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Abstract

This paper explores the evolution of a trading zone by organizing the case study of turtle excluder devices within the model proposed by Collins et al. (2007). The case study offers evidence that trading zones do evolve and that the concepts of enforced and fractionated trading zones hold practical utility for describing and defining the complexities of actual exchanges. In this case a trading zone evolved from enforced to fractionated and ultimately diverged into two trading zones. For each step of the evolution I describe the forces that drove these transitions. Finally, I present an adapted trading zone model that is conceptually a better fit for the turtle excluder device case study.

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... In cooperative research there is exchange across the social boundary between scientists and fishers, as well as their different domains of expertise (Johnson 2011). These and other industry-science engagements (Jenkins 2010) can be analyzed in relation to understanding of boundary objects and boundary work. The underling need or problem inspiring a particular cooperative research project, such as unintended 'bycatch' or stock depletion, can function as a boundary object, as can the methods, protocols, and instruments of the research effort, such as fish tags, at sea surveys, or specialized fishing nets. ...
... On the other hand, enforced trading zones occur where heterogeneity remains among the parties; in this situation exchange occurs, but it is forced at least on one side. It can be forced, for example, through " institutional power, " ( Jenkins 2010) similar to boundary work described above where one group claims authority to determine what counts as science and non-science. The enforced trading zone can also come about when one group is encouraged or pressured to collaborate with another group ( Jenkins 2010). ...
... It can be forced, for example, through " institutional power, " ( Jenkins 2010) similar to boundary work described above where one group claims authority to determine what counts as science and non-science. The enforced trading zone can also come about when one group is encouraged or pressured to collaborate with another group ( Jenkins 2010). Finally, fractionated trading zones are highly collaborative and heterogeneous. ...
Article
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Understanding how industry-science collaborations work and how the resulting knowledge is used is critical for improving the incorporation of fishers' knowledge in policy-making. We use the concept of 'trading zones' to analyze a collaborative effort to integrate fishers' and scientists' expertise in the Northeast U.S.: the Trawl Survey Advisory Panel. The aim of this collaboration was to improve the production of knowledge for fisheries management by developing a new and improved trawl system (survey net and gear) for the routine data-gathering survey carried out by the federal government. The collaboration was expected to increase the legitimacy and credibility of the science by increasing transparency through a participatory process that made use of fishers' contributory knowledge. We describe how this collaboration shifted among “trading zones,” as well as the role of boundary processes in this transition. Although the government scientists invested heavily in the collaboration, they were ultimately not able keep the process going, as industry members left, sensing that their expertise was not appreciated, boundaries had been erected, and the trading zone for genuine collaboration was closed.
... The papers often feature retrospective application of SEE concepts to explain past events in science and science-policy decision making (i.e. decisions that pertain to matters of science or science policy regardless of whether the decision is made by a scientist or science policymaker) (Boyce, 2006;Carolan, 2006;Collins and Evans, 2002;Evans and Plows, 2007;Jenkins, 2007Jenkins, , 2010aRibeiro, 2007;Weinel, 2007). In some cases the articles are derived from the author's experience as a participant in the event (Collins, 2007;Collins and Evans, 2002;Collins and Sanders, 2007;Shrager, 2007). ...
... At their heart fisheries management conflicts are often about the implications that scientific findings and technological regulations hold for fishing communities. There are several case studies in the literature focusing on SEE and fisheries management (Jenkins, 2007(Jenkins, , 2010aJohnson, 2011;Johnson and McCay, 2012). This paper will draw on this subset of the SEE literature, examining how SEE helps explain past failures of collaborative efforts in fisheries management, and how SEE might be enhanced with future research. ...
... The analytical review of applied SEE literature showed that the utility of interactional expertise for improving collaboration is mediated by values, traditions, respect, and trust. A couple of case studies (Carolan, 2006;Collins and Sanders, 2007) have shown that the inclusion of interactional expertise into a science decisionmaking process increased communication and was sufficient for improving the process, while other case studies (Jenkins, 2007(Jenkins, , 2010aJohnson, 2011;Johnson and McCay, 2012) have shown that interactional expertise only led to a brief improvement that was not ultimately sustained. Among this group of case studies the defining difference was the pre-existing and shared culture of values, traditions, and mutual respect or the lack thereof. ...
... Yhtäältä se nähdään varsin yksinkertaisesti ulkoa tulleesta tarpeesta tai ulkoisten voimien asettamasta tilanteesta johtuvaksi kontingentin fokuksen syntymäksi (esim. Galison ja Stump 1996;Galison 1997a;Fuller 2006;Jenkins 2010), toisaalta ikään kuin itsestään tai diffuusien voimien aikaansaamaksi tiivistyväksi prosessiksi (esim. Mehalik 2010; Gorman ja Spohrer 2010). ...
... Collins ym. 2010;Jenkins 2010;Kahila-Tani 2013) pitävät erilaisten asetelmien syntyä pitkälti vaihdon vyöhykkeelle itselleen ulkoisena, eivätkä tarjoa selitystä siihen, miten tiettyyn asetelmaan päädytään. ...
... myös Collins ym. 2010;Jenkins 2010;Kahila-Tani 2015). ks. ...
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... In fact, a number of scholars have already extended TZs theory as we do. For example, Fuller (2006) and Jenkins (2010) focus on environmental policy and management, and Gorman et al. (2013) focus on the normative introduction of ethicists and social scientists into scientific laboratories. The latter is particularly interesting because it links successful normative use of TZs to the existence of a 'common goal'. ...
... Are there different kinds of TZ? How do TZs change or evolve? A number of scholars have engaged with such questions (Collins et al. 2007;Gorman 2002Gorman , 2005Gorman , 2010Gorman , 2011Gorman and Mehalik 2002;Gorman et al. 2004, Gorman et al. 2009Jenkins 2010;Kellogg et al. 2006;Mills and Huber 2005;Ribeiro 2007;Balducci and Mäntysalo 2013;Fuller 2006). Their work builds on Galison's approach and goes beyond by arguing that TZs can pass through different states, classes or stages over time. ...
Article
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Responsible innovation (RI) is gathering momentum as an academic and policy debate linking science and society. Advocates of RI in research policy argue that scientific research should be opened up at an early stage so that many actors and issues can steer innovation trajectories. If this is done, they suggest, new technologies will be more responsible in different ways, better aligned with what society wants, and mistakes of the past will be avoided. This paper analyses the dynamics of RI in policy and practice and makes recommendations for future development. More specifically, we draw on the theory of ‘trading zones’ developed by Peter Galison and use it to analyse two related processes: (i) the development and inclusion of RI in research policy at the UK’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC); (ii) the implementation of RI in relation to the Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering (SPICE) project. Our analysis reveals an RI trading zone comprised of three quasi-autonomous traditions of the research domain – applied science, social science and research policy. It also shows how language and expertise are linking and coordinating these traditions in ways shaped by local conditions and the wider context of research. Building on such insights, we argue that a sensible goal for RI policy and practice at this stage is better local coordination of those involved and we suggest ways how this might be achieved.
... The idea of a locally bounded cooperative solution based on a limited set of issues is found in many trading zone descriptions (e.g. Fuller, 2010;Jenkins, 2010;Gorman et al., 2009;Gustafsson, 2009). Notions of the evolutionary nature of the trading , endorsed by Collins et al. (2007) and further developed by e.g. ...
... Notions of the evolutionary nature of the trading , endorsed by Collins et al. (2007) and further developed by e.g. Jenkins (2010), attempt to increase the descriptive scope of the trading zone concept. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we explore the applicability of the trading zone approach by addressing the complexities that frame and penetrate all contested planning issues. Planning issues are thoroughly political, and the ‘political’ is thoroughly complex. The complexities in planning include not only issues of ontological and epistemological differences about what should be done and what is a ‘good city’ but also questions such as what kind of processes of decision making, information gathering and valuation should be incorporated in planning. By addressing the political, communicative and technical ‘dimensions’ of planning through two illustrative planning cases, we discuss how trading zone as a concept resonates with these complexities and whether it can bring theoretical and practical insights into planning. We find the nature of planning to be often more complex than the illustrations of trading zone formation thus far have portrayed. Hence, complexities may restrain the applicability of the trading zone concept as a planning tool. Overcoming the seemingly irreconcilable differences between actors in any planning case calls for creative, dialogical, locally sensitive and flexible planning. These issues are at the heart of the trading zone approach. Therefore, the trading zone approach can be suitable in a range of descriptive and normative uses within planning, when applied with due attention to different aspects of complexity.
... Differences emerged from the cross-case analysis based on whether the participant was from the pilot compartment (PC) group or from any other group. At this stage, the authors reviewed relevant literature regarding cross-disciplinary teamwork to make sense of the results and to identify additional categories relevant to this effect [21,22,[34][35][36][37][38]. Again, peer debriefing was used to discuss possible researcher bias within the results and any competing hypotheses. ...
... Galison described it as "local coordination despite vast global differences" ( [35] p. 783). Trading zones originated with Galison's descriptions of interactions among subcultures of physicists and engineers [35] and have since been used to examine engineering teams within NASA [37], the development of Earth systems science management [36], and the evolution of coordination among diverse stakeholder groups [38]. ...
Article
Given the importance of stakeholder considerations to the aircraft’s overall mission and lifecycle performance, this work examines how stakeholder requirements are currently incorporated into the aircraft design process. A case study within an aircraft design firm found that human factors specialists are designated to address specific stakeholder considerations within the design process. This research explores how the perspectives of these specialists are integrated into aircraft design teams. Accounts from 25 semistructured interviews were analyzed using qualitative data analysis techniques. The results identify differences between the integration of stakeholder considerations within the pilot compartment group compared to other design groups. These differences can be described through six conditions related to group structure and goals, approaches to cross-disciplinary work, and shared language and mediums of translation among disciplines. These results highlight how to promote the integration of stakeholder concerns in complex systems design through the structure of design teams and groups, their goals, their resources, the choice of team members, and training for future and current design team members. See more: http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/1.C032796
... After its initial introduction in 1997, theorizing around the trading zone concept has continued by Galison (2010) and others (Collins and Evans, 2002;Gorman, 2002;Collins et al., 2007), and the concept has been shown to be useful in various fields (e.g. Baird and Cohen, 1999;Allenby, 2004Allenby, , 2010Fuller, 2006;Jenkins, 2010;Mehalik, 2010). Next, I will briefly introduce the metaphor and then explain its relevance to this study. ...
Article
Policy deliberation is considered an integral part of good policy-making. In many policy sectors, however, the processes of participation are not developed enough to support the potential for policy deliberation. Expert deliberation carried out as a part of a wider policy process creates a challenging situation because participants are simultaneously expected to solve policy problems collectively while coping with the diverse interests of various stakeholder groups. In this article, I evaluate expert participation in three sequences of a waste policy reformulation process. Two of the sequences represent formal expert participation and the third a more informal one. Of particular interest in the evaluation is the participants’ ability to produce novel solutions for politically sensitive policy problems. The analytical framework for the evaluation is built on the trading zone metaphor inspired by Peter Galison's work. The results of the study indicate that the formal sequences of expert participation were characterized by the strategic behaviour of the participants, which made knowledge networking and the generation of novel ideas difficult, whereas the more informal sequence that was organized around one issue at a time was more capable of producing solutions to long-standing policy problems. Additionally, the sequences with more formal participation did not contain the elements of interactional expertise associated with successful knowledge networking. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment
... Some reptile species pose no threat to human life, yet still come into conflict with humans because conservation efforts interfere with socioeconomic activities. A particularly contentious conflict arose when five species of sea turtles in the United States were protected by the Endangered Species Act and Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs) became mandatory to prevent sea turtle drowning in shrimp trawls (Moberg and Dyer, 1994;Jenkins, 2010). Years of collaboration between governmental agencies and the shrimping industry were required to develop TEDs that were both effective and easy to use (Jenkins, 2012). ...
Chapter
The future for the Reptilia will be one of continued discovery of the extant diversity of species in every group and continued challenges for their conservation. Most species will persist, albeit in smaller and increasingly fragmented geographic ranges, and highly vulnerable species will require active conservation measures to ensure their survival. There are more than 10,500 species of reptiles, up from 8,700 less than 10 years ago. Transfer of laboratory techniques, computational resources, and access to literature to herpetologists throughout the world is fueling the increase in systematic studies of reptiles. The bulk of reptiles are the squamates, lizards and snakes, with impressive diversity on most continents. Habitat loss, landscape fragmentation, exploitation, invasive species, environmental contamination, and global warming are persistent challenges to all biodiversity, including reptiles. Endemism, ecological specialization, and restricted ranges generally make species more vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances. Moreover, the natural history information that is so important for informing conservation aims is lacking for most newly described forms, whether they represent completely novel discoveries or result from taxonomic revisions. The major lineages of reptiles exhibit enormous variation in life history traits, ranging from extremely long-lived species with low fecundity to those with short generation times and high fecundity. Reptiles vary in their degree of ecological specialization, and many live in difficult-to-sample habitats. It is implausible, if not impossible, to gather detailed information on thousands of species of reptiles, many of which are secretive and difficult to study. However, evaluating where species are likely to fit along life history gradients of time to maturity, brood size, and frequency of reproduction reveals much about their abilities to persist in the face of anthropogenic disturbance. Combined with information on geographic distribution and the severity of anthropogenic pressures, consideration of life history strategies reveal important implications for conservation of reptile species. Modern approaches to conservation of reptiles, including conservation translocations, regulation of the international trade in reptiles, management of imperiled species in the context of landscapes, progress in confronting emerging diseases, and resolving human–wildlife conflict in all its forms, are showing much promise for ensuring the persistence of the great diversity of the Reptilia in the Anthropocene.
... 2017). A growing number of studies about initiatives to achieve change in fisheries, including gear substitution and improvements, reveal that initiatives are most successful when there is both strong leadership from the top, as well as bottom-up participation and leadership from within the fishing industry (Jenkins, 2010;Eayrs 2014;Sylvia et al. 2016). ...
Working Paper
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The survival of Māui dolphins is dependent on the removal of human induced mortality from set net and trawl fishing, yet about 70 percent of Māui habitat remains unprotected from these threats. Concerns about the socio-economic impacts of extending protections for Māui dolphins have been a key barrier to further government action to prevent the extinction of Māui dolphins. Gear switching to dolphin safe fishing methods is a potential way to address the Māui dolphin conservation emergency, and overcome the socio-economic barriers to effective conservation. New economic research shows that a shift to long lining is potentially economically viable; and with government assistance, impacts on fishers and wider communities can be substantially minimised. New Zealand is in a favorable position to develop and implement a lasting solution for Māui dolphins, with both widespread public support for a government assisted transition to dolphin-safe fishing within Māui habitat, and leadership and proactive movement towards this goal from within the fishing industry. However, government commitment is also essential.
... For example, with the passing of the Marine Mammal Protection Act and Endangered Species Act in the United States, the bycatch of dolphins and sea turtles became a political concern. In response, scientists, engineers, and fishers created MCTs, such as the Medina panel and TEDs, to help dolphins and sea turtles escape from fishing nets (Jenkins, 2007;Jenkins, 2010). These technologies settled much of the concern around dolphin and sea turtle bycatch. ...
Article
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The term conservation technology is applied widely and loosely to any technology connected to conservation. This overly broad understanding can lead to confusion around the actual mechanisms of conservation within a technological system, which can result in neglect and underdevelopment of the human dimensions of conservation technology, impacting its effectiveness. This paper offers precise definitions of marine conservation technology and a technological marine conservation system. It summarizes some of the concerns about the use of marine conservation technologies. It discusses in depth how technology and technological systems can have power, politics, and culture. It proposes the social‐ecological‐technological systems framework to incorporate this broader understanding, so that the values and concerns of people, groups, and society are more effectively addressed in the creation and implementation of marine conservation technologies and technological marine conservation systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... After its initial introduction in 1997, theorizing around the trading zone concept has continued by Galison (2010) and others (Collins and Evans, 2002;Gorman, 2002;Collins et al., 2007), and the concept has been shown to be useful in various fields (e.g. Baird and Cohen, 1999;Allenby, 2004Allenby, , 2010Fuller, 2006;Jenkins, 2010;Mehalik, 2010). Next, I will briefly introduce the metaphor and then explain its relevance to this study. ...
Conference Paper
Policy deliberation is considered as an integral part of a good policy-making. Still, in many policy sectors, the formal processes of stakeholder participation are not developed to support the theoretical potential of policy deliberation. In this paper two formal participatory processes of environmental governance in Finland are compared against a more informal process that was initiated for research purposes. The analytical framework for the comparison of different types of participatory processes is built on two theoretical pillars: the trading zone literature inspired by Peter Galison’s initial work (1997), and the theorization of institutional action situations by Elinor Ostrom (e.g. 2005) and colleagues. Results of this study indicate that where deliberative processes are organized to focus only on one strictly bounded issue at time, participants are more capable of collaboratively producing solutions to experienced policy problems. Additionally, processes with more formal and traditional participation (e.g. strictly defined rules and the roles of participants) did not contain the elements of interactional expertise associated with successful trading zones. Key words: Action situations, environmental governance, institutional analysis, policy deliberation, recycling, trading zones.
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The design of an aerospace vehicle system is a complex integration process. The vehicle then operates in an equally complex context, dependent on many aspects of the environment, the performance of stakeholders and the quality of the design itself. Satisfying the needs of all stakeholders is a complicated challenge, and stakeholder requirements are, at times, neglected and/or design decisions are made without considering the operational context of the vehicle system. Given the quantity and variety of stakeholders affected by the design and operation of an aerospace vehicle system, it is critical to examine how to better incorporate stakeholder requirements earlier and throughout the design process. The intent of this research is to (1) examine how stakeholder considerations are currently integrated into aerospace vehicle design practice and curricula, (2) design empirically-informed and theoretically-grounded educational interventions for an aerospace design capstone course, and (3) isolate the characteristics of the interventions and the learning environment that support students’ integration of stakeholder considerations. The first research phase identified how stakeholder considerations are taken into account within an aerospace vehicle design firm and in current aerospace engineering design curricula. Interviews with aerospace designers revealed six conditions at the group, interaction and individual levels affecting the integration of stakeholder considerations. Examining current curricula, aerospace design education relies on quantitative measures. Thus, many students are not introduced to stakeholder considerations that are challenging to quantify. In addition, at the start of an aerospace engineering senior design course, students were found to have some understanding of the customer and a few contextual considerations, but in general students did not see the impact of the broader context or of stakeholders outside of the customer. The second research phase focused on the design and evaluation of a Requirements Lab and a Stakeholders in Design Lab, two in-class interventions implemented in a senior aircraft design capstone course. Further, a Stakeholders in Design rubric was developed to evaluate students’ design understanding and integration of stakeholder considerations and, as such, can be used as a summative assessment tool. The two in-class interventions were evaluated using a multi-level framework to examine student capstone design projects, a written evaluation, and observations of students’ design team meetings. The findings demonstrated an increase in students’ awareness of a diverse group of stakeholders, but also perceptions that students appeared to only integrate stakeholder considerations in cases where interactions with stakeholders were possible and the design requirements had an explicit stakeholder focus. Further, particular aspects within the aircraft design learning environment such as the lack of explicit stakeholder requirements, the differences between the learning environment in the two semesters of the course, and the availability of tools impacted students’ integration of stakeholder considerations and overall effectiveness of the active interventions This research serves as a starting point for future research in pedagogical techniques and assessment methods for integrating stakeholder requirements into technology-focused capstone design courses. The results can also inform the vehicle design education of students and engineers from other disciplines.
Article
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Business management concepts and especially controlling are of fundamental importance for the survival of social economy enterprises. Nevertheless, controlling in the social economy is often met with resistance or even rejection. The reasons for this lie above all in an institutional conflict between the number-oriented economic efficiency logic of controlling and the logic of accepted efficiency renunciation in the social economy. This paper therefore asks how business management controlling can be made fruitful in the social economy. To investigate the phenomenon of controlling in the social economy, the present study refers to the concept of trading zones. The empirical data was collected in a single case study in a Christian monastery. The research results confirm both the need for controlling in the social economy, but also its institutional rejection. Based on the concept of trading zones, this study shows concrete possibilities for overcoming this institutional conflict to make controlling fruitful in the social economy. As a first conceptualization and empirical analysis of the trading zone concept in the context of controlling in the social economy, this paper advances the current understanding of controlling in social economy enterprises
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The purpose of this study is to identify the formation and evolution patterns of a trading zone and to explore the difficulties teachers experience in the trading zone and their perceptions of the experience. Seven teachers involved in the 'STEAM Teacher Community' in a middle school located in the southern part of South Korea participated in this study. Participant observation and in-depth interviews were carried out, and reflective essays were collected for analysis. The results show that teachers successfully formed a trading zone to share their expertise when they developed teaching materials for the convergence of different subject matters. Moreover, such a trading zone evolved in the order of pre-trading zone, trading zone under elite control, trading zone with boundary object, and trading zone of shared mental model. The difficulties teachers experienced in the trading zone were categorized under the difference of culture and opinion across subject matters, the lack of motivation for convergence, the hegemony of convergence and far-fetched factors for convergence, and difficulty of communication due to jargons. Also teachers in this study experienced perceptual changes in the trading zone. The trading zone model drawn from the results of this study bring forth implications for voluntary teachers' learning community activity for the convergence of different subject matters.
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This essay relates our own observations as to how cognitive engineering as a discipline can be brought into the organizational dynamics of broader cross-disciplinary design. Imagine, for example, a small cadre of cognitive engineers hired into the hierarchy of designers tasked with creating the next generation commercial aircraft. The hierarchy is structured around different aircraft subsystems—perhaps one design team for the flightdeck, others for propulsion, fuselage, and so forth—all tied together by a central chief engineer’s office. The chief engineer will likely tell the team that the design being safe is the foremost requirement (although the definition of safety can be ambiguous and often is defined by certification standards). Beyond that, however, the design is about the business case already negotiated with the aircraft buyers: cost (development cost, manufacturing cost, operating costs in terms of personnel and fuel) and benefit (routes flown, fuel burn, passengers carried). Therefore, every proposed design change must reduce cost and/or increase benefit. How does our small cadre of cognitive engineers make an impact in this hierarchy?
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This article aims to distinguish and depict the features of communications and collaborations in contemporary universities through the concept of trading zones. The author also considers the role that the idea of a digital university might play in shaping interactions in transforming local context where different actors can find a common ground of exchange. The new contexts, including the pragmatic orientation of contemporary society and new technologies and environments, contribute to reconsidering the idea of the classical university, in which interactions between professors and students have outstepped customary collaborations in laboratories, as well as the idea of education and research integration. This article focuses on distinguishing new forms of interactions, boundary practices, and environments, which are suggested by today’s universities. Proceeding from them, the author argues that new concepts of the university, such as the digital university, and renovated campuses—to some extent—contribute to the adaptation of a renewed idea of Humboldt’s Bildung.
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Collins and Evans have proposed a ‘normative theory of expertise’ as a way to solve the ‘problem of demarcation’ in public debates involving technical matters. Their argument is that all citizens have the right to participate in the ‘political’ phases of such debates, while only three types of experts should have a voice in the ‘technical’ phases. In this article, Collins and Evans’ typology of expertise – in particular, the idea of ‘interactional expertise’ – is the focus of a detailed empirical, methodological and philosophical analysis. As a result, we reaffirm the difference between practitioners and non-practitioners, contesting the four central claims about interactional expertise – namely, that (1) the idea of interactional expertise has been proven empirically, (2) it is possible to develop interactional expertise through ‘linguistic socialization alone’, (3) the idea of interactional expertise supports the ‘the minimal embodiment thesis’ that the individual human body or, more broadly, ‘embodiment’ is not as relevant as linguistic socialization for acquiring a language and (4) interactional experts have the same linguistic fluency, understanding and judgemental abilities of practitioners within discursive settings. Instead, we argue, individuals’ abilities and understandings vary according to the ‘type of immersion’ they have experienced within a given practice and whether they bring with them another ‘perspective’. Acknowledging these differences helps with demarcation but does not solve the ‘problem of demarcation’. Every experience is perspectival and cannot handle, alone, the intertwined and complex issues found in public debates involving technical matters. The challenge, then, concerns the ways to mediate interactions between actors with distinct perspectives, experiences and abilities.
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Scholarship in the social studies of science has argued convincingly that what demarcates science from nonscience is not some set of essential or transcendent characteristics or methods but rather an array of contingent circumstances and strategic behavior known as "boundary work" (Gieryn 1995, 1999). Although initially formulated to explain how scientists maintain the boundaries of their community against threats to its cognitive authority from within (e.g., fraud and pseudo-science), boundary work has found useful, policy-relevant applications-for example, in studying the strategic demarcation between political and scientific tasks in the advisory relationship between scientists and regulatory agencies (Jasanoff 1990). This work finds that the blurring of boundaries between science and politics, rather than the intentional separation often advocated and practiced, can lead to more productive policy making. If it is the case, however, that the robustness of scientific concepts such as causation and representation are important components of liberal-democratic thought and practice (Ezrahi 1990), one can imagine how the flexibility of boundary work might lead to confusion or even dangerous instabilities between science and nonscience. These risks could be conceived, perhaps, as the politicization of science or the reciprocal scientification of politics. Neither risk should here be understood to mean the importation to one enterprise from the other elements that are entirely foreign; that is, science is not devoid of values prior to some politicization, nor politics of rationality, prior to any scientification. Rather, both should be understood to mean the rendering of norms and practices in one enterprise in a way that unreflexively mimics norms and practices in the other. These concerns have been central to the socalled science wars, and to the extent that they are implicated in public discussions of such policy issues as health and safety regulation, climate change, or genetically modified organisms, they are real problems for policy makers and publics alike.'
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The phrase ‘trading zone’ is often used to denote any kind of interdisciplinary partnership in which two or more perspectives are combined and a new, shared language develops. In this paper we distinguish between different types of trading zone by asking whether the collaboration is co-operative or coerced and whether the end-state is a heterogeneous or homogeneous culture. In so doing, we find that the voluntary development of a new language community—what we call an inter-language trading zone—represents only one of four possible configurations. In developing this argument we show how different modes of collaboration result in different kinds of trading zone, how different kinds of trading zone may be ‘nested’ inside each other and discuss how a single collaboration might move between different kinds of trading zone over time. One implication of our analysis is that interactional expertise is a central component of at least one class of trading zone.
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In an unusual instance of lay participation in biomedical research, U.S. AIDS treatment activists have constituted themselves as credible participants in the process of knowledge construction, thereby bringing about changes in the epistemic practices of biomedical research. This article examines the mechanisms or tactics by which these lay activists have constructed their credibility in the eyes of AIDS researchers and government officials. It considers the implications of such interventions for the conduct of medical research; examines some of the ironies, tensions and limitations in the process; and argues for the importance of studying social movements that engage with expert knowledge.
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