The future for the Reptilia will be one of continued discovery of the extant diversity of species in every group and continued challenges for their conservation. Most species will persist, albeit in smaller and increasingly fragmented geographic ranges, and highly vulnerable species will require active conservation measures to ensure their survival. There are more than 10,500 species of reptiles, up from 8,700 less than 10 years ago. Transfer of laboratory techniques, computational resources, and access to literature to herpetologists throughout the world is fueling the increase in systematic studies of reptiles. The bulk of reptiles are the squamates, lizards and snakes, with impressive diversity on most continents. Habitat loss, landscape fragmentation, exploitation, invasive species, environmental contamination, and global warming are persistent challenges to all biodiversity, including reptiles. Endemism, ecological specialization, and restricted ranges generally make species more vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances. Moreover, the natural history information that is so important for informing conservation aims is lacking for most newly described forms, whether they represent completely novel discoveries or result from taxonomic revisions. The major lineages of reptiles exhibit enormous variation in life history traits, ranging from extremely long-lived species with low fecundity to those with short generation times and high fecundity. Reptiles vary in their degree of ecological specialization, and many live in difficult-to-sample habitats. It is implausible, if not impossible, to gather detailed information on thousands of species of reptiles, many of which are secretive and difficult to study. However, evaluating where species are likely to fit along life history gradients of time to maturity, brood size, and frequency of reproduction reveals much about their abilities to persist in the face of anthropogenic disturbance. Combined with information on geographic distribution and the severity of anthropogenic pressures, consideration of life history strategies reveal important implications for conservation of reptile species. Modern approaches to conservation of reptiles, including conservation translocations, regulation of the international trade in reptiles, management of imperiled species in the context of landscapes, progress in confronting emerging diseases, and resolving human–wildlife conflict in all its forms, are showing much promise for ensuring the persistence of the great diversity of the Reptilia in the Anthropocene.