Cypermethrin induced: In vivo inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase activity in functionally different tissues of the freshwater teleost, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry (Impact Factor: 0.83). 08/2009; 91(6):1175 - 1182. DOI: 10.1080/02772240802577282


Effects of cypermethrin at different concentrations and exposure periods were investigated on the freshwater fish, Labeo rohita, to establish inhibitory effect of pesticide on acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity and associated behavioral changes. Fish were exposed to 1/7th (0.57 µg L-1) and 1/12th (0.33 µg L-1) of the lethal concentration (4 µg L-1) of cypermethrin for a period of 1, 7, or 14 days and allowed to recover for a further 7 days. Maximal inhibition in AChE activity in exposed fish was found in brain followed by muscle, gill, and liver on day 14 at both sublethal concentrations of cypermethrin. Recovery showed a rise in AChE activity but significantly decreased compared to controls. Depression of AChE activity suggests decreased cholinergic transmission and consequent accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) in tissues leading to cessation of nerve impulses. This led to behavioral and morphological changes due to impaired neurophysiology in fish. Fish in toxic media exhibited erratic, and darting swimming movements, hyperexcitability, and loss of equilibrium and these symptoms persisted even during recovery.

Download full-text


Available from: S R Marigoudar, Mar 10, 2014
  • Source
    • "Their high toxicity and long persistence in the sediment were the causes for massive eel deaths reported before in Europe (Bálint et al., 1997). Cypermethrin is a potent type II pyrethroid pesticide that produces long delay in sodium channel inactivation leading to persistent depolarization of the nerve membrane (Enstey, 2007), presenting an adverse effect, as a potent neurotoxin, on several teleost species (Kumar et al., 2009; Marigoudar et al., 2009; Shashikumar and Rajini, 2010; Suvetha et al., 2010; Shi et al., 2011). Moreover, permethrin, a type I pyrethroid pesticide whose neurotoxicity is induced through repetitive neuronal discharge and prolonged negative after potential (Enstey, 2007), presents high toxicity for aquatic organisms. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of two pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin and permethrin, on juvenile Senegalese sole , Solea senegalensis , were assessed. For this purpose, LC50 at 24 h and 72 h were determined as 500 μg L -1 and 900 μgL -1, respectively. The specimens were divided into 5 experimental groups exposed to: i) ethanol vehicle in seawater (control), ii) 1/25 of cypermethrin LC 50 (20 μg L -1 ), iii) 1/10 of cypermethrin LC 50 (50 μg L -1 ), iv) 1/25 ofpermethrin LC 50 (36 μg L -1 ) and v) 1/10 of permethrin LC 50 (90 μg L -1 ) during 10 days. At the end of the experiment, gill and hepatic samples were obtained for studying the expression patterns of different enzyme genes related to toxicity and osmoregulation, namely glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases1 and 2 (GAPDH -1 and 2), and Na+, K+- ATPase subunits α and β (NKA α and β). Both pyrethroid insecticides enhancedgill GAPDH -1, NKA -α and NKA -β expressions. However, hepatic responses were less prominent. The low dose of cypermethrin decreased GAPDH -2 expressions. Also, the lowest permethrin dose decreased GAPDH -2 expression. These results indicate that pyrethroids induce some degree of oxidative stress in Solea senegalensis specimens led to an osmotic imbalance, activating- mainly at branchial level - different antioxidant and osmoregulatory enzyme genes.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
  • Source
    • "The highly decreased brain AChE activity shown by Group B fishes might be due to the inhibitory effect of cypermethrin. Our results are in agreement with those obtained in Labeo rohita (Marigoudar et al. 2009; Das and Mukherjee 2003) and Channa punctatus (Kumar et al. 2009), where exposure to cypermethrin showed reduced brain AChE activity. ATPases, a membrane bound enzyme group, are responsible for the movements of different ions across the cell membrane. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 60-day experiment was carried out to study the effect of sub-lethal concentration of cypermethrin (1/10th of LC(50)) exposure on haematological and biochemical parameters of the Indian major carp, Catla catla fingerlings. Under exposure, the total erythrocyte count, total leucocyte count, haemoglobin content and haematocrit were decreased. All the studied serum parameters viz. total serum protein, albumin, globulin contents and albumin-globulin ratio were significantly decreased in cypermethrin-exposed fishes. A marked increase was recorded in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in liver, whereas lactate dehydrogenase activity of muscle and acetylcholine esterase activity in brain were inhibited in cypermethrin-exposed fish. The membrane transport enzymes (total adenosine triphosphatase, sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase and magnesium adenosine triphosphatase) activities were decreased significantly in the gills of C. catla exposed to sub-lethal concentration of cypermethrin. The present study indicates that sub-lethal exposure of C. catla fingerlings to cypermethrin alters the haematological and biochemical parameters.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bifenthrin is an insecticide, used extensively on some crops, including corn. Roughly 70 % of all US-grown hops and raspberries are treated with bifenthrin. The current study on bifenthrin was undertaken to investigate the potential alterations in biochemical parameters, induced by sub-acute oral exposure of bifenthrin, in goats. The animals were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (n = 3) received only tap water and served as control, whereas, Group B goats (n = 4) received bifenthrin by gavage (Telstar 10 EC) at the dose rate of 5 mg Kg−1 body weight for 28 consecutive days. Bifenthrin exposed group showed significant alterations in the enzyme biochemical parameters. The activities of erythrocyte cholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase reduced significantly from 7th day and 28th day of bifenthrin exposure, respectively. The activity of plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase increased significantly from the 21st day of bifenthrin exposure. The activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase increased significantly from the 14th day of bifenthrin exposure. All these parameters returned to the non-significant levels by 7th day of post-exposure period. Non-significant alterations in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and plasma proteins were also observed. The current study thus reveals that sub-acute oral administration of bifenthrin produces reversible liver damage.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India - Section B: Biological Sciences