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Abstract

Cognitive constructivism is not a unique theoretical framework, pedagogical approach, or epistemology, but a general, metaphorical assumption about the nature of cognition that virtually all cognitive educational researchers accept. Despite this unifying assumption, there are many different cognitive constructivist research programs and theories within the community at large. This article contrasts cognitive constructivism with several other forms of constructivism in the educational research community. It then attempts to represent the range of theoretical approaches within cognitive constructivism, pointing to examples and potential educational applications of cognitive constructivist ideas. Cognitive schema theory receives special attention as an important theoretical perspective that has been relatively neglected in recent theoretical discussions. It is believed to have significant potential for building conceptual bridges between information processing and radical constructivist viewpoints.
... These configurations can be viewed as consumers' mental models of a country stimulus. According to Derry (1996), mental models are tailored reconfigurations of stored memory pieces about an object (e.g., a country) that constitute a specific interpretation of behaviors (e.g., buying products from the country). By asking people to explain why they would consider buying a specific country's products, we activated only relevant pieces of information about the country that respondents had stored in their memories and used to develop a mental model. ...
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Based on the excitation-transfer model, this study considers how pondering on reasons for buying a particular country’s products influences country image (CI). We use an experimental approach to test our hypotheses and check for differences between unreflective/ad lib CI and reflective/reasoned CI measurements. The findings indicate differences between reflective and unreflective CI perceptions. These differences are more prominent for CI measurements relating to less well-known countries. Only a minority of consumers seem to knowingly buy a country’s products because of its reputation. Our research extends existing approaches to CI based only on country knowledge activation by incorporating the concept of motivational relevance and the applicability of activated knowledge. We also propose a segmentation scheme based on the motivational relevance of CI.
... It has links to Gestalt theory as well as information processing theory, and is based on Constructivism and Neuro-constructivism. Knowledge coagulates in mental schemas, or sense-making units of knowledge. At least three general classes of schemas can be identified (Derry, 1996; pp.167-169), namely ...
Conference Paper
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The usage of rubrics is nowadays a developing trend in the world of Higher Education. One can think about two main reasons for this. First, even if there is no definitive proof, rubrics seem to be adequate for supporting the learning of complex skills, in particular for formative assessment. Rubrics are then finding a natural place in HE institutions in the context of the 21st Century where digital education skills become more and more important and need to be well defined and assessed. Secondly, rubrics are based on very easy principles and this simplicity may contribute to the trend noted. However our experience of doing rubrics for defining and assessing the students’ digital education skills revealed us that the design of rubrics needs its basic principles but also additional rules in order to make a rubric that can be used as an efficient assessment tool. In this perspective, we decided to compile and explain in this article the rules that we have applied during our rubric design work. Some rules were found in the literature; other ones were elaborated during our work progression. With this compilation, we want to bring the reader concrete guiding elements and steps for the design of rubrics. A general rule seems to emerge from our work: a rubric maker should always try to distinguish between all the aspects of the competences needed to perform a task and all the aspects of all the different levels that can be seen in the competences of a person who is performing the task.
... When the question is presented, it triggers expectations based on past experiences . These activated experiences (e.g., previous knowledge and remembered behaviors) can be modified and potentially improved when compared to the new experience or information (Derry, 1996). When processing of the question, the retrieval of the prior knowledge is an integral mechanism which is essential for forming inferences and detecting misconceptions (Graesser & Black, 1985). ...
Article
Virtual humans are virtual characters within multimedia learning environments designed to aid the learning process. While there is a large variety of research examining how to design the physical appearance of the character or the teaching strategies it should embody, there is comparatively little work around the design of the narrative the virtual human uses to communicate with the learner. In this study, we examine the use of four different types of text structures to structure the character’s narrative in an instructional video: expository, refutation text, deep reasoning questions, and refutation text and deep reasoning questions; and their effects on learning, perceptions, attitudes, and emotions about genetically modified foods. Our results largely indicated no significant differences between the different communication strategies. We hypothesize that the length, dosage, and pacing of the intervention could explain why we did not see benefits from the different narrative structures that have been found in other contexts.
... In the theory developed by Safran and Segal (1990) by combining interpersonal relationships and the cognitive approach, a comprehensive cognitive model based on behaviour are mechanisms that surface and operate within the process of forming interpersonal relationships. Interpersonal schema concept is structured on knowledge based on the schemas give rise to unfunctional interpersonal relationships (Derry, 1996). Cognitive interpersonal cycle is formed as a result of this interaction, while the appearance of interpersonal perceptions (Beck et al., 1979;Mason, Platts ve Tyson, 2005;Muris, 2006;Nordahl, Holthe and Haugum, 2005;Riso et al., 2006;Young, et al., 2009). ...
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It has been aimed, to consider joint role factors on interpersonal relationships and to investigate (1) the role of the level of self-concept, early maladaptive schemas and the perceived parenting styles on determining the style of interpersonal relationships, and (2) possible predominance of interpersonal relationship styles in relation to gender. The subjects of the research consisted of 325 young adults with an age range of 25-40 years. Evaluation of self-concept, early maladaptive schemas, and perceived parenting styles were based on stepwise regression analyses of the data acquired through the Turkish version of Social Comparison Scale Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3, Interpersonal Style Questionnaire and a personal information questionnaire filled in by the participants . The role of the self-concept, early maladaptive schemas and the perceived parenting styles were found to have determining effects on the style of interpersonal relationships, and also interpersonal relationship styles showed significant differences with respect to gender. Formalistic/moulding and/or exploiting/abusive styles of paternal parenting and conditioned/success focused and extremely allowing/limitless styles of maternal parenting have very significant determining influence on the style of individual interpersonal relationship forming. Especially impaired autonomy and enmeshment dimensions the former two schemas influence most interpersonal relationship styles.
... Work experience is an internal coping resource as it is the accumulated human knowledge, including skills and practices, as well as routines and habits that are associated with a specific job (Beus et al. 2014;Beyer and Hannah, 2002;Carr et al. 2006;Quiñones et al. 1995). The cognitive psychology literature has noted that work experience leads to the development of cognitive schemas, or the general knowledge structures that humans construct to help them understand the environment (Derry 1996;Reber 1993). The structural characteristics of cognitive schemas will in turn carry over to individuals' adaptation responses in processing system-provided knowledge (Mao and Benbasat 2000). ...
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Intelligent systems—incorporating computational tools, learning algorithms, and statistical models—can generate knowledge to empower employees in how they conduct their work and increase their job performance. How can organizations realize this potential? Our in-depth study of transformation of work with intelligent systems in a technology maintenance service company provides managerial insights to this question. Although knowledge from intelligent systems can empower employees, employees will need to adapt how they work with intelligent systems to improve their job performance. Interestingly, they can leverage the empowerment to adapt in two ways: maximize benefits, where they use the system to its full potential in conducting work, and minimize disturbances, where they reduce role conflict with the system in conducting work. Although inexperienced employees leverage the empowerment to use the system to its full potential, experienced employees leverage the empowerment to minimize role conflict with the system. How empowered employees realize job performance gains requires understanding how employees channel their empowerment: maximize benefits through use of the system or minimize disturbances through role conflict with the system. Differentiating how inexperienced and experienced employees channel empowerment to increase job performance will enable managers to effectively manage the transformation of work for these two groups.
... To aid in making sense of organisational norms, Harris (1994) describes the concept of mental models or 'cognitive schemas'. A cognitive schema is a memory structure, from previous experiences, which is activated in response to environmental input, providing context for interpreting experience and assimilating new knowledge (Derry, 1996). According to Bloor and Dawson (1994) Davis (1984) elucidates that 'sharedness' is the link between individual sense-making and group level phenomena which often defines organisational culture. ...
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The collection of aviation safety information from those who encounter hazards and or commit an unsafe act is increasingly important to allow airlines to proactively apply risk mitigation measures in order to reduce risks to a level that is acceptable. Safety information that is provided from the flight crew has the potential to be highly descriptive and contextualised to the perspective of the front line operator, aiding the identification and interpretation of hazardous conditions that may be present in the system. The effectiveness of an airline’s safety risk management is highly dependent on the voluntary reporting of safety information. However, there is anecdotal evidence that some pilots refrain from reporting safety-related information because they are fearful that the data they voluntarily report may be used against them for punitive purposes. Hence, the aim of the present research is to investigate reporting behaviour of flight crew, their trust in their airline’s ‘just culture’, and to identify reasons why pilots choose not to report safety information. The research comprised four studies. A large number of respondents, 270 Australian-based, and 539 European-based commercial pilots participated in the research. The results of the first two studies (AU and EU) reveal that fifty-three per cent of the Australian pilots and thirty-three per cent of the European pilots had either under-reported or failed to report safety related information in their airlines’ Safety Management System. Fear of reprisal from employer was identified as the leading reason for under-reporting or failing to report by the two pilot groups. The aim of study 3 and 4 is to investigate the foundation of this fear. Very little evidence of actual reprisal or punishment is revealed from the respondents. However, pilots perceive the airlines’ actions in meeting its compliance and standards responsibilities (i.e., remedial training and incident investigation) as punitive in nature. These results highlight that there is a lack of understanding about the differences between punitive action and action to meet compliance and standards responsibility amongst flight crew. It is unclear, however, if this lack of understanding results from the airline failing to communicate this information correctly, or from pilots distrust of management. The study results reveal many pilots lack trust and confidence in the principle of a just culture. The results also highlight that the principles underlying a just culture are misunderstood, which are likely to be affecting its successful implementation.
... The principle of constructivism positions students as active knowledge seekers and co-creators of new knowledge. Under this world view, learners organize new relevant experiences into personal mental representations guided by prior knowledge (Derry, 1996). It is an educational strategy that considers the complex nature of learning (Savin-Baden and Major, 2004) and has long been utilized as a health sciences and nursing education tool since the 1980s. ...
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Background: Being at the frontline, nurses working in hospital settings are vulnerable to a range of experiences that impact their well being. Measures to protect their health and welfare during the COVID-19 pandemic have been the focus of discussion among policy makers and administrators. There is a need to collectively understand their personal experiences to inform relevant policy decisions. Objective: To synthesize and present the best available evidence describing the experiences of nurses working in hospital settings during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design: This is a rapid review using Tricco's seven stage process. Data sources: Astructured search using PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and a local database Herdin was conducted. Review Methods: A rapid review of studies published from January to August 2020, describing nurses' experiences of working in hospital facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic were included regardless of methodology. Following data screening and extraction, a narrative synthesis of the findings was conducted. Results: Nineteen articles were included in the review. The experiences of nurses described in these articles generated a total of fifteen categories, based on similarities of meaning. Four synthesized findings were identified from the categories: (a) supportive nursing culture; (b) physical, emotional, and psychological impact of frontline work; (c) organizational responsiveness; (d) and maintaining standards of care. Conclusions: Nurses' experiences working in hospital settings during the COVID-19 pandemic are diverse, profound, and dependent on the context of practice and prevailing healthcare system and organization. These experiences reflect personal encounters and shifts in healthcare delivery that ensure protection and safety while maintaining standards of care. Robust studies are needed to capture and explore the breadth of these experiences and heighten the discussions that advocate for nurses' welfare and safety during pandemics.
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The 8th annual International Conference of the Immersive Learning Research Network (iLRN2022) was the first iLRN event to offer a hybrid experience, with two days of presentations and activities on the iLRN Virtual Campus (powered by ©Virbela), followed by three days on location at the FH University of Applied Sciences BFI in Vienna, Austria.
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Water sciences education is paramount to sustainable groundwater resource management, especially of drinking water, but misunderstandings about groundwater among non-experts remain widespread. Groundwater residence is an especially challenging concept to learn because it is not directly visible in typical circumstances. The present study uses a quasi-experimental research design to compare the impacts that two instructional sequences have on improving students’ conceptual understanding of groundwater residence and aquifers. Both instructional sequences are designed to use active learning, but only one solicits and engages students’ preconceptions. The theoretical framework for this study is the knowledge integration perspective of conceptual change. As such, this study considers cognitive, temporal, and social dimensions of learning. To assess students’ learning, concept sketches were analyzed using diagrammatic and textual content analyses, normalized learning gains were calculated, multiple-choice items were scored dichotomously (i.e., scored as either correct or incorrect), free-response items were scored for partial credit, and classroom observations tracked social interactions. We found significantly larger learning gains when students’ preconceptions were explicitly incorporated into the instructional sequence compared to when they were not taken into account. We also found the prior-knowledge instructional sequence (PKIS) positively impacted both Caucasian and non-Caucasian students as well as male and female students. Our findings indicate that actively engaging students’ prior knowledge in the ways that were researched herein can be a high impact teaching practice and is worthy of future research in other specific domains beyond groundwater residence and aquifers. Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/10899995.2021.2004536 .
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Given the importance of student's perceptions of learning environments, the present study aimed to construct and validate a questionnaire to measure students' perceptions of social constructivist learning environments. The method of study was testing. Dimensions of Social constructivist learning environments were identified, in the first stage of the study, and items were developed by a pilot study. A sample of the 374 high school students (178 girls and 196 boys) was selected by non-probability sampling. The validity of the questionnaire was investigated by content validity, Professional judgment, exploratory factor analysis, and the reliability of the questionnaire was calculated by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha). Cronbach's alpha was 0.94 at the total scale and it was between 0.57 to 0.88 at components, and test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was 90.0 and test-retest reliability of components was between 0.54 to 0.77, so the reliability and internal consistency were suitable. The results of the principal component analysis showed the scale was formed from 8 factors. Therefore, according to the favorable psychometric characteristics, a questionnaire of "students' perceptions of social constructivist learning environment" can be used for research related to the perception of the classroom environment.
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This paper describes the efforts of two researchers, an anthropologist, and a psychologist, to conduct collaborative research in teacher education. Drawing on 10 years of work together and literature on interdisciplinary collaboration, we discuss the issues we faced to remain true to our own disciplines and simultaneously contribute to research on teaching and teacher education. The article emphasizes: the importance of what each discipline insists upon; the role of compromise; and the value of interdisciplinary perspectives for research on teaching. Our latest work together, a study of novice mathematics teachers, is used to illustrate the potential of our approach.
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The view that knowledge cannot be transmitted but must be constructed by the mental activity of learners underpins contemporary perspectives on science education. This article, which presents a theoretical perspective on teaching and learning science in the social setting of classrooms, is informed by a view of scientific knowledge as socially constructed and by a perspective on the learning of science as knowledge construction involving both individual and social processes. First, we present an overview of the nature of scientific knowledge. We then describe two major traditions in explaining the process of learning science: personal and social constructivism. Finally, we illustrate how both personal and social perspectives on learning, as well as perspectives on the nature of the scientific knowledge to be learned, are necessary in interpreting science learning in formal settings.