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Abstract

The burgeoning field of studies in expertise and experience (SEE) is a useful theoretical approach to complex problems. In light of SEE, examination of the controversial and well known case study of dolphin bycatch in the US tuna fishery, reveals that effective problem- solving was hindered by institutional tensions in respect of decision-making authority and difficulties with the integration of different expertises. Comparing the profiles of four individuals, who played distinct roles in the problem-solving process, I show that (1) to address a complex problem, a suite of contributory expertises—rarely found in one individual—may be required; (2) formal credentials are not a reliable indicator of who possesses these necessary expertises; (3) interactional expertise and interactive ability are useful tools in combining the contributory expertises of others to yield a desirable collective outcome; and (4) the concepts of contributory expertise and no expertise are useful tools for understanding the actual contribution of various parties to the problem-solving process.

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... The growth of the field of SEE is in part because SEE offers a promising framework for how to bridge the disciplinary disconnects prevalent in the multidisciplinary approaches needed to address complex real-world problems. The areas of study of those who have published on SEE include psychology (Gorman, 2002), sociology and physics (Collins and Sanders, 2007), environmental studies (Jenkins, 2007), and ethics and philosophy (Selinger et al., 2007). The papers often feature retrospective application of SEE concepts to explain past events in science and science-policy decision making (i.e. ...
... The papers often feature retrospective application of SEE concepts to explain past events in science and science-policy decision making (i.e. decisions that pertain to matters of science or science policy regardless of whether the decision is made by a scientist or science policymaker) (Boyce, 2006;Carolan, 2006;Collins and Evans, 2002;Evans and Plows, 2007;Jenkins, 2007Jenkins, , 2010aRibeiro, 2007;Weinel, 2007). In some cases the articles are derived from the author's experience as a participant in the event (Collins, 2007;Collins and Evans, 2002;Collins and Sanders, 2007;Shrager, 2007). ...
... At their heart fisheries management conflicts are often about the implications that scientific findings and technological regulations hold for fishing communities. There are several case studies in the literature focusing on SEE and fisheries management (Jenkins, 2007(Jenkins, , 2010aJohnson, 2011;Johnson and McCay, 2012). This paper will draw on this subset of the SEE literature, examining how SEE helps explain past failures of collaborative efforts in fisheries management, and how SEE might be enhanced with future research. ...
... Fishers' knowledge research can contribute important information for assessment, management, and bycatch mitigation even where detailed fisheries science data exist: by identifying needed improvements to the fisheries science data (e.g., Saenz-Arroyo et al., 2005); by soliciting feedback on the efficacy of possible mitigation strategies (e.g., Santora, 2003); and by developing mitigation techniques based on fishers' technical expertise (e.g., Hall et al., 2007) and on their observations of bycatch species' behaviour relative to fishing gear and target species (e.g., Jenkins, 2007). Fishers' knowledge may be particularly important for marine conservation research when population metrics are based on fishery-dependent data and when researchers' observations of species' behaviour or ecology are limited. ...
... The third objective -to identify bycatch mitigation opportunities -would not be negatively affected if interviewed longline captains were more interested in bycatch mitigation than the rest of the fleet. Individual captains have developed widely-used bycatch mitigation techniques such as the Medina panel, which allows live release of dolphins from tuna seines (Jenkins, 2007), and tori poles, which deter seabirds from taking longline baits (Hall et al., 2007). These innovations were based upon individual captains' exemplary knowledge of fishing practices and of target and bycatch species' interactions with fishing gear (Jenkins, 2007). ...
... Individual captains have developed widely-used bycatch mitigation techniques such as the Medina panel, which allows live release of dolphins from tuna seines (Jenkins, 2007), and tori poles, which deter seabirds from taking longline baits (Hall et al., 2007). These innovations were based upon individual captains' exemplary knowledge of fishing practices and of target and bycatch species' interactions with fishing gear (Jenkins, 2007). There are, however, important limits to the use of the qualitative data reported here. ...
Article
Bycatch from pelagic longline fisheries has contributed to widespread population declines of turtles, sharks and other pelagic fishes. While large-scale estimates are needed to understand cumulative impacts on these highly migratory species, detailed information on targeting, setting, and discarding practices is needed to develop bycatch mitigation approaches. Data from qualitative fishers’ knowledge interviews with Canadian Atlantic pelagic longline captains was used to evaluate current bycatch estimation methods and to identify bycatch mitigation opportunities. Interviewed longline captains reported blue sharks (Prionace glauca) were common bycatch during swordfish-targeted sets, but were sometimes absent from tuna-targeted sets. Discrepancies between longline captains’ observations and bycatch assessment methods identified needed improvements to data collection methods. Longline captains reported innovative uses of turtle dehooking gear, which two-thirds of interviewed captains had used to release other bycatch species in addition to turtles. Longline captains reported techniques for discarding pelagic stingray (Pteroplatytrygon violacea), a common bycatch species in Pacific, Atlantic and Mediterranean pelagic longline fisheries. Therefore, such techniques could decrease fisheries impacts globally. While there can be major conservation benefits from fishers’ knowledge research, one-quarter of the active longline captains that we contacted declined interviews because they did not trust the larger research process. We urge conservation biologists to carefully design fishers’ knowledge research taking into account the often politicized context. Failure to do so may jeopardize future research and conservation efforts.
... By keeping fishers fishing in desired locations and reducing bycatch, gear modifications present a potential 'win-win' scenario for fishers and fishery managers if adequately implemented (e.g. see Jenkins, 2007Jenkins, , 2010. Table 3 summarizes published data on gear modifications for the focal species. ...
... Furthermore, although many gear modifications reduce bycatch in experimental trials, actual practice in fisheries is less effective (Cox et al., 2007;Campbell & Cornwell, 2008). Thus, involving fishers in developing and testing gear modifications is critical for achieving fisher adoption of and compliance with gear modifications (Cox et al., 2007;Jenkins, 2007Jenkins, , 2010Lewison et al., 2011). For example, the most widely adopted gear modifications in the US have been those developed by fishers (Jenkins, 2010). ...
... For example, the most widely adopted gear modifications in the US have been those developed by fishers (Jenkins, 2010). Gear modifications are also more likely to be adopted if they are developed locally, due in part to a 'local inventor effect' where familiarity with the inventor or his reputation may influence adopters' (Jenkins, 2007(Jenkins, , 2010. ...
Article
Marine megafauna such as seabirds, marine mammals and sea turtles are subject to high mortality from incidental capture or bycatch in fisheries. Recent research suggests that fishing effort is increasing worldwide, highlighting the need to evaluate strategies intended to reduce marine megafauna bycatch. Here, we use three focal species (i.e. leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea, black‐footed albatross Phoebastria nigripes and vaquita porpoise Phocoena sinus) as case studies to compare management outcomes of four bycatch mitigation measures: time–area closures, individual bycatch limits, gear modifications and buy‐outs. Time–area closures were used for leatherbacks and vaquitas with limited effectiveness, although timing, size and enforcement influenced their efficacy. Individual bycatch limits were employed for leatherbacks in one fishery, sometimes simultaneously with gear modifications and closures. Gear modifications consistently reduced bycatch of leatherbacks and black‐footed albatross and showed strong promise for vaquitas. True buy‐outs were only used for vaquitas and were costly, most fishers were unwilling to be bought out, and it is unclear if they reduced bycatch. Our review suggests that gear modifications were the most widely used and generally most promising technique for these species, although management outcomes of each strategy depended largely on the species–fishery interaction, fishery characteristics and socioeconomic context. Based on lessons learned from our case studies, we outline when and where a particular approach may be most effective, provide recommendations for improving each strategy and highlight priorities for future research.
... timing of events, locations) of these turtle 'hot spots' may help managers, scientists, and fishers work collaboratively to reduce bycatch mortalities (e.g. by gear modification or avoiding hot spots) while increasing fishing opportunities in regions with low turtle encounters. Referred to as 'cooperative fisheries research' by Johnson & van Densen (2007), the integration of scientists' research-based knowledge and fishers' experienced-based knowledge to conduct scientific research can promote 'buy-in' to science-based management and provide fishers with a better understanding of science, as well as an opportunity to communicate their knowledge to scientists (Jenkins 2007, Johnson & van Densen 2007, Johnson 2011 ). Cooperation can also promote adaptive and customized solutions, such as different modifications for different fishing scenarios (i.e. ...
... It is evident from the literature and from our own research that fisher engagement and contribution, along with expertise from scientists, are required for successful development and implementation of BRSs, and to maintain sustainable fisheries (e.g. Hall et al. 2007, Jenkins 2007, 2010, Piovano et al. 2012). As such, we argue that adopting 'co-management' — an arrangement in which responsibilities for the management of re sources are shared among government, user groups, and other stakeholders through cooperative processes (Jentoft et al. 1998) — as well as 'cooperative fisheries research' (Johnson & van Densen 2007), would help ensure long-term viability of the fisheries while meeting conservation objectives. ...
Article
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We compiled information on the perspectives of fishers on turtle bycatch, turtle conservation, and turtle bycatch reduction strategies (BRSs). Our research efforts focused on a smallscale inland fyke net commercial fishery in Ontario, Canada, where turtle bycatch has been identified as a potential conservation concern. We conducted 18 complete and 3 partial telephone interviews with fishers (41% participation rate). Rates of turtle encounters varied between fishing behaviours (e.g. preferred depth of sets, habitat), and between water bodies, regions, and fishing seasons, resulting in varying perspectives with respect to turtle bycatch. There was a general lack of understanding as to the reasons why turtles are protected. None of the respondents recognized turtle bycatch as a conservation issue. They felt that threats to turtle populations were external to the fishery, resulting in negative feedback regarding various BRSs. Other barriers to adopting BRSs were costs (e.g. of reduced fishing opportunities, changes to gear, time and effort) and apprehension of potential changes to the fishery. Few fishers would voluntarily modify their gear; therefore, incentives (e.g. compensation, increased quota) may be needed to convince fishers to adopt mitigation strategies. Some fishers had already adopted their own BRS for turtles (e.g. moving nets upon encounter of turtles, using air spaces to improve turtle survival). Therefore, sharing fisher-driven, grass roots success stories with other fishers could promote support for changes in fishing practices. Greater awareness about the impacts of turtle mortalities may help build understanding and support for turtle conservation initiatives.
... timing of events, locations) of these turtle 'hot spots' may help managers, scientists, and fishers work collaboratively to reduce bycatch mortalities (e.g. by gear modification or avoiding hot spots) while increasing fishing opportunities in regions with low turtle encounters. Referred to as 'cooperative fisheries research' by Johnson & van Densen (2007), the integration of scientists' research-based knowledge and fishers' experienced-based knowledge to conduct scientific research can promote 'buy-in' to science-based management and provide fishers with a better understanding of science, as well as an opportunity to communicate their knowledge to scientists (Jenkins 2007, Johnson & van Densen 2007, Johnson 2011. Cooperation can also promote adaptive and customized solutions, such as different modifications for different fishing scenarios (i.e. ...
... It is evident from the literature and from our own research that fisher engagement and contribution, along with expertise from scientists, are required for successful development and implementation of BRSs, and to maintain sustainable fisheries (e.g. Hall et al. 2007, Jenkins 2007, 2010, Piovano et al. 2012. As such, we argue that adopting 'co-management' -an arrangement in which responsibilities for the management of resources are shared among government, user groups, and other stakeholders through cooperative processes (Jentoft et al. 1998) -as well as 'cooperative fisheries research' (Johnson & van Densen 2007), would help ensure long-term viability of the fisheries while meeting conservation objectives. ...
... The use of divers to direct Mobulids out of the net could be a potential solution, although fishers in our focus groups were divided on whether this would be a practical solution or a dangerous one. Fishers in this study also mentioned that the release of Mobulids could be done from the net by sinking the cork line, similar to the backdown manoeuvre made to release dolphins from the net on by purse seiners that target tunas associated with dolphins (Jenkins, 2007). This manoeuvre could be tested for its efficacy for the release of Mobulids; however, it would only apply to those vessels catching tuna associated with dolphins, as using the backdown manoeuvre in other types of vessels is believed to be risky and not effective for avoiding other vulnerable bycatch species. ...
Article
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Manta and devil rays (Mobulids) face several immediate threats, including incidental capture in industrial tropical tuna fisheries. As a result, efforts have emerged to avoid or mitigate Mobulid bycatch in these fisheries. However, many mitigation efforts fail to incorporate fisher expertise from the outset, potentially leading to interventions that are not viable. Here, we combine survey and focus group data to synthesize knowledge of Mobulid bycatch and mitigation ideas in Eastern Pacific Ocean purse seine fisheries. Primary obstacles for mitigating Mobulid bycatch, according to respondents, are: (1) an inability to sight Mobulids before capture, (2) the lack of specific equipment on board, and (3) the difficulty of releasing large individuals; we suggest that the latter two can be addressed by simple operational modifications. We also find that Mobulids are most likely to be sighted by fishers after capture, suggesting that this is an important time in the fishing operation for bycatch mitigation interventions that ensure Mobulids survive capture. To address this, we share creative ideas brought by fishers for avoidance of Mobulids. This study provides a model of how to incorporate stakeholder input in the design of bycatch technology in large-scale fisheries and could inform similar efforts around the world.
... The fisherman produced simple, commercially practical designs, while the scientist produced complex, multi-functional designs that were troublesome to use under commercial fishing conditions. The boundary object trading zone was held together by mutual interests in each other's secondary priorities and by the insight that the other's work could shed on improving their designs [10,14,16,17]. ...
Chapter
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This chapter describes a framework for understanding and managing complex systems that couple human beings, nature and technology. The framework includes five major components; the first three are necessary capabilities for accomplishing the last two.  Superordinate goals: Human beings have to see the urgent necessity of working together to solve problems like climate change and depletion of natural resources.  Moral imagination: Differences in values can prevent adoption of a superordinate goal. Moral imagination is the equivalent of interactional expertise concerning values; it involves being able to 'step into the shoes' of another stakeholder and see the problem from her or his perspective.  Trading zones: Linking multiple stakeholders will require setting up a series of trading zones for exchanging ideas, resources, and solutions across different communities and interests. Developing the three capabilities above will permit:  Adaptive management: This strategy involves treating management interventions like hypotheses, subjecting them to empirical tests, and revising the strategy based on the results. Adaptive management is difficult in tightly coupled human-technological-natural systems, where hypotheses should be constructed not only about environmental impacts, but also about effects on stakeholders.  Anticipatory governance: Global problems and opportunities will require adding more anticipatory, adaptive capability to governance mechanisms, linking decision makers with other stakeholders. These exchanges will have to be motivated by a superordinate goal so urgent that governance structures can be transformed, if necessary.
... Nevertheless, our review finds that most BRT studies focus on technical design and experimental performance of individual technologies. With a few notable exceptions (Margavio et al. 1993, Moberg & Dyer 1994, Margavio & Forsyth 1996, Jenkins 2006, Hall et al. 2007, Jenkins 2007, the human and institutional contexts of BRT, and more specifically how, when and why fishers do or do not employ BRT, are seldom addressed as research questions. This is not to say that fisher attitudes are ignored or overlooked, but that incentives for fisher uptake of BRT are usually assumed rather than demonstrated. ...
Article
Bycatch reduction technology (BRT) modifies fishing gear to increase selectivity and avoid capture of non-target species, or to facilitate their non-lethal release. As a solution to fisheries-related mortality of non-target species, BRT is an attractive option; effectively implemented, BRT presents a technical 'fix' that can reduce pressure for politically contentious and economically detrimental interventions, such as fisheries closures. While a number of factors might contribute to effective implementation, our review of BRT literature finds that research has focused on technical design and experimental performance of individual technologies. In contrast, and with a few notable exceptions, research on the human and institutional context of BRT, and more specifically on how fishers respond to BRT, is limited. This is not to say that fisher attitudes are ignored or overlooked, but that incentives for fisher uptake of BRT are usually assumed rather than assessed or demonstrated. Three assumptions about fisher incentives dominate: (1) economic incentives will generate acceptance of BRT; (2) enforcement will generate compliance with BRT; and (3) 'participation' by fishers will increase acceptance and compliance, and overall support for BRT. In this paper, we explore evidence for and against these assumptions and situate our analysis in the wider social science literature on fisheries. Our goal is to highlight the need and suggest focal areas for further research.
... cts to mediate between groups, while interactional expertise trading zones instead are mediated by a linguistic exchange (). The latter would also include exchange possible from sufficient understanding across groups (e.g., of others' culture, values, interests, experience, etc.) that allows for conversations and collaborations across the boundary. Jenkins (2007; applied the trading zone framework to analyze relationships between the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the shrimp fishing industry in the creation, evolution and adoption of a device for preventing nets from catching turtles. Based on her application of the trading zone framework to her specific case, she hypothesized that ...
Article
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Understanding how industry-science collaborations work and how the resulting knowledge is used is critical for improving the incorporation of fishers' knowledge in policy-making. We use the concept of 'trading zones' to analyze a collaborative effort to integrate fishers' and scientists' expertise in the Northeast U.S.: the Trawl Survey Advisory Panel. The aim of this collaboration was to improve the production of knowledge for fisheries management by developing a new and improved trawl system (survey net and gear) for the routine data-gathering survey carried out by the federal government. The collaboration was expected to increase the legitimacy and credibility of the science by increasing transparency through a participatory process that made use of fishers' contributory knowledge. We describe how this collaboration shifted among “trading zones,” as well as the role of boundary processes in this transition. Although the government scientists invested heavily in the collaboration, they were ultimately not able keep the process going, as industry members left, sensing that their expertise was not appreciated, boundaries had been erected, and the trading zone for genuine collaboration was closed.
... We also recommend partnering with local fishers to develop bycatch reduction solutions (e.g. see Jenkins, 2007Jenkins, , 2010Wang et al., 2010Wang et al., , 2013. Table 3 One-way ANOVA comparing inverse curved carapace length between the three mortality causes at beaches and dumps. ...
... Nevertheless, our review finds that most BRT studies focus on technical design and experimental performance of individual technologies. With a few notable exceptions (Margavio et al. 1993, Moberg & Dyer 1994, Margavio & Forsyth 1996, Jenkins 2006, Hall et al. 2007, Jenkins 2007, the human and institutional contexts of BRT, and more specifically how, when and why fishers do or do not employ BRT, are seldom addressed as research questions. This is not to say that fisher attitudes are ignored or overlooked, but that incentives for fisher uptake of BRT are usually assumed rather than demonstrated. ...
... For example, with the passing of the Marine Mammal Protection Act and Endangered Species Act in the United States, the bycatch of dolphins and sea turtles became a political concern. In response, scientists, engineers, and fishers created MCTs, such as the Medina panel and TEDs, to help dolphins and sea turtles escape from fishing nets (Jenkins, 2007;Jenkins, 2010). These technologies settled much of the concern around dolphin and sea turtle bycatch. ...
Article
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The term conservation technology is applied widely and loosely to any technology connected to conservation. This overly broad understanding can lead to confusion around the actual mechanisms of conservation within a technological system, which can result in neglect and underdevelopment of the human dimensions of conservation technology, impacting its effectiveness. This paper offers precise definitions of marine conservation technology and a technological marine conservation system. It summarizes some of the concerns about the use of marine conservation technologies. It discusses in depth how technology and technological systems can have power, politics, and culture. It proposes the social‐ecological‐technological systems framework to incorporate this broader understanding, so that the values and concerns of people, groups, and society are more effectively addressed in the creation and implementation of marine conservation technologies and technological marine conservation systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Caballero-Aspe, unpublished data). The potential for uptake of the buoyless gear was probably enhanced by our participatory research program, an approach that has been documented to be effective in a variety of other studies (Jenkins 2007(Jenkins , 2010Campbell & Cornwell 2008). We worked to both educate and empower local fishermen through a combination of outreach events, workshops, and leadership roles through which they developed and tested potential bycatch reduction solutions (Peckham & Maldonado-Diaz 2012). ...
Article
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Coastal entangling net fisheries are globally ubiquitous and have substantial socioeconomic importance, especially in developing nations. Bycatch in coastal nets results in high mortality of vulnerable megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, and has led to fisheries closures that incur high social costs. The overlap of intense bottom-set net fisheries with a high-density foraging hotspot of endangered loggerhead turtles at Baja California Sur, Mexico (BCS) produces among the highest recorded megafauna bycatch rates worldwide. From 2007–9 we conducted controlled experiments in partnership with local fishermen at BCS to compare turtle bycatch rates with target catch rates, composition, and market value between conventional (control) and buoyless (buoys removed from float line) nets. In 136 controlled sets of net pairs, buoyless nets reduced mean turtle bycatch rates by 68% while maintaining target catch rates and composition. Our results suggest that buoyless nets offer a promising approach for mitigating sea turtle and potentially other megafauna bycatch while maintaining coastal net fisheries worldwide.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The use of turtle exclusion devices (TEDs) can be highly effective to reduce sea turtle bycatch in trawl fisheries (Crowder et al., 1994;. However, implementation of TEDs in the US also demonstrates the complexities of bycatch mitigation, as multiple social and economic factors have hampered fisher compliance with TED regulations (Jenkins, 2007;Campbell and Cornwell, 2008). In addition to deterrents, gear and fishing practice modifications have increased survival rates for animals that are caught and released. ...
Article
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Fisheries bycatch is a threat to species of marine megafauna across the world's oceans. Work over the past several decades has greatly advanced our understanding of the species affected, the magnitude and the spatial extent of bycatch. In the same time period, there have been substantial advances in the development of mitigation strategies and best practices to reduce bycatch. In this paper, we take stock of bycatch knowledge and science to address the critical question " Where do we go from here? " First, we review the current state of global bycatch science, including bycatch rate estimation and biological effects of bycatch, and bycatch mitigation practices and gear. We then identify knowledge gaps as well as socio-cultural constraints that hamper effective knowledge transfer or implementation, and discuss emerging transdisciplinary approaches to address these issues. Finally, we discuss the need to consider bycatch in a changing ocean and socio-cultural context where species, ecosystems, and people are responding to multiple stressors and dynamic conditions. As the field of bycatch research moves into the twenty-first century, a new perspective is needed to develop responsive strategies that effectively address the shifting ecological, social, cultural, and economic contexts of the global bycatch seascape.
... Algunos autores se han valido de la TA para conocer las percepciones sobre la elaboración, implementación y substitución de artes de pesca que reduzcan la captura incidental y el daño al hábitat marino, así como la factibilidad para la aceptación de dichas artes por parte de los pescadores; de igual modo, para entender el comportamiento de determinados pescadores en cuanto a la captura de especies ilegales (Jenkins 2007 Toth & Brown (1997) se valieron de la TA para estudiar la construcción social del género en comunidades costeras, en donde el hombre se define a sí mismo como pescador y la mujer es segregada de la actividad o se describe su trabajo como no relacionada a la pesca, a pesar de participar de alguna u otra forma en dicha actividad. En comunidades aledañas al Lago Victoria, se describió el proceso de intercambio denominado "sexo por peces" con el que las mujeres se establecen como las intermediarias entre el pescador y el comprador para la obtención de ingresos ante la escasas oportunidades de empleo, el estudio tuvo el fin de contextualizar el ambiente social para poder implementar medidas de prevención de VIH/SIDA (Mojola 2011); así mismo se ha estudiado el rol del género y la raza en la pesca recreativa (Yodanis 2000). ...
... Caballero-Aspe, unpublished data). The high adoption following these trials can be attributed to the participatory research approach employed by [41][42][43][44], which has been found to be an integral component for achieving bycatch reduction in actual fisheries [16,17,6]. From 2009 onward, all of the boats in the Santa Rosa bottom-set longline fleet had converted to turtle-safe gear, and 5-6 of the 30-60 boat Lopez Mateos bottom-set net fleet were fishing with buoyless nets and another 3-4 with hook and line, although fleet size can vary widely in any given season depending on fishing conditions. Based on previously published estimates of seasonal fleet-wide bycatch rates in the bottom-set longline fishery in the Gulf of Ulloa (1885 ± 286 turtles per season, [40]), we estimate that the collaborative approach achieved likely bycatch reductions in the range of approximately 1,599 -2,171 turtles per fishing season in the fleet. ...
... Cooperative fisheries research (CFR) is often exalted as a paradigm shift to address sustainability challenges in fisheries science. Researchers increasingly recognize that disparities in perceptions about problems and solutions among scientists, fishery managers, and fishing industry members can result in misunderstanding, resentment, and distrust [1][2][3][4]. CFR, described as scientific research conducted in partnership with the fishing industry, gives attention to the value of fishermen's knowledge and experiences in decision-making [5,6]. Simultaneously, it aims to increase transparency and facilitate communication among all stakeholders [7,8]. ...
Article
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The concept of interactional expertise – characterized by sociologists Harry Collins and Robert Evans as the ability to speak the language of a discipline without the corresponding ability to practice – can serve as a powerful way of breaking down expert/non-expert dichotomies and providing a role for new voices in specialist communities. However, in spite of the vast uptake of this concept and its potential to fruitfully address many important issues related to scientific expertise, there has been surprisingly little critical analysis of it. We seek to remedy this situation by considering potential benefits of interactional expertise and the ways in which the current conception can – and cannot – realize those benefits. In particular, we argue that interactional expertise hasn't reached its full potential for addressing who ought to be involved in scientific research and decision-making, largely owing to an unnecessarily restrictive way of operationalizing the concept. In its place, we offer a broader, more pluralistic account of interactional expertise – one that is in line with the original spirit of the concept, but also captures the diversity that we see as being an important aspect of interactional experts and the value they can bring to the table.
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Marine Mammals: Evolutionary Biology, Third Edition is a succinct, yet comprehensive text devoted to the systematics, evolution, morphology, ecology, physiology, and behavior of marine mammals. Earlier editions of this valuable work are considered required reading for all marine biologists concerned with marine mammals, and this text continues that tradition of excellence with updated citations and an expansion of nearly every chapter that includes full color photographs and distribution maps. • Comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the biology of all marine mammals • Provides a phylogenetic framework that integrates phylogeny with behavior and ecology • Features chapter summaries, further readings, an appendix, glossary and an extensive bibliography • Exciting new color photographs and additional distribution maps.
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We outline the political implications of the program known as the ‘Third Wave of Science Studies’. Here we develop the politics of the Third Wave showing how it bears on technological decision-making in the public domain. The main concern is to combat ‘technological populism’. The prescriptions that emerge include asking and answering as many technical questions as is reasonable and giving these questions and answers the maximum exposure before making what is always a political decision. The implication is a preference for democracies which actively promote discussion and debate of technical matters yet which reject populism of all kinds while still rejecting technocracy. Central to the overt politics of the Third Wave is ‘elective modernism’ which includes scientific values among those which should be at the heart of a good society.
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I analyse the case of three Japanese-Portuguese interpreters who have given support to technology transfer from a steel company in Japan to one in Brazil for more than thirty years. Their job requires them to be ‘interactional experts’ in steel-making. The Japanese–Portuguese interpreters are immersed in more than the language of steel-making as their job involves a great deal of ‘physical contiguity’ with steel-making practice. Physical contiguity undoubtedly makes the acquisition of interactional expertise easier. This draws attention to the lack of empirical work on the exact way that the physical and the linguistic interact in the acquisition of interactional expertise, or any other kind of expertise.
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Citizens, policy-makers and scientists all face the problem of assessing maverick scientific claims. Via a case study, I show the different resources available to experts and non-experts when they make these judgements and reflect upon what this means for technological decision-making in the public domain.
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The main cloud of radioactive contamination from Chernobyl passed over the United Kingdom on May 2-3, 1986. Rainfall was the major factor affecting local deposition of radioactivity, especially radioactive cesium. Sheep were being contaminated by ingesting grass contaminated with radioactive cesium. British government officials first reacted to this deposition by ignoring and denying the facts and then by recommending impractical solutions stemming from their ignorance of hill sheep farming. This study illustrates the need for improved, two-way communication between scientists and the involved public, particularly during national emergencies.
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What does it mean to be an expert? In Rethinking Expertise, Harry Collins and Robert Evans offer a radical new perspective on the role of expertise in the practice of science and the public evaluation of technology. Collins and Evans present a Periodic Table of Expertises based on the idea of tacit knowledge—knowledge that we have but cannot explain. They then look at how some expertises are used to judge others, how laypeople judge between experts, and how credentials are used to evaluate them. Throughout, Collins and Evans ask an important question: how can the public make use of science and technology before there is consensus in the scientific community? This book has wide implications for public policy and for those who seek to understand science and benefit from it. “Starts to lay the groundwork for solving a critical problem—how to restore the force of technical scientific information in public controversies, without importing disguised political agendas.”—Nature “A rich and detailed ‘periodic table’ of expertise . . . full of case studies, anecdotes and intriguing experiments.”—Times Higher Education Supplement (UK)
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Science studies has shown us why science and technology cannot always solve technical problems in the public domain. In particular, the speed of political decision-making is faster than the speed of scientific consensus formation. A predominant motif over recent years has been the need to extend the domain of technical decision-making beyond the technically qualified elite so as to enhance political legitimacy. We argue, however, that theProblem of Legitimacy' has been replaced theProblem of Extension.' This is a tendency to dissolve the boundary between experts and the public so that there are no longer any grounds for limiting the indefinite extension of technical decision-making rights. We argue that a Third Wave of science studies -- Studies of Expertise and Experience (SEE) -- is needed to solve the Problem of Extension. SEE will include a normative theory of expertise and will disentangle expertise from political rights in technical decision-making. The theory builds categories of expertise starting with the key distinction between interactive expertise and contributory expertise. A new categorisation of types of science is also needed. We illustrate the potential of the approach by re-examining existing case studies including Wynne's study of Cumbrian sheep farmers. Sometimes the new theory argues for more public involvement, sometimes for less. An Appendix describes existing contributions to the problem of technical decision-making in the public domain.
Article
Between 50 and 70% of the annual U.S. catch of yellowfin tuna in the eastern t ropical Pacif-ic comes from schools associated with por-poise (u n pub 1 ish e d data, Inter -American Tropical Tuna Commission). Tuna primarily associate with two species, the so-called "spotters" and "spinners." At times, they maybe found in the company of a third species, which fishermen call "whitebellies" (Perrin, 1968,1969,1970; Green, Perrin and P etrich, 1971). Once the seinehasbeenset and pursed around a school of porpoise and the assoc iated tuna, the problem arise s of releasing the porpoise unharmed without losing the fish . In the interest of disseminating informa-tion that will contribute to conservation of the porpoise stocks, this pdper presents a detailed account of the equipment and methods used by one seiner that has attained a high degree of success inr emoving porpoise from its net. VESSEL AND EQUIPMENT The specifications of the vessel and its net skiff follow: Length Beam Depth Engine Hull Year of con-struction Brine well capacity Vessel 165 ft (50 .4 m) 34 ft (10.4 m) 17 ft (5.2 m) 2800 hp Steel 1970 650 short tons Net skiff 31 ft (9.5 m) 18 ft (5.5 m) 5ft(1 . 5m) 250 hp Steel 1970 The main purse winch on this vessel was a Marcomode11072 built by the Marco Corpo-ration, Seattle, Washingt on. It was driven by a 333 hp Caterpiller diesel engine coupled to a Vickers hy draulic system providing 1500 psi at 70 gallons per minute. The Marco 42 -inch diameter power block was integrated illto th, same hydraulic system. The Net The net used by this seiner was hung 570 fathoms long and about 52 fathoms de p U1 1970; since then, it has shrunk toapprOxl-mately 540 fathoms by 48 fathoms. The baslc construction was described by Mc. 'eely III 1961--with the exceptions that the net was nine strips deep, and the bunt sections at the' bunt end and at the single cutting strip at half net were made with number 96 twine. Th1S net lacked the Medina escape panel of 2 -lllCh webbing to prevent porpoise entanglement, which is currently being adopted by many boats in the U.S. fleet.
Article
Since 1959 several million dolphins have been killed in the purse‐seine fishery for tunas in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Through combined efforts of the nations whose vessels participate in this fishery, annual dolphin mortality in the fishery was reduced from about 350,000 animals during the 1960s to about 15,000 animals in 1992. In 1993 10 nations implemented an international program to progressively reduce this mortality even further, with a goal of eventually eliminating it. During 1993, the first year of the program, it appears that dolphin mortality will be less than 4000 animals. An alternative program, which would impose a moratorium on fishing for tunas associated with dolphins beginning in 1994, has been proposed. Controversy concerning the practicality and effects of the two programs centers around the morality of fishing for tunas associated with dolphins and the biological, economic, and political impacts of each program.
The purse seine revolution in tuna fishing. Pacific Fisherman
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McNeely, R. L. (1961). The purse seine revolution in tuna fishing. Pacific Fisherman, June, 27-58.
Little Squeak from Dunbar Result of meeting between representatives of the National Marine Fisheries Service and the tuna industryAvailable from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center) NMFS. (1977) Monthly report—July and Dolphins and the tuna industry
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McNeely, R. L. (2002). Little Squeak from Dunbar (Memoirs of Richard L. McNeely). (Available from Lekelia Jenkins) NMFS. (1971). Result of meeting between representatives of the National Marine Fisheries Service and the tuna industry on September 9, 1971. (Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center) NMFS. (1977). Monthly report—July and August 1977. (Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center) NRC. (1992). Dolphins and the tuna industry. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
Coe, gear technician Coe began working at NMFS in 1971. From 1977–1981 he was head of the gear research program. Conceived in 1975, his most important innovation was the use of a snorkel, mask, and raft
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James 'Jim' Coe, gear technician Coe began working at NMFS in 1971. From 1977–1981 he was head of the gear research program. Conceived in 1975, his most important innovation was the use of a snorkel, mask, and raft. 33 See McNeely (1961).
Removing porpoise from a tuna purse seine. Marine Fisheries ReviewAvailable from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center) The tuna-porpoise problem: NMFS dolphin mortality reduction research
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The Periodic Table of Expertises
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Collins, H. M., & Evans, R. (2004). The Periodic Table of Expertises. http://www.cf.ac.uk/socsi/expertise.
Porpoises and tuna policy. (Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center) Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory
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Rothschild, B. J. (1973). Porpoises and tuna policy. (Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center) Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd ed.).
Summary—porpoise/tuna situationAvailable from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center) Sheep farming after Chernobyl: A case study in communicating scientific information. Environmental Magazine
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Porpoise committee-a progress report
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Alverson, D.L. (1972). Porpoise committee-a progress report. (Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center)
Medina panel mesh size: Factors pertaining to proposed regulations
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Barham, E. (1974a). Medina panel mesh size: Factors pertaining to proposed regulations. (Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center)
Tuna fisherman of the year award
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Barham, E. (1974b). Tuna fisherman of the year award. (Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center)
Report to the Congress on the research and development program to reduce the incidental take of marine mammals
  • Department Of Commerce
Department of Commerce. (1974). Report to the Congress on the research and development program to reduce the incidental take of marine mammals: October 21, 1972 through October 20, 1974. (Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center)
Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center
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Gehres, L. E. (1971). (Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center)
Preliminary report of porpoise mortality directly related to gear, gear malfunctions and techniques presently being used in the Eastern Tropical Pacific tuna purse seine fishery
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Holt, D. (1973). Preliminary report of porpoise mortality directly related to gear, gear malfunctions and techniques presently being used in the Eastern Tropical Pacific tuna purse seine fishery. (Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center)
Quarterly program progress report: Assessment and alleviation of porpoise mortality
  • W Perrin
Perrin, W. (1970). Quarterly program progress report: Assessment and alleviation of porpoise mortality: January 1-March 31, 1970. (Available from the NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center)
Quarterly project progress report: development and improvement in fishing strategy
  • W Perrin
Perrin, W. (1971a). Quarterly project progress report: development and improvement in fishing strategy. (Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center)
Summary-porpoise/tuna situation
  • W Perrin
Perrin, W. (1971c). Summary-porpoise/tuna situation. (Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center)
Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center) Pity the poor porpoise
  • W Perrin
Perrin, W. (1972). Superior performance by D. B. Holts and J. M. Coe. (Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center) Pity the poor porpoise. (1971). Newsweek, 6 September, 60.
Porpoises and tuna policy. (Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center
  • B J Rothschild
Rothschild, B. J. (1973). Porpoises and tuna policy. (Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center)
Little Squeak from Dunbar (Memoirs of Richard L. McNeely). (Available from Lekelia Jenkins)
  • R L Mcneely
McNeely, R. L. (2002). Little Squeak from Dunbar (Memoirs of Richard L. McNeely). (Available from Lekelia Jenkins)
Result of meeting between representatives of the National Marine Fisheries Service and the tuna industry on
  • Nmfs
NMFS. (1971). Result of meeting between representatives of the National Marine Fisheries Service and the tuna industry on September 9, 1971. (Available from NOAA Fisheries Southwest Fisheries Science Center)
Dolphins and the tuna industry
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NRC. (1992). Dolphins and the tuna industry. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
Superior performance by
  • W Perrin