turnover intentions 37 9,672 .16 .17 .14 .20 .14 153.27
ⴱⴱ
OCB–turnover 12 3,917 .13 .16 .11 .14 .08 31.61
ⴱⴱ
OCBI–turnover 5 1,429 .10 .15 .06 .11 .05 8.49
OCBO–turnover 4 1,253 .14 .18 .09 .18 .03 4.62
OCB–absenteeism 15 4,037 .13 .16 .11 .16 .07 28.17
ⴱⴱ
OCBI–absenteeism 6 1,870 .11 .15 .07 .13 .00 2.06
OCBO–absenteeism 4 1,518 .11 .15 .07 .14 .00 3.20
Note. Subgroup kvalues may not add up to overall kbecause of the use of linear composites, which eliminate double-counting data from the same study.
knumber of independent samples; Nsample size; raverage correlation coefficient; r
c
average correlation coefficient corrected for measurement
and sampling error; SDr
c
standard deviation of the corrected correlation coefficient; QQstatistic; OCBI organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
directed toward other individuals; OCBO OCB directed toward the organization.
ⴱⴱ
p.01.
128 PODSAKOFF, WHITING, PODSAKOFF, AND BLUME
Tests of Individual-Level Moderators
To test the potential moderating effects of OCB target on the
relationships between OCBs and individual-level outcomes, we
examined the overlap between the 90% confidence intervals.
When the confidence intervals of the correlation coefficients did
not overlap, the differences were considered significant.
Moderating effects of rating source. To test whether the rela-
tionship between OCB ratings and job performance depends on the
ratings source (Hypothesis 5), we separated those studies that
obtained the OCB and performance evaluations from the same
source from those studies that obtained these ratings from different
sources, and conducted subgroup meta-analyses. As a point of
comparison, we also used the same procedure to examine the
potential impact of same-source biases on the relationships be-
tween task performance and overall job performance ratings and
between OCBO and OCBI and this criterion. The results of these
analyses are reported in Table 3.
Consistent with Hypothesis 5, the overall OCB–job performance
ratings relationship reported in this table were significantly stron-
ger when the measures of these constructs were taken from the
same source (r
c
.62) than when they were obtained from
different sources (r
c
.32). This difference was also reflected for
the relationships between both OCBI (r
c
.61 for same source vs.
r
c
.28 for different sources) and OCBO (r
c
.68 for same
source vs. r
c
.36 for different sources) and this criterion. This
suggests that the OCB and job performance ratings share about
three to four times more variance when they were obtained from
the same source (36%– 48%) than when they were obtained from
different sources (8%–13%). Finally, the findings reported in
Table 3 show that even though task performance measures shared
significantly more variance with performance evaluations when
they were taken from the same source than from different sources
(32% vs. 16%), the differences were somewhat less pronounced
than in the case of the OCB–job performance relationships.
Moderating effects of OCB target. A comparison of the con-
fidence intervals reported in Table 2 indicates that (a) with the
exception of reward recommendations, no differences were found
in the relationships between the target of the citizenship behaviors
(OCBIs vs. OCBOs) and the job performance ratings or other
reward variables (e.g., reward allocation decisions or actual re-
wards), and (b) with the exception of turnover intentions, no
differences were found in the relationships with the withdrawal
criteria (e.g., turnover or absenteeism). In addition, although the
confidence intervals suggest that the difference between OCBIs
and reward recommendations (r.59) is different from the
relationship between OCBOs and this criterion variable (r.52),
these differences disappear when the corrected correlations are
compared with each other (r
c
values .73 and .72, respectively).
Thus, there was little support for the moderating effects of the
target of OCBs on the individual outcomes.
Supplementary Analysis
Effects of OCB relative to task performance. The results re-
ported above are consistent with our hypotheses that OCBs tend to
be positively related to managerial evaluations of employee per-
formance, and that the OCB–job performance ratings relationship
is stronger when these ratings are obtained from the same source
as opposed to different sources. In addition, the findings show that
the relationships between the OCBs and job performance ratings
are, for the most part, quite comparable with the relationships
between task performance and job performance ratings. However,
these findings do not take into consideration the fact that the OCBs
and task performance ratings are correlated with each other. As a
result, it is not clear what the unique contribution of these behav-
iors is to overall performance ratings. Therefore, in order to
develop a clearer picture of these relationships, we obtained meta-
analytic estimates of the relationships between the OCB dimen-
sions (OCBI and OCBO), task performance, and job performance
Table 3
Moderating Effects of Rating Source on OCB–Job Performance Rating Relationships
Relationship kN r
90% confidence
interval
r
c
SDr
c
QLower Upper
OCB–job performance ratings (same source) 58 18,712 .51 .50 .52 .62 .26 551.71
ⴱⴱ
OCB–job performance ratings (different source) 17 4,448 .27 .25 .30 .32 .21 139.79
ⴱⴱ
OCBI–job performance ratings (same source) 35 13,092 .51 .50 .52 .61 .23 400.07
ⴱⴱ
OCBI–job performance ratings (different
source) 10 4,052 .22 .20 .25 .28 .15 42.03
ⴱⴱ
OCBO–job performance ratings (same
source) 30 10,447 .51 .49 .52 .68 .22 97.54
ⴱⴱ
OCBO–job performance ratings (different
source) 9 2,556 .28 .25 .31 .36 .25 57.92
ⴱⴱ
Task performance–job performance ratings
(same source) 18 5,338 .50 .49 .52 .57 .26 254.80
ⴱⴱ
Task performance–job performance ratings
(different source) 11 4,224 .33 .30 .35 .40 .19 49.02
ⴱⴱ
Note. Subgroup kvalues may not add up to overall kbecause of the use of linear composites, which eliminate double-counting data from the same study.
knumber of independent samples; Nsample size; raverage correlation coefficient; r
c
average correlation coefficient corrected for measurement
and sampling error; SDr
c
standard deviation of the corrected correlation coefficient; QQstatistic; OCBI organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
directed toward other individuals; OCBO OCB directed toward the organization.
ⴱⴱ
p.01.
129
CONSEQUENCES OF OCBS
ratings from the studies we summarized and then conducted sup-
plemental path analyses using the procedures described by Vi-
swesvaran and Ones (1995). To obtain meta-analytic path model
estimates, we input the correlation matrices into LISREL 8.52
(Jo¨reskog & So¨rbom, 2002) using the harmonic mean of the
appropriate studies as the sample size. Although LISREL provides
goodness-of-fit indices for path analytic models, our models were
completely saturated and therefore fit the data perfectly.
The results of this analysis are reported in Table 4. The first
column reports the results for all of the studies included in our
analysis; the second column reports the results for only those
studies in which the ratings of task performance and OCBs were
obtained from the same source as the job performance ratings; and
the third column reports the results for only those studies in which
ratings of task performance and OCBs were obtained from a
different source than the job performance ratings.
There are several interesting patterns of relationships that are
worth noting in this table. First, regardless of whether the analysis
included data from the same or different sources, the combination
of OCBs and task performance accounted for substantial amounts
of variance in job performance ratings. Second, as expected, the
amount of variance accounted for in the overall job performance
ratings by task performance and OCBs when these measures were
taken from the same source (R
2
.50) was substantially higher
than when these measures were taken from a different source than
the job performance ratings (R
2
.25). Third, the relative impacts
of task performance, OCBO, and OCBI depended on whether the
ratings were taken from the same source or different sources. For
example, when the OCBs and task performance ratings were taken
from the same source as the job performance evaluations, OCBOs
had the strongest impact on the job performance evaluations (␤⫽
.41, p.01), followed by OCBI (␤⫽.20, p.01) and then task
performance (␤⫽.17, p.01). However, when the OCB ratings
and task performance ratings were taken from a different source
than the job performance ratings, task performance had the stron-
gest impact on job performance ratings (␤⫽.33, p.01),
followed by OCBO (␤⫽.25, p.01) and then OCBI (␤⫽.09,
p.01). Thus, it appears that OCBOs generally had a stronger
effect on job performance evaluations than did OCBIs but that the
effect of OCBOs relative to task performance was somewhat
dependent on the source from which the ratings were obtained.
Are the OCB 3turnover relationships spurious? There is a
substantial amount of meta-analytic evidence that job satisfaction
is related both to OCBs (Organ & Ryan, 1995; Podsakoff et al.,
1996) and to turnover and turnover intentions (Griffeth, Hom, &
Gaertner, 2000; Hom, Caranikas-Walker, Prussia, & Griffeth,
1992). These findings suggest that the relationships we reported
between OCBs and turnover and turnover intentions may be spu-
rious, because all of these variables are related to job satisfaction.
To examine this possibility, we analyzed one meta-analytic path
model (Viswesvaran & Ones, 1995) using OCBs and job satisfac-
tion to predict turnover intentions and another to predict actual
turnover. The results of these analyses are reported in Table 5. As
indicated in this table, both job satisfaction (␤⫽–.57, p.01)
and OCBs (␤⫽–.09, p.01) had a significant negative rela-
tionship with turnover intentions, and together these variables
accounted for 37% of the variance in this criterion variable. Sim-
ilarly, Table 5 indicates that job satisfaction and OCBs both had
significant negative relationships with actual turnover (s–.16
and –.14, respectively, ps.01), and these variables accounted for
5% of the variance in this criterion variable. Thus, taken together,
these findings suggest that the relationship between OCBs and
these withdrawal criteria cannot be totally attributed to a spurious
relationship caused by job satisfaction.
Relationships Between OCBs and Organizational
Outcomes
We now turn our attention to the tests of the hypothesized relation-
ships between the OCBs and unit-level or organizational-level out-
comes. The results for these analyses are reported in Table 6. In those
cases where enough data existed between the specific OCB dimen-
sions and criterion variables, we conducted subgroup analyses.
OCBs and unit-level outcomes. We expected (Hypothesis 6)
that unit-level OCBs would be positively related to a variety of
organizational performance measures. Consistent with this expec-
tation, Table 6 indicates that overall unit-level OCBs were posi-
tively related to unit-level performance (r
c
.43). In addition, the
table indicates that this relationship was significantly stronger
when unit-level performance was measured subjectively (r
c
.47)
than when it was measured objectively (r
c
.37), although both of
these estimates excluded zero. A finer grained analysis of the
objective unit-level measures shows that overall OCBs were sig-
nificantly related to all but one of them (productivity, r
c
.37;
efficiency, r
c
.40; costs, r
c
–.52; and profitability, r
c
.15);
the confidence interval for the overall OCB and profitability rela-
tionship included zero.
OCBs and customer satisfaction. Consistent with Hypothesis
7, results in Table 6 indicate that overall OCBs were positively
related to measures of customer satisfaction (r
c
.23). Thus, these
results suggest that organizational units that are characterized by
higher levels of OCBs generally have more satisfied customers
than do units characterized by lower levels of OCBs.
OCBs and unit-level turnover. The final row in Table 6 pro-
vides support for Hypothesis 8, in that OCBs were negatively
related to unit-level turnover (r
c
–.22). This is consistent with
our expectation that organizational units that have higher levels of
OCBs experience lower levels of turnover.
Table 4
Completely Standardized Parameter Estimates for the Effects of
Task Performance and OCBs on Job Performance Ratings
Predictor variable
Overall ratings of
performance
Same-source
ratings of
performance
Different-source
ratings of
performance
Task performance .25
ⴱⴱ
.17
ⴱⴱ
.33
ⴱⴱ
OCBI .18
ⴱⴱ
.20
ⴱⴱ
.09
ⴱⴱ
OCBO .37
ⴱⴱ
.41
ⴱⴱ
.25
ⴱⴱ
R
2
.46 .50 .25
Note. Significance tests were based on the harmonic mean of the sample
sizes of the individual studies used in each regression; the harmonic means
for the overall, same-source, and different-source models were 9,770,
6,868, and 2,669, respectively. OCBI organizational citizenship behav-
ior (OCB) directed toward other individuals; OCBO OCB directed
toward the organization.
ⴱⴱ
p.01.
130 PODSAKOFF, WHITING, PODSAKOFF, AND BLUME
Unit-Level Moderators
The results of our examination of the potential moderating
effects of research design on the unit-level relationships are re-
ported in Table 7. As indicated in this table, the corrected corre-
lation between OCBs and unit-level performance in the time-
lagged studies (r
c
.56) is significantly stronger than the
correlation between these variables in the cross-sectional studies
(r
c
.37). These findings provide some evidence that OCBs are
causal determinants of unit-level performance.
Discussion
Generally speaking, at the individual level we found that OCBs
were positively related to ratings of employee performance and to
reward allocation decisions and negatively related to employee
turnover intentions, actual turnover, and absenteeism, whereas at
the unit level, OCBs were positively related to a variety of orga-
nizational effectiveness measures (e.g., productivity, efficiency,
and profitability) and customer satisfaction and negatively related
to costs and unit-level turnover. In addition, we found that the
source of the ratings moderated the relationship between OCBs
and performance ratings, such that the correlation between OCBs
and these ratings was stronger when the ratings were obtained
from the same source than from a different source. Finally, we
found some evidence that OCBs at the unit level of analysis are
causal determinants of performance. We think that these findings
shed light on a number of important issues in the field.
For example, the finding that OCBs are positively related to
performance evaluations and managerial reward allocation deci-
sions is important for several reasons. First, this finding is consis-
tent with the work of several researchers (Borman & Motowidlo,
1993; MacKenzie et al., 1993; Podsakoff et al., 2000; Rotundo &
Sackett, 2002) who have argued that managers consider OCB-like
behaviors to be an important part of an expanded employee job
performance domain. Second, our findings seem to run contrary to
the recent conclusions of Bergeron (2007), who argued that task
performance has stronger effects on performance evaluations than
do OCBs. More specifically, our results indicate that OCBs ac-
count for at least as much variance in managerial evaluations of
performance as task performance, regardless of whether these
measures are taken from the same or different sources. However,
the difference in our findings may be a result of the fact that (a)
Bergeron’s review of the literature was restricted to a relatively
small subset of the samples included in our study and (b) she did
not provide a meta-analytic summary of her findings. Thus, al-
though additional research clearly needs to be conducted on this
issue, we believe that our findings are important because they
suggest that managers consider OCBs to be an important part of an
employee’s overall contribution to the organization.
Of course, it is important to recognize that there may be other
important types of behavior that managers consider in their eval-
uations of employee performance. For example, Rotundo and
Sackett (2002) have demonstrated that in addition to task perfor-
mance (TP) and OCBs, managers also include counterproductive
work behaviors (CWB) in their evaluations. More specifically,
these authors reported that although the raters in their study in-
cluded TP, OCBs, and CWBs in their ratings of overall employee
Table 5
Completely Standardized Parameter Estimates for the Effects of
OCBs and Job Satisfaction on Turnover Intentions and Actual
Turnover
Predictor variable
Turnover
intentions
Actual
turnover
OCB .09
ⴱⴱ
.14
ⴱⴱ
Job satisfaction .57
ⴱⴱ
.16
ⴱⴱ
R
2
.37 .05
Note. Significance tests were based on the harmonic mean of the sample
sizes of the individual studies used in each regression; the harmonic means
for the turnover intentions and actual turnover models were 13,975 and
2,799, respectively. OCB organizational citizenship behavior.
ⴱⴱ
p.01.
Table 6
Relationships Between OCBs and Organizational-Level Outcomes
Relationship kN r
90% confidence
interval
r
c
SDr
c
QLower Upper
Unit OCB–overall unit performance 33 2,750 .35 .32 .37 .43 .20 94.88
ⴱⴱ
Unit OCB–overall unit performance,
subjective measures 19 1,249 .41 .37 .45 .47 .28 118.10
ⴱⴱ
Unit OCB–overall unit performance,
objective measures 17 1,598 .29 .25 .33 .37 .11 26.70
ⴱⴱ
Unit OCB–unit productivity 7 718 .34 .28 .39 .37 .03 7.83
Unit OCB–unit efficiency 3 102 .32 .17 .47 .40 .00 0.05
Unit OCB–unit costs 2 54 .42 .61 .24 .52 .00 0.06
Unit OCB–unit profitability 5 143 .13 .00 .27 .15 .27 12.77
ⴱⴱ
Unit OCB–customer satisfaction 8 478 .19 .11 .26 .23 .00 6.24
Unit OCB–unit turnover 6 936 .17 .23 .12 .22 .11 12.84
Note. Subgroup kvalues may not add up to overall kbecause of the use of linear composites, which eliminated double-counting data from the same study.
knumber of independent samples; Nsample size; raverage correlation coefficient; r
c
average correlation coefficient corrected for measurement
and sampling error; SDr
c
standard deviation of the corrected correlation coefficient; QQstatistic. OCB organizational citizenship behavior.
p.05.
ⴱⴱ
p.01.
131
CONSEQUENCES OF OCBS
performance, they tended to give more weight to TP and CWBs
than to OCBs. Although there are a number of differences between
the methods used by Rotundo and Sackett in their study and the
vast majority of the studies summarized in our review (e.g., their
study was a within-subject, policy-capturing study using paper
people stimuli) that may help account for the differences in our
findings, we believe the biggest differences may be that counter-
productive behaviors are negative by nature and tend to have a
relatively low base rate. The reason this is important is that there
is a substantial amount of evidence (Baumeister, Bratslavsky,
Finkenauer, & Vohs, 2001; Taylor, 1991) that negative events and
rarely occurring or distinctive events (DeNisi, Cafferty, & Meg-
lino, 1984) are encoded differently, are recalled from memory
more easily, and result in stronger attitudinal and behavioral ef-
fects than positive events. Therefore, we are not completely sur-
prised that CWBs were found to have stronger effects than OCBs
in their study. Nevertheless, their finding that task performance
had stronger effects than OCBs is contradictory to ours and sug-
gests that additional research needs to examine the effects of TP,
OCBs, and CWBs on performance ratings. In addition, at a more
general level Campbell, Gasser, and Oswald (1996) have argued
that there are a variety of other job components that need to be
taken into account to adequately measure job performance. Thus,
even though our findings provide evidence that OCBs are an
important part of the job performance domain, additional work
needs to be done to determine their effects, relative to other
behaviors, on performance evaluations.
Our finding that OCBs are related to a variety of different
measures of organizational performance is also important, for at
least two reasons. First, it provides fairly compelling support for
Organ’s (1988) contention that citizenship behaviors are, in the
aggregate, related to measures of organizational effectiveness.
Thus, it appears that one concrete way for managers to enhance
organizational performance is by encouraging employees to ex-
hibit OCBs. However, it is probably worth noting that the rela-
tionships between OCBs and unit profitability were substantially
lower than those with the other objective measures of unit perfor-
mance. In retrospect, these findings may not be too surprising, as
productivity, efficiency, and (reducing) costs are more proximal
outcomes of employee citizenship behaviors than is profitability.
Profitability is influenced not only by employee behaviors but also
by market and economic factors beyond the employee’s control.
Therefore, researchers may need to recognize that the proximal
versus distal nature of their organizational performance measures
may have an effect on the relationships they observe between
OCBs and organizational effectiveness.
Second, the fact that the effects of OCBs on unit-level outcomes
are homologous to those at the individual level, in that relation-
ships are generally positive at both of these levels, raises questions
about the suggestion (e.g., Bolino, 1999; Schnake, 1991) that
employees may exhibit OCBs for the purposes of impression
management and subsequently reduce individual and organiza-
tional effectiveness. According to Bolino (1999), “When individ-
uals undertake actions based on impression management concerns,
they are less able to devote their full attention to the task at hand.
Consequently . . . this concern frequently impairs their perfor-
mance” (p. 90). If Bolino is correct, then it suggests that (a) a
positive relationship between OCBs and performance evaluations
might be accompanied by (b) a negative relationship between
OCBs and task performance and (c) a negative or nonsignificant
relationship between OCBs and organizational performance. How-
ever, that is not what we found in this study. Indeed, our results
show that OCBs have generally functional effects not only for the
individual who exhibits them (e.g., receiving higher performance
evaluations and more rewards) but also for the organization as well
(e.g., increased levels of productivity and efficiency and reduced
costs and turnover). In addition, we found that those employees
who tended to be rated high on OCBs also tended to be rated high
on task performance. Thus, even though some employees may
exhibit OCBs for reasons other than to help their coworkers and/or
the organization, it appears that this fact does not outweigh the
generally positive effects these behaviors have on individual and
organizational performance.
In contrast to some recent studies (Graham & Van Dyne, 2006;
Halbesleben & Bowler, 2007; Ilies et al., 2007; LePine & Van
Dyne, 2001; Stamper & Van Dyne, 2001) but consistent with the
findings LePine et al. (2002), we found little support for differen-
tial relationships between OCBOs and OCBIs and individual-level
outcome variables. This would seem to suggest that the target of
OCBs has little impact on the nature of the relationships between
OCBs and their outcomes. However, we believe that this conclu-
sion should be made cautiously for several reasons. First, it is
important to note that only a few studies have been conducted that
were specifically designed to test the differences between OCBOs
and OCBIs, and therefore our comparisons are based on post hoc
categorizations that may include some constructs that are not
Table 7
Nature of Research Design (Cross-Sectional Versus Time Lagged) as a Moderator of OCB–Unit Performance Relationships
Relationship kN r
90% confidence
interval
r
c
SDr
c
QLower Upper
Unit OCB–overall unit performance
(time lagged) 5 453 .44 .38 .50 .56 .00 2.29
Unit OCB–overall unit performance
(cross-sectional) 28 2,578 .30 .27 .33 .37 .22 100.03
ⴱⴱ
Note. knumber of independent samples; Nsample size; raverage correlation coefficient; r
c
average correlation coefficient corrected for
measurement and sampling error; SDr
c
standard deviation of the corrected correlation coefficient; QQstatistic; OCB organizational citizenship
behavior.
ⴱⴱ
p.01.
132 PODSAKOFF, WHITING, PODSAKOFF, AND BLUME
easily identified as either OCBOs or OCBIs. For example, even
though we followed LePine et al. (2002) and Hoffman et al. (2007)
by including sportsmanship as an exemplar of OCBO, it is not
clear whether this form of citizenship primarily benefits the orga-
nization or the supervisor of the employee exhibiting this behavior.
Related to this, none of the studies that we have reviewed included
a full range of the OCBI and OCBO constructs in them, and to our
knowledge, no one has developed a scale specifically designed to
measure a full complement of these constructs. Finally, it is
possible that the key distinction between OCB dimensions is not
based on whether they are targeted toward the organization or
other individuals, but rather whether they are affiliative versus
challenging in nature (Van Dyne et al., 1995). Indeed, many of the
studies that have shown differences between the predictors of
OCBIs and OCBOs are ones in which the OCBIs were affiliative
in nature (helping behaviors) whereas the OCBOs were challeng-
ing in nature (e.g., voice behaviors). Therefore, even though we
did not find support for the differential effects of the target of
OCBs in our study, we think it is premature at this time to conclude
that OCBOs and OCBIs have the same effects, and we would
encourage researchers to continue examining the effects of the
target of OCBs on the nature of the relationships between the
antecedents and consequences of these behaviors.
Implications for Future Research
In addition to the points made above, we believe that there are
several other avenues that should be addressed in future research.
First, we need to develop a much better understanding of the
mechanisms that OCBs work through to influence individual-level
outcomes, such as managerial evaluations, reward allocation de-
cisions, and employee turnover. As noted earlier, although there
have been a fair number of studies that have examined the rela-
tionships between employee OCBs and managerial evaluations,
little research has been conducted to identify the potential medi-
ators of these relationships. One exception is the study reported by
Allen and Rush (1998). These authors found that supervisor liking
and perceptions of employee organizational commitment mediated
the relationship between employee OCB and supervisors’ perfor-
mance evaluations of their employees. Although these findings are
encouraging, a number of other potential mediators of this rela-
tionship have been identified in the literature (Podsakoff et al.,
1993, 2000) and should be tested in future research.
We also need to direct more attention at the potential mediators
and moderators of the effects of OCBs on organizational effec-
tiveness. Several researchers (Bolino, Turnley, & Bloodgood,
2002; Borman & Motowidlo, 1993; Ehrhart & Naumann, 2004;
Organ, 1988; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994, 1997) have identi-
fied a number of reasons why OCBs may be related to
organizational-level outcomes. Despite this, we know surprisingly
little about which of these variables might serve as mediators or
moderators of the OCB– unit performance relationship. Of course,
one obvious reason for our lack of understanding of these mech-
anisms may have to do with the difficulty researchers have in
gathering organizational-level data.
However, a recent study by Bachrach, Powell, Collins, and
Richey (2006) investigating the impact of task interdependence on
the relationship between OCB and group effectiveness suggests
that it may be possible to examine the influence of OCBs on
group-level effectiveness measures in laboratory settings. Bach-
rach et al. demonstrated that task interdependence tended to inter-
act with helping behavior to influence group performance. Thus, in
addition to identifying task interdependence as a potentially im-
portant moderator of the relationships between OCBs and group
effectiveness, this study also suggests that laboratory research may
provide an avenue for examining the effects of OCBs on group-
level phenomena for researchers who do not have ready access to
organizational settings, or for variables that are not easily manip-
ulated in field settings. Another potentially fruitful area is to look
at other outcomes at both the individual and unit levels of analysis.
At the individual level, some particular outcomes that might prove
interesting are the effects that OCBs have on (a) employee oppor-
tunities for advanced (or remedial) training; (b) who gets laid off
in times of reduction in forces; and (c) the amount of latitude or
autonomy that employees are offered in deciding how they per-
form their work. For example, holding task performance constant,
we expect that employees who exhibit higher levels of OCBs are
more likely to be recommended for advanced training opportuni-
ties, to be given more autonomy in their job, and to be retained in
a time of reduction in force, but will be less likely to be recom-
mended for remedial training. At the group or unit level, additional
consequences might include customer retention, creativity, safety-
related outcomes, and quality metrics (e.g., defective parts).
Given that our findings show that OCBs have functional effects
on objective measures of organizational effectiveness, we also
believe that there is a need to develop better methods for selecting
employees who have a propensity to exhibit OCBs. Although there
have been a few studies that have examined this issue (e.g., Allen,
Facteau, & Facteau, 2004; Latham & Skarlicki, 1995), given the
potential benefits that may accrue from this type of research, we
feel that much more attention needs to be given to this important
topic.
Finally, although there is a growing recognition of the impor-
tance of studying behavioral phenomena in the context of a global
economy (cf. X.-P. Chen, 2005; X.-P. Chen et al., 1998; Z. X.
Chen, Tsui, & Farh, 2002; Farh et al., 1997; Lam et al., 1999;
Paine & Organ, 2000; Ployhart, Wiechmann, Schmitt, Sacco, &
Rogg, 2003), we believe that additional research should also be
focused on the potential impact that cross-cultural contexts have
on the relationships between OCBs and their consequences. Pre-
liminary research by Lam et al. (1999) in this domain is encour-
aging, in that it shows that the factor structure of the OCB
conceptual domain is relatively invariant across a variety of cul-
tural contexts. However, Ployhart and his colleagues (2003) have
noted that this does not mean that supervisors in different cultures
weigh the components of job performance the same when they
make evaluations. This is obviously an important issue, because
global companies may assume that the performance appraisal
measures they use in one country may be equally applicable to
other countries, even when this is not true. For example, it is
possible that supervisors in collectivistic cultures may weight
OCBs more heavily in their evaluations of employee job perfor-
mance than supervisors in individualistic cultures. Thus, future
research is needed to determine the potential effects that culture
may have on the OCB– outcome variable relationships.
133
CONSEQUENCES OF OCBS
Implications for Practitioners
Perhaps the most important finding of our study for practicing
managers is that OCBs appear to have important relationships with
some organizational measures of “bottom line” effectiveness. The
obvious implication of this is that managers should try to motivate
employees to exhibit these types of behaviors. Previous research
(cf. Organ, Podsakoff, & MacKenzie, 2006) indicates that some of
the best determinants of OCBs are employee perceptions of fair-
ness, transformational leadership behaviors, employee attitudes
(e.g., job satisfaction and organizational commitment), and to a
lesser extent personality traits such as conscientiousness (Borman
et al., 2001; Organ & Ryan, 1995). This would suggest that
managers should try to focus on selecting employees with a
propensity to engage in OCBs, and to create a work environment
that encourages employees to exhibit these behaviors.
However, it is important to note that our findings suggest that
OCBs have a stronger relationship with more proximal measures
of organizational performance such as unit productivity and cost
reduction as opposed to distal indicators such as unit profitability.
This would suggest that managers may have more success influ-
encing organizational effectiveness measures that are more prox-
imal to employee citizenship behaviors than measures that are not
as directly linked in the organization’s value chain. In addition,
although our findings demonstrate a clear relationship between
OCBs and customer satisfaction, it is important to note that these
findings may be restricted to service contexts in which the em-
ployees have direct contact with the customers. Therefore, it may
be important for managers to take the nature of the employee–
customer relationship into account when considering the potential
effect that increased levels of OCBs may have on customer satis-
faction.
Furthermore, our results indicate that the practice most manag-
ers have of weighting OCBs in their individual evaluations is an
appropriate and functional one, as these behaviors do relate to
objective measures of organizational performance. This would
suggest that the impact of OCBs on appraisal ratings is not simply
error variance to be eliminated but rather represents a desirable
source of variance in appraisals that should relate in a meaningful
way to unit effectiveness.
Limitations
Like any other study, there are some limitations to ours that
should be recognized. First, Guzzo, Jackson, and Katzell (1987)
have noted that the conclusions derived from every meta-analysis
are subject to a variety of judgment calls made by the researchers.
Thus, it is possible that some of the decisions we made regarding
the aggregation of the relationships may have had an influence on
our findings. Second, it is worthwhile to note that the number of
studies for some of the relationships we examined (particularly in
the case of some of the organization-level outcomes) is relatively
small. Therefore, in these cases, additional data will need to be
gathered before we can feel confident that the estimates we have
reported in this article are accurate representations of the popula-
tion correlations. Finally, although the majority of the studies in
our meta-analyses were conducted using cross-sectional, correla-
tional designs, there are two important points worth noting about
this potential limitation. The first point is that the few studies
(Allen & Rush, 1998; Werner, 1994) that have examined the
potential causal effects of OCBs on managerial evaluations have
shown OCBs to affect managerial evaluations. Second, those stud-
ies (Ahearne, 2000; George & Bettenhausen, 1990; Koys, 2001;
Pearce & Ensley, 2004; Podsakoff et al., 1997) that have included
a temporal separation between the measurement of the OCBs and
the measure of unit-level effectiveness have actually reported
stronger relationships between these variables than what has been
reported in studies using cross-sectional designs. Therefore, even
though additional research needs to be conducted on the causal
relationships before any definitive conclusions can be made, it
does appear either that OCBs tend to lead to increases in manag-
ers’ evaluations and unit effectiveness or that these variables may
be reciprocally related.
Conclusions
Notwithstanding these limitations, the results of our meta-
analysis indicate that OCBs have significant relationships with a
variety of individual- and organizational-level outcomes. Gener-
ally speaking, these results confirm the importance of these be-
haviors to scholars and managers alike and suggest that future
research should be aimed at increasing our understanding of the
theoretical mechanisms that explain these relationships. This is
consistent with Organ (1997), who noted the following over a
decade ago:
A few studies have looked at the group or organizational level, but
virtually entirely so in a straightforward aggregative and descriptive
style. We are left with a “black box” of “process” . . . . Although we
have some reassuring data in support of the connection between OCB
and systemic performance, little if any analysis has dealt with the
means by which OCB has these effects. (p. 95)
Thus, we would encourage that future research focus more
attention on the reasons why OCBs have the effects that they do on
individual- and organizational-level outcomes.
References
References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the
meta-analysis.
Adcock, B. P. (1999). The role of organizational citizenship behavior in
the linkage of employee and customer satisfaction. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, University of South Florida.
Ahearne, M. J. (2000). An examination of the effects of leadership empow-
erment behaviors and organizational citizenship behaviors on sales team
performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University.
Allen, T. D. (2006). Rewarding good citizens: The relationship between
citizenship behavior, gender, and organizational rewards. Journal of
Applied Social Psychology, 36, 120 –143.
Allen, T. D., Facteau, J. D., & Facteau, C. L. (2004). Structured interview-
ing for OCB: Construct validity, faking, and the effects of question type.
Human Performance, 17, 1–24.
Allen, T. D., & Rush, M. C. (1998). The effects of organizational citi-
zenship behavior on performance judgments: A field study and a labo-
ratory experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 247–260.
Allen, T. D., & Rush, M. C. (2001). The influence of ratee gender on
ratings of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Applied Social
Psychology, 31, 2561–2587.
Allen, T. D., Smith, M. A., Mael, F. A., & O’Shea, P. G. (2007, April).
Mentoring relationships and organizational performance within substance
134 PODSAKOFF, WHITING, PODSAKOFF, AND BLUME
abuse centers. Paper presented at the 22nd annual conference of the Society
for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New York.
Ang, S., & Slaughter, S. A. (2001). Work outcomes and job design for
contract versus permanent information systems professionals on soft-
ware development teams. MIS Quarterly, 25, 321–350.
Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., & Begley, T. M. (2003). The employment of
foreign workers versus local employees: A field study of organizational
justice, job satisfaction, performance, and OCB. Journal of Organiza-
tional Behavior, 24, 561–583.
Aquino, K., & Bommer, W. H. (2003). Preferential mistreatment: How
victim status moderates the relationship between organizational citizen-
ship behavior and workplace victimization. Organization Science, 14,
374 –385.
Aronson, Z. H., & Lechler, T. G. (2005, August). Project morale: A multi-
faceted construct and its link to project success. Paper presented at the 65th
annual conference of the Academy of Management, Honolulu, HI.
Aryee, S., Budhwar, P. S., & Chen, Z. X. (2002). Trust as a mediator of
the relationship between organizational justice and work outcomes: Test
of a social exchange model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23,
267–285.
Aryee, S., & Chay, Y. W. (2001). Workplace justice, citizenship behavior,
and turnover intentions in a union context: Examining the mediating role
of perceived union support and union instrumentality. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 86, 154 –160.
Aube, C., & Rousseau, V. (2005). Team goal commitment and team
effectiveness: The role of task interdependence and supportive behav-
iors. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 9, 189 –204.
Avila, R. A., Fern, E. F., & Mann, O. K. (1988). Unraveling criteria for
assessing the performance of sales people: A causal analysis. Journal of
Personal Selling and Sales Management, 8, 45–54.
Avis, J. M., Kudisch, J. D., & Fortunato, V. J. (2002). Examining the
incremental validity and adverse impact of cognitive ability and consci-
entiousness on job performance. Journal of Business and Psychology,
17, 87–105.
Bacha, R. R. (2003). Specifying personality and self-monitoring effects on
overall, task, and contextual job performance. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, Kent State University.
Bachrach, D. G., Bendoly, E., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2001). Attributions of
the “causes” of group performance as an alternative explanation of the
relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and organiza-
tional performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1285–1293.
Bachrach, D. G., Powell, B. C., Collins, B. J., & Richey, R. G. (2006).
Effects of task interdependence on the relationship between helping
behavior and group performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91,
1396 –1405.
Bagozzi, R. P., Verbeke, W., & Gavino, J. C. J. (2003). Culture moderates
the self-regulation of shame and its effects on performance: The case of
salespersons in the Netherlands and the Philippines. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 88, 219 –233.
Barksdale, K., & Werner, J. M. (2001). Managerial ratings of in-role
behaviors, organizational citizenship behaviors, and overall perfor-
mance: Testing different models of their relationship. Journal of Busi-
ness Research, 51, 145–155.
Baruch, Y., O’Creevy, M. F., Hind, P., & Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2004).
Prosocial behavior and job performance: Does the need for control and
the need for achievement make a difference? Social Behavior and
Personality, 32, 399 – 412.
Bateman, T. S., & Organ, D. W. (1983). Job satisfaction and the good
soldier: The relationship between affect and employee “citizenship.”
Academy of Management Journal, 26, 587–595.
Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Finkenauer, C., & Vohs, K. D. (2001).
Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology, 5, 323–370.
Beatty, S. C. (1998). Academic background characteristics and prediction
of job performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, San Jose State
University.
Becker, T. E. (1992). Foci and bases of commitment: Are they distinctions
worth making? Academy of Management Journal, 35, 232–244.
Beehr, T. A., Ivanitskaya, L., Hansen, C. P., Erofeev, D., & Gudanowski,
D. M. (2001). Evaluation of 360-degree feedback ratings: Relationships
with each other and with performance and selection predictors. Journal
of Organizational Behavior, 22, 775–788.
Begley, T. M., Lee, C., & Hui, C. (2006). Organizational level as a
moderator of the relationship between justice perceptions and work-
related reactions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 705–721.
Bell, S. J., & Menguc, B. (2002). The employee– organization relation-
ship, organizational citizenship behaviors, and superior service quality.
Journal of Retailing, 78, 131–146.
Bergeron, D. M. (2007). The potential paradox of organizational citizen-
ship behavior: Good citizens at what cost? Academy of Management
Review, 32, 1078 –1095.
Bergman, M. E. (2001). Contingency of work as a psychological con-
struct. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at
Urbana–Champaign.
Berman, L. M. (1997). When flexibility “works” and when it “fails”: An
in-depth analysis of alternatives to the nine-to-five work week. Unpub-
lished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park.
Bettencourt, L. A., & Brown, S. W. (1997). Contact employees: Relation-
ships among workplace fairness, job satisfaction and prosocial service
behaviors. Journal of Retailing, 73, 39 – 61.
Bilgrami, S. R., Raja, U., & Johns, G. (2007, August). Felt violations:
Who reacts more strongly when expectations are not met? Paper pre-
sented at the 67th annual conference of the Academy of Management,
Philadelphia.
Bishop, J. W., Scott, K. D., & Burroughs, S. M. (2000). Support, com-
mitment, and employee outcomes in a team environment. Journal of
Management, 26, 1113–1132.
Blau, G. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.
Bolino, M. C. (1999). Citizenship and impression management: Good
soldiers or good actors? Academy of Management Review, 24, 82–98.
Bolino, M. C., & Turnley, W. H. (2005). The personal costs of citizenship
behavior: The relationship between individual initiative and role over-
load, job stress, and work–family conflict. Journal of Applied Psychol-
ogy, 90, 740 –748.
Bolino, M. C., Turnley, W. H., & Bloodgood, J. M. (2002). Citizenship
behavior and the creation of social capital in organizations. Academy of
Management Review, 27, 505–522.
Bolino, M. C., Varela, J. A., Bande, B., & Turnley, W. H. (2006). The
impact of impression-management tactics on supervisor ratings of orga-
nizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27,
281–297.
Bommer, W. H. (1995). Contextual influences on transformational leader
behavior’s effectiveness: Transformational leader behavior in a substi-
tutes for leadership framework. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, In-
diana University.
Borman, W. C. (2004). The concept of organizational citizenship. Current
Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 238 –241.
Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1993). Expanding the criterion
domain to include elements of contextual performance. In N. Schmitt,
W. C. Borman, & Associates (Eds.), Personnel selection in organiza-
tions (pp. 71–98). San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1997). Task performance and con-
textual performance: The meaning for personnel selection research.
Human Performance, 10, 99 –109.
Borman, W. C., Penner, L. A., Allen, T. D., & Motowidlo, S. J. (2001).
Personality predictors of citizenship performance. International Journal
of Selection and Assessment, 9, 52– 69.
Borman, W. C., White, L. A., & Dorsey, D. W. (1995). Effects of ratee
135
CONSEQUENCES OF OCBS
task-performance and interpersonal factors on supervisor and peer per-
formance ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 168 –177.
Brennan, A., & Skarlicki, D. P. (2004). Personality and perceived justice
as predictors of survivors’ reactions following downsizing. Journal of
Applied Social Psychology, 34, 1306 –1328.
Brief, A. P., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1986). Prosocial organizational behaviors.
Academy of Management Review, 11, 710 –725.
Bright, J. L. (2001). Commitment of board members of nonprofit organiza-
tions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Claremont Graduate University.
Byrne, Z. S. (2001). Effects of perceptions of organizational justice,
identification, and support on outcomes within work teams. Unpublished
doctoral dissertation, Colorado State University.
Byrne, Z. S. (2005). Fairness reduces the negative effects of organiza-
tional politics on turnover intentions, citizenship behavior, and job
performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 20, 175–200.
Campbell, J. P., Gasser, M. B., & Oswald, F. L. (1996). The substantive
nature of job performance variability. In K. R. Murphy (Ed.), Individual
differences and behavior in organizations (pp. 258 –299). San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass.
Chan, D., & Schmitt, N. (2002). Situational judgment and job perfor-
mance. Human Performance, 15, 233–254.
Chawla, A. S. (2005). Retention vs. turnover: Opposite sides of the same
coin? Comparing employees’ motivation to stay with their turnover
intentions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Guelph,
Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Chen, X.-P. (2005). Organizational citizenship behavior: A predictor of
employee voluntary turnover. In D. L. Turnipseed (Ed.), Handbook of
organizational citizenship behavior (pp. 435– 454). New York: Nova
Science.
Chen, X.-P., Hui, C., & Sego, D. J. (1998). The role of organizational
citizenship behavior in turnover: Conceptualization and preliminary tests
of key hypotheses. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 922–931.
Chen, Z. X., Tsui, A. S., & Farh, J. L. (2002). Loyalty to supervisor vs.
organizational commitment: Relationships to employee performance in
China. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75,
339 –356.
Cohen, A. (1999). The relation between commitment forms and work
outcomes in Jewish and Arab culture. Journal of Vocational Behavior,
54, 371–391.
Coleman, V. I., & Borman, W. C. (2000). Investigating the underlying
structure of the citizenship performance domain. Human Resource Man-
agement Review, 10, 25– 44.
Conway, N., & Briner, R. B. (2002). Full-time versus part-time employ-
ees: Understanding the links between work status, the psychological
contract, and attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 279 –301.
Coole, D. R. (2007). Expansion and validation of the Political Skill
Inventory (PSI): An examination of the link between charisma, political
skill, and performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of
South Florida.
Cracraft, M. L., Ferro, G., Dorsey, D., & Nelson, J. (2007, April). Linking
individual-level technical, contextual, and adaptive performance to team
processes. Paper presented at the 22nd annual conference of the Society
for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New York.
Crede, M. (2005). Job attitudes: Tests of utility and position. Unpublished
doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.
Cropanzano, R., Howes, J. C., Grandey, A. A., & Toth, P. (1997). The
relationship of organizational politics and support to work behaviors,
attitudes, and stress. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 159 –180.
Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E., & Byrne, Z. S. (2003). The relationship of
emotional exhaustion to work attitudes, job performance, and organizational
citizenship behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 160 –169.
Dalal, R. S. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relationship between organi-
zational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1241–1255.
Dalal, R., Weiss, H., Lam, H., & Welch, E. (2006, May). Momentary
versus retrospective reports of mood, behavior, and performance. Paper
presented at the 21st annual conference of the Society for Industrial and
Organizational Psychology, Dallas, TX.
Deckop, J. R., Merriman, K. K., & Blau, G. (2004). Impact of variable risk
preferences on the effectiveness of control by pay. Journal of Occupa-
tional and Organizational Psychology, 77, 63– 80.
DeGroot, T., & Brownlee, A. L. (2006). Effect of department structure on
the organizational citizenship behavior– department effectiveness rela-
tionship. Journal of Business Research, 59, 1116 –1123.
Demerouti, E., Verbeke, W., & Bakker, A. B. (2005). Exploring the
relationship between multidimensional and multifaceted burnout con-
cept in self-rated performance. Journal of Management, 31, 186 –209.
Demuth, R. L. F. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of value expres-
sion in the workplace. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northern Illi-
nois University.
DeNisi, A. S., Cafferty, T. P., & Meglino, B. M. (1984). A cognitive view
of the performance appraisal process: A model and research proposi-
tions. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 33, 360 –396.
DiPaola, M. F., & Hoy, W. K. (2005). Organizational citizenship of
faculty and achievement of high school students. High School Journal,
88, 35– 44.
Donovan, D. T. (1999). Antecedents and consequences of the contact
employee’s service orientation: From personality traits to service be-
haviors. Unpublished dissertation, Oklahoma State University.
Dulebohn, J. H., Shore, L. M., Kunze, M., & Dookeran, D. (2005). The
differential impact of OCBs and influence tactics on leader reward
behavior and performance ratings over time. Organizational Analysis,
13, 73–90.
Duncan, K. A. B. (1994). Behavioral indicators of staff nurses’ organi-
zational and professional commitment. Unpublished doctoral disserta-
tion, University of Nebraska—Lincoln.
Dunford, B. B., Boss, A. D., & Boss, R. W. (2007, August). Doing well
by doing good: A trust perspective on corporate social responsibility.
Paper presented at the 67th annual conference of the Academy of
Management, Philadelphia.
Dunlop, P. D., & Lee, K. (2004). Workplace deviance, organizational
citizenship behavior, and business unit performance: The bad apples do
spoil the whole barrel. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 67– 80.
Ehrhart, M. G., Bliese, P. D., & Thomas, J. L. (2006). Unit-level OCB and
unit effectiveness: Examining the incremental effect of helping behavior.
Human Performance, 19, 159 –173.
Ehrhart, M. G., & Naumann, S. E. (2004). Organizational citizenship
behavior in work groups: A group norms approach. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 89, 960 –974.
Ellemers, N., de Gilder, D., & van den Heuvel, H. (1998). Career-oriented
versus team-oriented commitment and behavior at work. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 83, 717–730.
Erdogan, B. (2002). Leader–member exchange differentiation fairness:
Evidence for a new construct. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Uni-
versity of Illinois at Chicago.
Erez, A., LePine, J. A., & Elms, H. (2002). Effects of rotated leadership and
peer evaluation on the functioning and effectiveness of self-managed teams:
A quasi-experiment. Personnel Psychology, 55, 929 –948.
Farh, J. L., Earley, P. C., & Lin, S. C. (1997). Impetus for action: A cultural
analysis of justice and organizational citizenship behavior in Chinese
society. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 421– 444.
Farh, J. L., Hackett, R. D., & Liang, J. (2007). Individual-level cultural
values as moderators of perceived organizational support– employee
outcome relationships in China: Comparing the effects of power distance
and traditionality. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 715–729.
Farh, J. L., Zhong, C. B., & Organ, D. W. (2004). Organizational citizen-
ship behavior in the People’s Republic of China. Organization Science,
15, 241–253.
136 PODSAKOFF, WHITING, PODSAKOFF, AND BLUME
Felfe, J., Yan, W., & Six, B. (2006, August). The impact of cultural
differences on commitment and its influence on OCB, turnover, and
strain. Paper presented at the 66th annual conference of the Academy of
Management, Atlanta, GA.
Ferris, G. R., Witt, L. A., & Hochwarter, W. A. (2001). Interaction of
social skill and general mental ability on job performance and salary.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1075–1082.
Findley, H. M., Giles, W. F., & Mossholder, K. W. (2000). Performance
appraisal process and system facets: Relationships with contextual per-
formance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 634 – 640.
Fisher, C. D. (2002). Antecedents and consequences of real-time affective
reactions at work. Motivation and Emotion, 26, 3–30.
Flynn, A. A. (2000). Dimensions of faculty organizational commitment
related to tenure, performance and turnover intention. Unpublished
doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago.
Gavino, M. (2005). Understanding the impact of HR practices on em-
ployee attitudinal and behavioral outcomes: The role of POS. Unpub-
lished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago.
Gellatly, I. R., Meyer, J. P., & Luchak, A. A. (2006). Combined effects of
the three commitment components on focal and discretionary behaviors:
A test of Meyer and Herscovitch’s propositions. Journal of Vocational
Behavior, 69, 331–345.
George, J. M. (1990). Personality, affect, and behavior in groups. Journal
of Applied Psychology, 75, 107–116.
George, J. M. (1991). State or trait: Effects of positive mood on prosocial
behavior at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 299 –307.
George, J. M., & Bettenhausen, K. (1990). Understanding prosocial be-
havior, sales performance, and turnover: A group-level analysis in a
service context. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 698 –709.
George, J. M., & Brief, A. P. (1992). Feeling good, doing good: A
conceptual analysis of the mood at work– organizational spontaneity
relationship. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 310 –329.
George, J. M., & Jones, G. R. (1997). Organizational spontaneity in
context. Human Performance, 10, 153–170.
Gong, Y., Law, K. S., Chang, S., & Xin, K. R. (2006, August). HRM and
firm performance: Role of commitment, citizenship behaviors and job
satisfaction. Paper presented at the 66th annual conference of the Acad-
emy of Management, Atlanta, GA.
Graf, I. (1999). Perceived social support versus social embeddedness:
Effects of employee and organizational outcomes. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago.
Graham, J. W. (1989). Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct
redefinition, operationalization, and validation. Unpublished working
paper, Loyola University of Chicago.
Graham, J. W. (1991). An essay on organizational citizenship behavior.
Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 4, 249 –270.
Graham, J. W., & Van Dyne, L. (2006). Gathering information and exer-
cising influence: Two forms of civic virtue organizational citizenship be-
havior. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 18, 89 –109.
Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A meta-analysis of
antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator
tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of
Management, 26, 463– 488.
Griffin, M. A., Neal, A., & Neale, M. (2000). The contribution of task
performance and contextual performance to effectiveness: Investigating
the role of situational constraints. Applied Psychology: An International
ReviewPsychologie Appliquee: Revue Internationale, 49, 517–533.
Guzzo, R. A., Jackson, S. E., & Katzell, R. A. (1987). Meta-analysis
analysis. Research in Organizational Behavior, 9, 407– 442.
Hackett, R. D., Farh, J. L., Song, J. L., & Lapierre, L. M. (2003). LMX and
organizational citizenship behavior: Examining links within and across
Western and Chinese samples. In G. B. Graen (Ed.), Dealing with
diversity (pp. 219 –264). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
Halbesleben, J. R. B., & Bowler, W. M. (2007). Emotional exhaustion and
job performance: The mediating role of motivation. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 92, 95–106.
Hanlon, S. C., Meyer, D. G., & Taylor, R. R. (1994). Consequences of
gainsharing: A field experiment revisited. Group & Organization Man-
agement, 19, 87–111.
Hattrup, K., O’Connell, M. S., & Wingate, P. H. (1998). Prediction of
multidimensional criteria: Distinguishing task and contextual perfor-
mance. Human Performance, 11, 305–319.
Hepperlen, T. M. (2002). Leader–member exchange (LMX) or fulfillment?
The role of basic psychological needs in LMX relationships. Unpub-
lished doctoral dissertation, University of Nebraska—Lincoln.
Higgins, K. D. (2002). How organizational citizenship behavior influ-
ences group effectiveness. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northern
Illinois University.
Hoffi-Hofstetter, H., & Mannheim, B. (1999). Managers’ coping re-
sources, perceived organizational patterns, and responses during orga-
nizational recovery from decline. Journal of Organizational Behavior,
20, 665– 685.
Hoffman, B. J., Blair, C. A., Meriac, J. P., & Woehr, D. J. (2007).
Expanding the criterion domain? A quantitative review of the OCB
literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 555–566.
Holtom, B. C. (1999). Organizational attachment among core and
contingent workers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of
Washington.
Hom, P. W., Caranikas-Walker, F., Prussia, G. E., & Griffeth, R. W.
(1992). A meta-analytical structural equation analysis of a model of
employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 890 –909.
Homans, G. (1961). Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York:
Harcourt, Brace.
Howes, J. C. (1995). Total quality teams: How multiple levels of social
climate perceptions impact team member attitudes, behaviors, stress,
and team performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Colorado
State University.
Hui, C., Lam, S. S. K., & Law, K. K. S. (2000). Instrumental values of
organizational citizenship behavior for promotion: A field quasi-
experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 822– 828.
Hui, C., Lee, C., & Rousseau, D. M. (2004). Psychological contract and
organizational citizenship behavior in China: Investigating generaliz-
ability and instrumentality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 311–321.
Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1990). Methods of meta-analysis: Cor-
recting error and bias in research findings. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Ilies, R., Nahrgang, J. D., & Morgeson, F. P. (2007). Leader–member
exchange and citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 92, 269 –277.
Johnson, D. E., Erez, A., Kiker, D. S., & Motowidlo, S. J. (2002). Liking
and attributions of motives as mediators of the relationships between
individuals’ reputations, helpful behaviors, and raters’ reward decisions.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 808 – 815.
Johnson, R. E., Groff, K. W., & Taing, M. U. (in press). Nature of the
interactions among organizational commitments: Complementary, com-
petitive, or synergistic? British Journal of Management.
Jones, D. A. (2007, August). Corporate volunteer programs & employee
responses: How serving the community also serves the company. Paper
presented at the 67th annual conference of the Academy of Management,
Philadelphia.
Jo¨ reskog, K., & So¨ rbom, D. (2002). LISREL 8.52. Lincolnwood, IL:
Scientific Software International.
Judge, T. A., Thoreson, C. J., Bono, J. E., & Patton, G. K. (2001). The job
satisfaction–job performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative
review. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 376 – 407.
Karambayya, R. (1990). Contexts for organizational citizenship behavior:
Do high performing and satisfying units have better ‘citizens’? Working
paper, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Kernodle, T. A. (2007). Antecedents and consequences of organizational
137
CONSEQUENCES OF OCBS
citizenship behavior: A hierarchical linear modeling study. Unpublished
doctoral dissertation, Touro University International.
Ketchand, A. A. (1994). Aspects of organizational commitment in ac-
counting professionals. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of
Houston.
Kickul, J., Lester, S. W., & Finkl, J. (2002). Promise breaking during
radical organizational change: Do justice interventions make a differ-
ence? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 469 – 488.
Kidwell, R. E., Jr., Mossholder, K. W., & Bennett, N. (1997). Cohesiveness
and organizational citizenship behavior: A multilevel analysis using
work groups and individuals. Journal of Management, 23, 775–793.
Koh, W. L., Steers, R. M., & Terborg, J. R. (1995). The effects of
transformational leadership on teacher attitudes and student performance
in Singapore. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16, 319 –333.
Konovsky, M. A., & Organ, D. W. (1996). Dispositional and contextual
determinants of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organi-
zational Behavior, 17, 253–266.
Konovsky, M. A., & Pugh, S. D. (1994). Citizenship behavior and social
exchange. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 656 – 669.
Koys, D. J. (2001). The effects of employee satisfaction, organizational
citizenship behavior, and turnover on organizational effectiveness: A
unit-level, longitudinal study. Personnel Psychology, 54, 101–114.
Kraimer, M., Seibert, S., & Yuan, L. (2005, August). Linking mentoring
to employee loyalty: Empowerment and P-O fit as explanatory mecha-
nisms. Paper presented at the 65th annual conference of the Academy of
Management, Honolulu, HI.
Ladebo, O. J. (2005). Relationship between citizenship behaviors and
tendencies to withdraw among Nigerian agribusiness employees. Swiss
Journal of Psychology, 64, 41–50.
Lai, Y. M., & Lam, S. (2006, August). A multilevel examination of the
impact of organizational citizenship behavior on rated performance.
Paper presented at the 66th annual conference of the Academy of
Management, Atlanta, GA.
Lam, S. S., Hui, C., & Law, K. S. (1999). Organizational citizenship
behavior: Comparing perspectives of supervisors and subordinates
across four international samples. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84,
594 – 601.
Latham, G. P., & Skarlicki, D. P. (1995). Criterion-related validity of the
situational and patterned behavior description interviews with organiza-
tional citizenship behavior. Human Performance, 8, 67– 80.
Lauver, K. J., & Kristof-Brown, A. (2001). Distinguishing between em-
ployees’ perceptions of person–job and person– organization fit. Journal
of Vocational Behavior, 59, 454 – 470.
Lawrence, A. D. (2004). Screening for person–job fit: Incremental valid-
ity of a congruence based approach to assessment. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, University of Akron.
Lee, T. W., Mitchell, T. R., Sablynski, C. J., Burton, J. P., & Holtom,
B. C. (2004). The effects of job embeddedness on organizational citi-
zenship, job performance, volitional absences, and voluntary turnover.
Academy of Management Journal, 47, 711–722.
Lefkowitz, J. (2000). The role of interpersonal affective regard in super-
visory performance ratings: A literature review and proposed causal
model. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 7,
67– 85.
LePine, J. A., Erez, A., & Johnson, D. E. (2002). The nature and dimen-
sionality of organizational citizenship behavior: A critical review and
meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 52– 65.
LePine, J. A., & Van Dyne, L. (1998). Predicting voice behavior in work
groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 853– 868.
LePine, J. A., & Van Dyne, L. (2001). Voice and cooperative behavior as
contrasting forms of contextual performance: Evidence of differential
relationships with Big Five personality characteristics and cognitive
ability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 326 –336.
Liang, J. (2007, August). Bring leader consideration back in: Examining
a dual-path model. Paper presented at the 67th annual conference of the
Academy of Management, Philadelphia.
Lieberman, E. A. (2006). What’s fair is fair, or is it? The effects of
merit-related managerial behaviors and organizational policies on or-
ganizational justice perceptions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, City
University of New York.
Lindsay, D. R., & Baumann, M. R. (2007, April). Turnover, OCB, and
counterproductivity: Affective events theory and part-time employees.
Paper presented at the 22nd annual conference of the Society for Indus-
trial and Organizational Psychology, New York.
Linnehan, F. X. (1995). Examining the effectiveness of a career academy
program using multiple measures of job attitudes and job performance.
Unpublished dissertation, Temple University.
Liu, Y. (2005). Investigating turnover intention among emergency com-
munication specialists. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of
South Florida.
Lo, S., & Aryee, S. (2003). Psychological contract breach in a Chinese
context: An integrative approach. Journal of Management Studies, 40,
1005–1020.
Loughlin, C. A. (1998). Toward a model of healthy work for full-time,
part-time and contract employment. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
Queen’s University at Kingston, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Lovell, S. E., Kahn, A. S., Anton, J., Davidson, A., Dowling, E., Post, D., &
Mason, C. (1999). Does gender affect the link between organizational
citizenship behavior and performance evaluations? Sex Roles, 41, 469 – 478.
Lowery, C. M., & Krilowicz, T. J. (1994). Relationships among nontask
behaviors, rated performance, and objective performance measures. Psy-
chological Reports, 74, 571–578.
MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Ahearne, M. (1998). Some
possible antecedents and consequences of in-role and extra-role sales-
person performance. Journal of Marketing, 62, 87–98.
MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Fetter, R. (1991). Organizational
citizenship behavior and objective productivity as determinants of man-
agerial evaluations of salesperson’s performance. Organizational Behav-
ior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 123–150.
MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Fetter, R. (1993). The impact of
organizational citizenship behavior on evaluations of salesperson per-
formance. Journal of Marketing, 57, 70 – 80.
MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Paine, J. E. (1999). Do citizenship
behaviors matter more for managers than for salespeople? Journal of the
Academy of Marketing Science, 27, 396 – 410.
Malatesta, R. M. (1995). Understanding the dynamics of organizational
and supervisory commitment using a social exchange framework. Un-
published doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University.
Marrs, M. E. M. (1999). Antecedents and outcomes of verbal aggression
in the workplace. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Mis-
souri—Columbia.
Martinez, P. G., Randel, A., & Ramirez, R. R. (2005, August). Ethnic
citizenship behaviors, organizational citizenship behaviors, and ethnic
identity. Paper presented at the 65th annual conference of the Academy
of Management, Honolulu, HI.
Maslyn, J. M., & Fedor, D. B. (1998). Perceptions of politics: Does
measuring different foci matter? Journal of Applied Psychology, 84,
645– 653.
Mason, C. M., & Griffin, M. A. (2005). Group task satisfaction. Group &
Organization Management, 30, 625– 652.
Masterson, S. S., Lewis, K., Goldman, B. M., & Taylor, M. S. (2000).
Integrating justice and social exchange: The differing effects of fair
procedures and treatment on work relationships. Academy of Manage-
ment Journal, 43, 738 –748.
Mayer, D. M., & Ehrhart, M. G. (2005, April). OCB and service climate:
Examining multilevel antecedents of customer satisfaction. Paper pre-
sented at the 20th annual conference of the Society for Industrial and
Organizational Psychology, Los Angeles.
138 PODSAKOFF, WHITING, PODSAKOFF, AND BLUME
Mayer, R. C., & Schoorman, F. D. (1992). Predicting participation and
production outcomes through a two-dimensional model of organiza-
tional commitment. Academy of Management Journal, 35, 671– 684.
Millette, V. (2005). Designing volunteers’ tasks to maximize motivation,
satisfaction and performance: The impact of job characteristics on the
outcomes of volunteer involvement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Mohammed, S., Mathieu, J. E., & Bartlett, A. L. (2002). Technical-
administrative task performance, leadership task performance, and
contextual performance: Considering the influence of team- and
task-related composition variables. Journal of Organizational Behav-
ior, 23, 795– 814.
Moideenkutty, U., Blau, G., Kumar, R., & Nalakath, A. (2005). Relation-
ship of organizational citizenship behavior and objective productivity to
managerial evaluations of performance in India. International Journal of
Commerce & Management, 15, 221–229.
Mondore, S., Vandenberg, J. R., & Wallace, J. C. (2006, August). High
involvement management: An in-action group operationalization of high
involvement work. Paper presented at the 66th annual conference of the
Academy of Management, Atlanta, GA.
Moorman, R. H. (1991). Relationship between organizational justice and
organizational citizenship behaviors: Do fairness perceptions influence
employee citizenship? Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 845– 855.
Morrison, E. W., & Phelps, C. C. (1999). Taking charge at work: Extrarole
efforts to initiate workplace change. Academy of Management Journal,
42, 403– 419.
Mossholder, K. W., Settoon, R. P., & Henagan, S. C. (2005). A relational
perspective on turnover: Examining structural, attitudinal, and behav-
ioral predictors. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 607– 618.
Motowidlo, S. J., & Van Scotter, J. R. (1994). Evidence that task-perfor-
mance should be distinguished from contextual performance. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 79, 475– 480.
Muse, L. A. (2002). The implications of work-life benefits for employee
work–family conflict and job attitudes and behaviors. Unpublished doc-
toral dissertation, Auburn University.
Naumann, S. E., & Bennett, N. (2002). The effects of procedural justice
climate on work group performance. Small Group Research, 33, 361–377.
Nelson, C., & Ryan, A. M. (2005, April). Negative asymmetry and
coworker relations. Paper presented at the 20th annual conference of the
Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Los Angeles, CA.
Ng, K. Y., & Van Dyne, L. (2005). Antecedents and performance conse-
quences of helping behavior in work groups: A multilevel analysis.
Group & Organization Management, 30, 514 –540.
Niehoff, B. P., & Moorman, R. H. (1993). Justice as a mediator of the
relationship between methods of monitoring and organizational citizen-
ship behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 527–556.
Niles-Jolly, K. A. (2003). Organizational citizenship behavior and cus-
tomer service quality: A group-level study. Unpublished doctoral disser-
tation, University of Maryland, College Park.
Olkkonen, M.-E., & Lipponen, J. (2006). Relationships between organi-
zational justice, identification with organization and work unit, and
group-related outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision
Processes, 100, 202–215.
Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good
soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Organ, D. W. (1990). The motivational basis of organizational citizenship
behavior. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in orga-
nizational behavior (Vol. 12, pp. 43–72). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational citizenships behavior: It’s construct
cleanup time. Human Performance, 10, 85–97.
Organ, D. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (2006). Organiza-
tional citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents and consequences.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Organ, D. W., & Ryan, K. (1995). A meta-analytic review of attitudinal
and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior. Per-
sonnel Psychology, 48, 775– 802.
Paine, J. B., & Organ, D. W. (2000). The cultural matrix of organizational
citizenship behavior: Some preliminary conceptual and empirical obser-
vations. Human Resource Management Review, 10, 45–59.
Pearce, C. L., & Ensley, M. D. (2004). A reciprocal and longitudinal
investigation of the innovation process: The central role of shared vision
in product and process innovation teams (PPITs). Journal of Organiza-
tional Behavior, 25, 259 –278.
Perry, E. L., Kulik, C. T., & Zhou, J. (1999). A closer look at the effects
of subordinate–supervisor age differences. Journal of Organizational
Behavior, 20, 341–357.
Piccolo, R. F., & Colquitt, J. A. (2006). Transformational leadership and
job behaviors: The mediating role of core job characteristics. Academy
of Management Journal, 49, 327–340.
Piercy, N. F., Cravens, D. W., Lane, N., & Vorhies, D. W. (2006). Driving
organizational citizenship behaviors and salesperson in-role behavior per-
formance: The role of management control and perceived organizational
support. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34, 244 –262.
Pillai, R., Schriesheim, C. A., & Williams, E. S. (1999). Fairness percep-
tions and trust as mediators for transformational and transactional lead-
ership: A two-sample study. Journal of Management, 25, 897–933.
Ployhart, R. E., Wiechmann, D., Schmitt, N., Sacco, J. M., & Rogg, K.
(2003). The cross-cultural equivalence of job performance ratings. Hu-
man Performance, 16, 49 –79.
Podsakoff, P. M., Ahearne, M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1997). Organiza-
tional citizenship behavior and the quantity and quality of work group
performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 262–270.
Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1994). Organizational citizenship
behaviors and sales unit effectiveness. Journal of Marketing Research,
3, 351–363.
Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1997). Impact of organizational
citizenship behavior on organizational performance: A review and sug-
gestions for future research. Human Performance, 10, 133–151.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Bommer, W. H. (1996). A meta-
analysis of the relationships between Kerr and Jermier’s substitutes for
leadership and employee job attitudes, role perceptions, and perfor-
mance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 380 –399.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Hui, C. (1993). Organizational
citizenship behaviors and managerial evaluations of employee perfor-
mance: A review and suggestions for future research. In G. R. Ferris &
K. M. Rowland (Eds.), Research in personnel and human resources
management (Vol. 11, pp. 1– 40). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003).
Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the
literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology,
88, 879 –903.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R. (1990).
Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers’ trust in
leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Leadership
Quarterly, 1, 107–142.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G.
(2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the
theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research.
Journal of Management, 26, 513–563.
Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self reports in organizational
research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12, 531–544.
Potisarattana, K. (2000). Managers’ perception of employee commitment
in Thai organizations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Nova South-
eastern University.
Quintela, J. (2002). The effects of motivational fit on employee job
performance, work attitudes and intent to leave. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, Ohio State University.
Radwinsky, R. L. (1999). The effect of psychological contracts on the
139
CONSEQUENCES OF OCBS
performance of temporary employees. Unpublished doctoral disserta-
tion, University of Tulsa.
Rafferty, A. E., & Griffin, M. A. (2004). Dimensions of transformational
leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions. Leadership Quarterly,
15, 329 –354.
Randall, M. L., Cropanzano, R., Bormann, C. A., & Birjulin, A. (1999).
Organizational politics and organizational support as predictors of work
attitudes, job performance, and organizational citizenship behavior.
Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 159 –174.
Raver, J. L., & Gelfand, M. J. (2005). Beyond the individual victim:
Linking sexual harassment, team processes, and team performance.
Academy of Management Journal, 48, 387– 400.
Redman, T., & Snape, E. (2005). Unpacking commitment: Multiple
loyalties and employee behaviour. Journal of Management Studies, 42,
301–328.
Rever-Moriyama, S. D. (1996). Antecedents of organizational citizenship
and job search behaviours in university professors. Unpublished doc-
toral dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Richardson, H. A., & Vandenberg, R. J. (2005). Integrating managerial
perceptions and transformational leadership into a work-unit level model
of employee involvement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26,
561–589.
Rogg, K. L. (1997). Organizational commitment in the post-loyalty era:
Perceived organizational support, multiple commitments, and other an-
tecedents’ effects on turnover intentions and job performance. Unpub-
lished doctoral dissertation, Kansas State University.
Rotundo, M., & Sackett, P. R. (2002). The relative importance of task,
citizenship, and counterproductive performance to global ratings of job
performance: A policy-capturing approach. Journal of Applied Psychol-
ogy, 87, 66 – 80.
Salvaggio, A. N. (2003). To help or to leave: Person– group fit as a
correlate of aggregate organizational citizenship behavior and turnover.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College
Park.
Sammons, G. E. (1994). A study of the relationship between service
orientation, organizational citizenship behavior and service perfor-
mance in hotels. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State
University.
Sanchez, R. J. (2002). The role of trust, leader–member exchange, and
organizational justice in employee attitudes and behaviors: A laboratory
and field investigation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Portland State
University.
Schaubroeck, J., & Fink, L. S. (1998). Facilitating and inhibiting effects of job
control and social support on stress outcomes and role behavior: A contin-
gency model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 167–195.
Schnake, M. (1991). Organizational citizenship: A review, proposed
model, and research agenda. Human Relations, 44, 735–759.
Scholl, R. W., Cooper, E. A., & McKenna, J. F. (1987). Referent selection
in determining equity perceptions: Differential effects on behavioral and
attitudinal outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 40, 113–124.
Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., & Crant, J. M. (2001). What do proactive
people do? A longitudinal model linking proactive personality and
career success. Personnel Psychology, 54, 845– 874.
Sepulveda-Martinez, C. J. (2001). Relationship of organizational citizen-
ship behaviors and customer orientation to service quality and customer
satisfaction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Tulane University.
Shaw, J. D., Delery, J. E., & Abdulla, M. H. A. (2003). Organizational
commitment and performance among guest workers and citizens of an
Arab country. Journal of Business Research, 56, 1021–1030.
Shoenfelt, E. L., & Battista, L. (2004). A laboratory study of satisfaction
effects on mood state, withdrawal intentions, and organizational citizen-
ship behavior. Psychological Reports, 95, 803– 820.
Shore, L. M., Barksdale, K., & Shore, T. H. (1995). Managerial percep-
tions of employee commitment to the organization. Academy of Man-
agement Journal, 38, 1593–1615.
Shore, L. M., Tetrick, L. E., Lynch, P., & Barksdale, K. (2006). Social and
economic exchange: Construct development and validation. Journal of
Applied Social Psychology, 36, 837– 867.
Shore, L. M., Tetrick, L. E., Shore, T. H., & Barksdale, K. (2000).
Construct validity of measures of Becker’s side bet theory. Journal of
Vocational Behavior, 57, 428 – 444.
Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., & Near, J. P. (1983). Organizational citizen-
ship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychol-
ogy, 68, 655– 663.
Snape, E., Chan, A. W., & Redman, T. (2006). Multiple commitments in
the Chinese context: Testing compatibility, cultural, and moderating
hypotheses. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69, 302–314.
Stamper, C. L., & Van Dyne, L. (2001). Work status and organizational
citizenship behavior: A field study of restaurant employees. Journal of
Organizational Behavior, 22, 517–536.
Sun, L.-Y., Aryee, S., & Law, K. S. (2007). High-performance human
resource practices, citizenship behavior, and organizational perfor-
mance: A relational perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 50,
558 –577.
Taylor, S. E. (1991). Asymmetrical effects of positive and negative events:
The mobilization minimization hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 110,
67– 85.
Thompson, K. J. (2000). Charismatic leadership and its effects on team
cognitions, behaviors, and performance. Unpublished doctoral disserta-
tion, State University of New York at Buffalo.
Tiedemann, K. F. (2004). Integrity in military service: A leadership
impact study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix.
Tourigny, L., Baba, V. V., & Wang, X. (2006, August). Burnout and OCB
among airline employees in China: Proactive personality and absence
as moderators. Paper presented at the 66th annual conference of the
Academy of Management, Atlanta, GA.
Tremblay, M., & Wils, T. (2007). Influence of career-plateau on attitudes
and behaviors and the moderating role of self-plateauing. Manuscript
submitted for publication.
Turnipseed, D. L., & Rassuli, A. (2005). Performance perceptions of
organizational citizenship behaviours at work: A bi-level study among
managers and employees. British Journal of Management, 16, 231–244.
Turnley, W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2000). Re-examining the effects of
psychological contract violations: Unmet expectations and job dissatis-
faction as mediators. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 25– 42.
Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Botero, I. C. (2003). Conceptualizing employee
silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs. Journal of
Management Studies, 40, 1359 –1392.
Van Dyne, L., Cummings, L. L., & Parks, J. M. (1995). Extra-role
behaviors: In pursuit of construct and definitional clarity (A bridge over
muddied waters). In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in
organizational behavior (Vol. 17, pp. 215–285). Greenwich, CT: JAI
Press.
Van Dyne, L., Graham, J. W., & Dienesch, R. M. (1994). Organizational
citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, measurement, and valida-
tion. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 765– 802.
Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. (1998). Helping and voice extra-role
behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of
Management Journal, 41, 108 –119.
Van Dyne, L., & Pierce, J. L. (2004). Psychological ownership and
feelings of possession: Three field studies predicting employee attitudes
and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Be-
havior, 25, 439 – 459.
Van Scotter, J. R. (2000). Relationships of task performance and contex-
tual performance with turnover, job satisfaction, and affective commit-
ment. Human Resource Management Review, 10, 79 –95.
Van Scotter, J. R., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1996). Interpersonal facilitation
140 PODSAKOFF, WHITING, PODSAKOFF, AND BLUME
and job dedication as separate facets of contextual performance. Journal
of Applied Psychology, 81, 525–531.
Van Scotter, J. R., Motowidlo, S. J., & Cross, T. C. (2000). Effects of task
performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards. Journal
of Applied Psychology, 85, 526 –535.
Viswesvaran, C., & Ones, D. S. (1995). Theory testing: Combining psy-
chometric meta-analysis and structural equations modeling. Personnel
Psychology, 48, 865– 885.
Walz, S. M., & Niehoff, B. P. (2000). Organizational citizenship behav-
iors: Their relationship to organizational effectiveness. Journal of Hos-
pitality & Tourism Research, 24, 301–319.
Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Perceived organiza-
tional support and leader–member exchange: A social exchange per-
spective. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 82–111.
Werner, J. M. (1994). Dimensions that make a difference: Examining the
impact of in-role and extra-role behaviors on supervisory ratings. Jour-
nal of Applied Psychology, 79, 98 –107.
West, A. D. (2006). The impact of commitment to supervisor on organi-
zational justice, citizenship, and intentions to leave. Unpublished doc-
toral dissertation, Alliant International University, San Diego.
Whelly, D. C. (1995). Nurses’ perceptions of pay equity: A fairness
reaction model. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of
Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Whitener, E. M. (1990). Confusion of confidence intervals and credibility
intervals in meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 315–321.
Wilkinson, L. (2005). Gender stereotypes of citizenship performance and
their influence on organizational rewards. Unpublished doctoral disser-
tation, University of South Florida.
Williams, E. A. (1999). A field experimental investigation of relationship-
based mentoring training in team settings and team characteristics:
Effects on employee attitudes and work outcomes. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, University of Miami.
Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organiza-
tional commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role
behaviors. Journal of Management, 17, 601– 617.
Wittwer, W., & Wilson-Evered, E. (2006, August). Climate and person-
ality as predictors of employee satisfaction, commitment, performance
and turnover. Paper presented at the 66th annual conference of the
Academy of Management, Atlanta, GA.
Yen, H. R., & Niehoff, B. P. (2004). Organizational citizenship behaviors
and organizational effectiveness: Examining relationships in Taiwanese
banks. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34, 1617–1637.
Yoon, M. H., & Suh, J. (2003). Organizational citizenship behaviors and
service quality as external effectiveness of contact employees. Journal of
Business Research, 56, 597– 611.
Yun, S., Takeuchi, R., & Liu, W. (2007). Employee self-enhancement
motives and job performance behaviors: Investigating the moderating
effects of employee role ambiguity and managerial perceptions of em-
ployee commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 745–755.
Received July 16, 2007
Revision received May 16, 2008
Accepted June 2, 2008
141
CONSEQUENCES OF OCBS
... Les travaux scientifiques mené s ces vingt derniè res anné es dans le champ d'é tude du comportement organisationnel ré vè lent que l'adoption par les salarié s de comportements positifs à l'é gard de leur organisation, tels que les comportements citoyens, conditionne l'efficience de cette derniè re (Ocampo et al., 2018 ;Podsakoff et al., 2014). En effet, ces comportements sont associé s à un accroissement de la performance des salarié s, de la satisfaction des clients et des profits des employeurs (Podsakoff et al., 2009). Ils sont é galement lié s à une ré duction des coû ts financiers, de l'absenté isme, des intentions de dé part et du dé part effectif des personnels (Podsakoff et al., 2009). ...
... En effet, ces comportements sont associé s à un accroissement de la performance des salarié s, de la satisfaction des clients et des profits des employeurs (Podsakoff et al., 2009). Ils sont é galement lié s à une ré duction des coû ts financiers, de l'absenté isme, des intentions de dé part et du dé part effectif des personnels (Podsakoff et al., 2009). Cerner les anté cé dents organisationnels des comportements citoyens constitue donc pour les organisations du travail un enjeu straté gique majeur pour optimiser leur fonctionnement. ...
... ex. Clark et al., 2014 ;Podsakoff et al., 2009), aucune é tude n'a à ce jour examiné les relations entre ces pratiques appré hendé es au travers du construit inté gratif des POV et les comportements citoyens des personnels ainsi que leur intention de rester dans l'organisation. ...
Article
Résumé Cette étude avait pour objectif d’explorer les effets des pratiques organisationnelles vertueuses sur les comportements citoyens envers l’organisation et l’intention des salariés d’y rester ainsi que de tester le rôle médiateur de l’adéquation personne-organisation dans ces relations. Au total, 290 salariés de différents secteurs d’activité ont répondu au questionnaire. Les résultats ont révélé, d’une part, que ces pratiques avaient des effets positifs sur les comportements citoyens et l’intention de rester dans l’organisation et, d’autre part, que l’adéquation personne-organisation médiait, de manière respective, partiellement et totalement ces relations. Les résultats de cette étude, consacrée au construit novateur des pratiques organisationnelles vertueuses et à leurs relations avec des attitudes et comportements professionnels, suggèrent diverses pistes de recherche et d’actions qui sont discutées.
... Job satisfaction has been associated with overall customer satisfaction and increased quality of service (Choi and Joung, 2017). Enhanced OCB's and employee participation have been associated with improved work performance (Podsakoff, Ahearne and MacKenzie, 1997), task performance and organisational outcomes (Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff and Blume, 2009). ...
... Job satisfaction has been related to improved performance and decreased turnover intentions (Azharudeen and Arulrajah, 2018). An improvement in OCB has been associated with achieving organisational outcomes (Podsakoff et al., 2009). Therefore, South African managers and organisations who intend to improve organisational commitment, reduce intentions to quit, and improve job satisfaction and OCB should note the empirical results of this study. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
ABSTRACT The government is committed to improving the health system by providing universal coverage to all South Africans as articulated in national health policies. The biggest threat facing the health sector today is the shortage of well-trained healthcare workers and the increasing demand for healthcare services. A quantitative study was used to examine the role of task-shifting as response to human resource crisis facing the Ngwelezana Tertiary Hospital in KwaZulu-Natal. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests of association and the Cramer’s V test. The results show that task-shifting was adopted to address staff shortages, delays in serving patients, long waiting periods for patients, increased risks of error and patient mortality. However, task-shifting presented its own challenges such as legal and professional risks and staff morale issues. The paper concludes that task shifting should be used as a relief measure for reducing the impact of staff shortages in hospitals.
... Although researchers have begun to emphasize stress as an important antecedent of prosociality, only a few studies have investigated whether stressed individuals are still prosocially motivated and willing to help others (e.g., Passarelli & Buchanan, 2020;Sollberger et al., 2016;von Dawans et al., 2019). The present study addresses this issue by investigating whether and when acute stress responses result in lower motivation and willingness to help others, as being prosocial benefits individuals, organizations, and society (e.g., Podsakoff et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
To date, only a few studies have examined whether and when stressed individuals are still prosocially motivated and willing to help others, which is in contrast to the relevance and importance that helping others has for our society. The present study investigates the impact of affective and biopsychological acute stress responses on prosociality (prosocial motivation, helping behavior) under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, it was examined whether this relationship is affected by individuals' current life stress and the cognitive ability to keep stress-related thoughts at bay. To induce acute stress responses (heart rate, negative affect, salivary alpha-amylase, cortisol), 55 individuals (28 women, M = 24 years old, SD = 4.53) were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Current life stress (cortisol) was assessed over two days of participants' everyday lives. Thought control ability was assessed with the think/no-think paradigm and was additionally manipulated after the acute stress intervention (TSST) via instructions. The results showed that acute stress was positively associated with prosociality. Specifically, negative affect was positively related to prosocial motivation and salivary alpha-amylase was positively associated with helping behavior. Current life stress moderated the relationship between salivary cortisol and helping behavior: the association was positive at low levels of current life stress. The instruction to control one's thoughts but not participants' general ability to do so reduced stress responses (negative affect). In sum, the findings suggest that prosociality increases following acute stress and that this effect depends on the level of current life stress. Additionally, adopting the strategy of controlling stress-related thoughts was found to be promising for attenuating individuals' stress responses.
... Because of its effect on work units' competitiveness and versatility, OCB has received substantial scholarly interest (N. P. Podsakoff et al., 2009). The essence of OCB has long been discussed and in particular, its dimensionality (P. ...
... Second, the positive effects of help-giving have been well established by previous studies (see Podsakoff et al., 2009 for a review), while recent research finds that helpgiving may also produce negative effects (e.g., interfering with work goal progress, triggering deviant behavior) (Klotz & Bolino, 2013;Koopman et al., 2016;Yam et al., 2017). Thus, there is a need to further determine why and when help-giving could lead to totally different results. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study adopts an intrapersonal perspective to explore how and when employees shift roles from help giver to help seeker by investigating the relationship between their help-giving and following help-seeking behavior. Based on self-regulation theory, we hypothesize two contradictory psychological processes (i.e., consistency vs. licensing) via which employees determine whether to seek help after giving help. Importantly, we differentiate autonomous help-seeking from dependent help-seeking and propose stronger effects of help-giving on dependent help-seeking. Further, we identify leader respect as a moderator to solve the opposite effects of employees’ help-giving on their subsequent help-seeking indicated by the two contradictory mechanisms. Results of two field studies consistently showed that the negative (positive) relationship between help-giving and dependent help-seeking was serially mediated by personal reputation and reputation maintenance concerns (perceived increase of moral credits and help-seeking justification). Results regarding autonomous help-seeking were inconsistent and help-giving only positively affected autonomous help-seeking via perceived increase of moral credits and help-seeking justification in Study 2. Leader respect weakened the positive (in Study 1) but strengthened the negative relationship (in Study 1 and 2). We discuss theoretical implications for helping literature, self-regulation theory, and moral behavior research.
... Because of its effect on work units' competitiveness and versatility, OCB has received substantial scholarly interest (N. P. Podsakoff et al., 2009). The essence of OCB has long been discussed and in particular, its dimensionality (P. ...
Article
Full-text available
Organizations are under pressure to explore innovative sustainability practices that will enable organizations to handle the deteriorating issues of biodiversity and social inequality. Stern and Dietz’ model offered a set of values with which organizations can create sustainability. This study’s main purpose was to explore how Stern and Dietz’ model underpin the various dimensions of workplace spirituality and organizational citizenship behavior to accomplish corporate sustainability. To achieve the objective of the study, the previous literature was reviewed to construct a conceptual framework. This conceptual model is comprised of three phases egoistic, social altruistic, and biospheric. Based on prior literature, various dimensions of workplace spirituality and organizational citizenship behavior were underpinned to accomplish corporate sustainability. Even though this concept sets out basic guidelines. However relevant knowledge should be regarded in order to reconcile these steps in different instances. This article provides a systematic review of the Stern and Dietz value model to achieve various aspects of organizational sustainability. A constructive framework was developed to create corporate sustainability by incorporating workplace spirituality and organizational citizenship behavior into the context of the Stern Dietz’ value model. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed in this study.
Article
Based on cognitive dissonance theory, this study aims to test good soldier syndrome regarding the relationship among compulsory citizenship behavior, job engagement, emotion regulation, and job performance so as to promote sustainable Human Resource Management (HRM). The sample, which applied the purposive sampling method, comprised 89 supervisors and 304 subordinates who work from 4-star and 5-star hotels in Taiwan. The results showed that the relevantly negative effect of employees’ performance is caused by compulsory citizenship behavior, that job engagement mediates the relationship between compulsory citizenship behavior and job performance, and that the indirect effect between compulsory citizenship behavior and job performance via job engagement is moderated by emotion regulation. Based on the findings of this study, this paper provides managerial implications, limitations of the current study, and future research suggestions.
Article
The study contributes to the management control system (MCS), environmental and behavioural reaction literature by examining the mediating role of employee environmental citizenship behaviour on the association between the interactive and diagnostic use of eco‐control with eco‐innovation. Based on an empirical analysis of 406 Australian organisations, the results indicate that employee environmental citizenship behaviour mediates the effect of both the interactive and diagnostic use of eco‐control on eco‐innovation (specifically, eco‐product innovation). The findings highlight the importance of eco‐controls and employee behaviour, specifically employee environmental citizenship behaviour, in influencing eco‐innovation.
Article
The unprecedented impact of COVID-19 on the global economy as well as on the academic literature. Since early 2020, management researchers have made exceptional efforts to extend our understanding of the pandemic’s effect on consumption, sourcing, the workplace, and corporate strategies. The present study uses a bibliometric design to analyze the extensive database of COVID-19 studies in management literature generated over a 2-year period. The analysis focused on the performance of research constituents, thematic analysis of the literature, categorization of the themes at a societal, organizational, and individual level, and finally, a deep analysis of future research calls in the body of literature.
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to explore the relationship between factual autonomy (FA), organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and Counterproductive work behaviour (CWB) in industry workers, possibly mediated by burnout. Participants included 600 industry workers (300 from local and 300 from multinational industries), age 25 through 40 years, with a minimum experience of one year of working on the same position. Organizational Citizenship Behavior Checklist (OCB-C), Factual Autonomy Scale (FAS), Counterproductive Work Behavior Checklist (CWB-C), and Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM) were used to collect data from the participants. The results indicated that, more FA is likely to result in significantly more OCB, significantly lesser CWB and significantly lesser burnout in industry workers. Similarly, an increase in burnout is likely to predict a significant decrease in OCB and significant increase in CWB of industry workers. Further, burnout significantly mediated the relationship between FA and OCB as well as FA and CWB. In a rapidly changing post-covid world, such studies are very important to inform policy makers and have important implications for industrial/organizational psychologists and consultants like defining the limit of autonomy for industry workers, keeping a check on burnout and CWB while striving for more OCB.
Article
Full-text available
This field study investigated whether perceived team support and team commitment relate to employee outcomes differently than perceived organizational support and organizational commitment. A LISREL analysis was conducted on data from 380 manufacturing plant employees and 9 supervisors. Job performance was related to team commitment; intention to quit was related to organizational commitment ; and organizational citizenship behavior was related to both team and organizational commitment. Commitment mediated the relationships between support and the outcome variables.
Book
Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature, Antecedents, and Consequences examines the vast amount of work that has been done on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in recent years as it has increasingly evoked interest among researchers in organizational psychology. No doubt some of this interest can be attributed to the long-held intuitive sense that job satisfaction matters. Authors Dennis W. Organ, Philip M. Podsakoff, and Scott B. MacKenzie offer conceptual insight as they build upon the various works that have been done on the subject and seek to update the record about OCB.
Article
A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate more accurately the bivariate relationships between leadership behaviors, substitutes for leadership, and subordinate attitudes, and role perceptions and performance, and to examine the relative strengths of the relationships between these variables. Estimates of 435 relationships were obtained from 22 studies containing 36 independent samples. The findings showed that the combination of the substitutes variables and leader behaviors account for a majority of the variance in employee attitudes and role perceptions and a substantial proportion of the variance in in-role and extra-role performance; on average, the substitutes for leadership uniquely accounted for more of the variance in the criterion variables than did leader behaviors.
Article
The rapid growth of research on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) has resulted in some conceptual confusion about the nature of the construct, and made it difficult for all but the most avid readers to keep up with developments in this domain. This paper critically examines the literature on organizational citizenship behavior and other, related constructs. More specifically, it: (a) explores the conceptual similarities and differences between the various forms of "citizenship" behavior constructs identified in the literature; (b) summarizes the empirical findings of both the antecedents and consequences of OCBs; and (c) identifies several interesting directions for future research.