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A Framework for Immersive Virtual Environments (FIVE): Speculations on the Role of Presence in Virtual Environments

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Abstract

This paper reviews the concepts of immersion and presence in virtual environments (VEs). We propose that the degree of immersion can be objectively assessed as the characteristics of a technology, and has dimensions such as the extent to which a display system can deliver an inclusive, extensive, surrounding, and vivid illusion of virtual environment to a participant. Other dimensions of immersion are concerned with the extent of body matching, and the extent to which there is a self-contained plot in which the participant can act and in which there is an autonomous response. Presence is a state of consciousness that may be concomitant with immersion, and is related to a sense of being in a place. Presence governs aspects of autonomic responses and higher-level behaviors of a participant in a VE. The paper considers single and multi-participant shared environments, and draws on the experience of Computer-Supported Cooperative Working (CSCW) research as a guide to understanding presence in shared environments, The paper finally outlines the aims of the FIVE Working Group, and the 1995 FIVE Conference in London, UK.

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... In this study, embodiment constitutes how individuals perceive themselves in a given environment (Wilson, 2002), and the virtual body is the tangible representation of that individual within that environment (Slater & Wilbur, 1997). Cognitive load is a concept that refers to the amount of load a given task enforces over the cognitive system; more specifically, the working memory (Paas & Van Merriënboer, 1994;Sweller, 2010). ...
... Presence was defined by Minsky (1980) as the sensation of "being there" in a different space through technology. For Slater and Wilbur (1997), presence is critical in virtual environments because the higher the participants' sense of presence, the more likely they are to behave as in real life. For them, presence is a state of consciousness occurring in both subjective and objective manners, understood as the way participants feel in the virtual environment and how they behave, respectively (Slater & Wilbur, 1997). ...
... For Slater and Wilbur (1997), presence is critical in virtual environments because the higher the participants' sense of presence, the more likely they are to behave as in real life. For them, presence is a state of consciousness occurring in both subjective and objective manners, understood as the way participants feel in the virtual environment and how they behave, respectively (Slater & Wilbur, 1997). ...
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Article
In design education, immersive virtual reality (VR) has grown as a visualization and interaction tool. Nonetheless, little research has been done on how individuals self-perception within VR affects their performance. This self-awareness is carried out using avatars that depict the virtual body through multiple points of view. This article assessed three different conditions of virtual body within a design exercise to better understand how these affected idea generations and spatial skills. To do so, an embodiment-cognition framework to evaluate the influence of the virtual body in immersive VR environments was developed. The designed theoretical framework relies on the concept of embodiment and its relevance to situated cognition. Research has supported how cognition connects the mind and body and the relevance of the individual's interaction with its surroundings to make it meaningful. Likewise, more immersive environments can increase the sensation of presence in VR, allowing individuals to behave more naturally. Also, through the connection with the surroundings, individuals liberate cognitive load, allowing them to relocate cognitive efforts in developing knowledge. General findings support how the use of a more embodied virtual body can elicit higher levels of presence but also increase cognitive load which can ultimately hinder cognition. However, VR interactions aided participants to develop spatial skills and allowed idea generation. Furthermore, the framework proposed can be applied to assess students' cognitive processes beyond the discipline’s boundaries.
... L'appropriation corporelle s'effectue lorsque l'être humain transfère sa représentation cognitive de soi dans ce nouveau corps numérique qui devient alors le centre de sa perception. Il saisit l'environnement virtuel d'un point de vue égocentré (Slater & Wilbur, 1997 ;Slater et al., 2010), même si l'apparence de l'avatar est distincte de celle de l'utilisateur. Pour garantir la qualité de l'incarnation, il demeure important que la perception du corps virtuel, et les informations qu'il fournit, correspondent aux mouvements réels réalisés, ce qui implique une obligation de fidélité de l'avatar dans leur reproduction. ...
... Nous reprenons à notre compte le consensus établi autour de l'idée que l'immersion est une impression de la personne d'avoir quitté le monde réel et d'être désormais enveloppée dans et par l'environnement virtuel grâce à la capacité d'un système informatique de générer des illusions de réalité inclusives, vastes, environnantes et vives(Slater & Wilbur, 1997). La technologie utilisée procure un input sensoriel multimodal à l'utilisateur(Bystrom et al., 1999 ;Draper et al., 1998 ;Slater & Wilbur, 1997).Slater et al. (1997) soulignent dans cette définition la nécessité de disposer d'une représentation de soi dans un environnement virtuel, tel qu'un corps virtuel centre de la perception, pour ressentir l'immersion.37 ...
... Nous reprenons à notre compte le consensus établi autour de l'idée que l'immersion est une impression de la personne d'avoir quitté le monde réel et d'être désormais enveloppée dans et par l'environnement virtuel grâce à la capacité d'un système informatique de générer des illusions de réalité inclusives, vastes, environnantes et vives(Slater & Wilbur, 1997). La technologie utilisée procure un input sensoriel multimodal à l'utilisateur(Bystrom et al., 1999 ;Draper et al., 1998 ;Slater & Wilbur, 1997).Slater et al. (1997) soulignent dans cette définition la nécessité de disposer d'une représentation de soi dans un environnement virtuel, tel qu'un corps virtuel centre de la perception, pour ressentir l'immersion.37 Si nous considérons la perception comme une construction active de l'observateur, l'immersion cognitive est alors envisagée comme une appropriation active d'un nouveau dispositif technique, avec la production d'un sentiment de présence qui n'en constitue que l'une des étapes. ...
... The individual's sense of ownership over the avatar body emerges when she is able to transfer her cognitive self-representation to her new digital body, which stands at the center of her perception. She is then able to grasp the virtual environment from an egocentric point of view (Slater & Wilbur, 1997;Slater et al., 2010), even if the avatar's appearance does not resemble the user's. For a Avatar embodiment: from cognitive self-representation to digital body ownership Hybrid, 9 | 2022 successful embodiment, the perception of the virtual body and the information it conveys must correspond to the user's actual movements, which requires faithful replication on the part of the avatar. ...
... Influence of body ownership on the individual's sense of immersion and presence in the virtual environment multimodal sensory input through the technology used (Bystrom et al., 1999;Draper et al., 1998;Slater & Wilbur, 1997). In this definition, Slater & Wilbur (1997) emphasize the need for self-representation, such that the virtual body centers perception, in order to experience immersion in a virtual environment. ...
... Influence of body ownership on the individual's sense of immersion and presence in the virtual environment multimodal sensory input through the technology used (Bystrom et al., 1999;Draper et al., 1998;Slater & Wilbur, 1997). In this definition, Slater & Wilbur (1997) emphasize the need for self-representation, such that the virtual body centers perception, in order to experience immersion in a virtual environment. ...
... In 2016, the VR games market began to develop dynamically, and the equipment used for VR gaming was modernized. Most studies until 2016 showed that women users experienced high simulator sickness and low immersion while using the same VR play equipment and content as men [16][17][18][19][20]. Males and females may be sensitive to different features of the simulated environment and may experience simulator sickness accordingly (females more for 2D environments, while males for 3D environments). ...
... Immersive VR 3D HMD exergaming systems are plain body movements and are close to the planned, structured, and repetitive elements of a typical moderate training session [25]. Immersion is one of the main factors required for enabling the game users to perceive all aspects to create a real-life impression [16]. VR 3D HMD exergame is a technology that is more immersive than a typical exercise session [20]. ...
... This questionnaire evaluates 26 symptoms due to the simulator. Questions on nausea (question numbers 1,8,10,11,12,22,25), oculomotor disorders (question numbers 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 12, 15), and disorientation (question numbers 7,1,14,15,16,17,18) were asked in the questionnaire. The task of the person examined using SSQ consists of making a subjective assessment of the severity of specific symptoms. ...
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Article
Background: Many young adults do not reach the World Health Organization’s minimum recommendations for the amount of weekly physical activity. The virtual reality 3D head-mounted display (VR 3D HMD) exergame is a technology that is more immersive than a typical exercise session. Our study considers gender differences in the experience of using VR games for increasing physical activity. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the differences in the effects of VR 3D HMD gaming in terms of immersion, simulator sickness, heart rate, breathing rate, and energy expenditure during two 30-minute sessions of playing an exergame of increasing intensity on males and females. Methods: To examine the effects of the VR 3D HMD exergame, we experimented with 45 participants (23 males and 22 females) exercising with VR 3D HMD Oculus Quest 1, hand controllers, and Zephyr BioHarness 3.0. Players exercised according to the Audio Trip exergame. We evaluated the immersion levels and monitored the average heart rate, maximum heart rate, average breathing rate, maximum breathing rate, and energy expenditure in addition to simulator sickness during two 30-minute exergame sessions of increasing intensity. Results: Audio Trip was well-tolerated, as there were no dropouts due to simulator sickness. Significant differences between genders were observed in the simulator sickness questionnaire for nausea (F2,86=0.80; P=.046), oculomotor disorders (F2,86=2.37; P=.010), disorientation (F2,86=0.92; P=.040), and total of all these symptoms (F2,86=3.33; P=.04). The measurements after the first 30-minute VR 3D HMD exergame session for all the participants showed no significant change compared to the measurements before the first 30-minute exergame session according to the total score. There were no gender differences in the immersion (F1,43=0.02; P=.90), but the measurements after the second 30-minute exergame session showed an increase in the average points for immersion in women and men. The increase in the level of immersion in the female group was higher than that in the male group. A significant difference between genders was observed in the average breathing rate (F2,86=1.44; P=.04), maximum breathing rate (F2,86=1.15; P=.047), and energy expenditure (F2,86=10.51; P=.001) measurements. No gender differences were observed in the average heart rate and maximum heart rate measurements in the two 30-minute sessions. Conclusions: Our 30-minute VR 3D HMD exergame session does not cause simulator sickness and is a very immersive type of exercise for men and women users. This exergame allows reaching the minimum recommendations for the amount of weekly physical activity for adults. The second exergame session resulted in simulator sickness in both groups, more noticeably in women, as reflected in the responses in the simulator sickness questionnaire. The gender differences observed in the breathing rates and energy expenditure measurements can be helpful when programming VR exergame intensity in future research. JMIR Serious Games 2022;10(4):e41234 doi:10.2196/41234
... In this context, two central terms exist in the field of VR research: immersion and presence [Slater and Wilbur, 1997]. While both terms are often taken as synonyms, they describe two distinct concepts in the scientific language as outlined below. ...
... Immersion describes an objective property of a VR system, a technical quantity, which is independent of the user [Slater and Wilbur, 1997;Jerald, 2015;pp. 45 f.]. ...
... Moreover, also aspects such as how the IVE responds to user actions and input, how virtual characters inside an IVE behave, and how the user's virtual body is realized play an important role for immersion. In summary, research has established an understanding of several aspects that contribute to immersion [Steuer, 1992;Slater and Wilbur, 1997;Jerald, 2015;p. 45], such as: ...
... Unlike telepresence and self-presence, social presence requires the actual experience in a virtual environment (VE) mediated by a co-present entity. Social presence describes a person's state in an environment-the state of consciousness in a VE and the sense of being in a place [45]. "The minimum level of social presence occurs when users feel that a form, behavior, or sensory experience indicates the presence of another intelligence. ...
... Short et al. introduced the concept of social presence referring to both the participants' feeling of connectedness and the perceived psychological distance during the interaction [49]. Social presence is more of an interpersonal relation, with verbal and non-verbal language being a key element for the interaction in VE [50], and is essential in a shared VE interaction with the sense of belonging to more than just a group, but of being fully immersed in the place [45]. Immersion is the quantifiable technological capacity of a medium to deliver "an inclusive, surrounding and vivid" [45] illusion of reality to all the participants involved in the interaction. ...
... Social presence is more of an interpersonal relation, with verbal and non-verbal language being a key element for the interaction in VE [50], and is essential in a shared VE interaction with the sense of belonging to more than just a group, but of being fully immersed in the place [45]. Immersion is the quantifiable technological capacity of a medium to deliver "an inclusive, surrounding and vivid" [45] illusion of reality to all the participants involved in the interaction. The perception of the VE increases with the capacity to be present and engaged in virtual reality; thus, the environment delivered by the VR headset appears more intuitive, realistic, and attractive. ...
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Article
In this paper, we studied the effects of using Microsoft HoloLens 2 in a Metaverse-based collaborative mixed reality environment on the driver’s social presence while using an autonomous driving system. In (semi-) autonomous vehicles the driver is the system’s monitor, and the driving process becomes a secondary task. Our approach is motivated by the advent of Microsoft Mesh XR technology that enables immersion in multi-person, shared mixed reality environments. We conducted a user study comparing the effects on social presence in two scenarios: baseline and mixed reality collaboration. During the baseline condition, participants communicated and interacted with another person using Skype/Meet which was installed on a mobile tablet. In the second scenario the participants used the Microsoft Mesh application installed on HoloLens 2 to collaborate in a mixed reality environment where each user is represented by an augmented 3D avatar. During the experiment, the participant had to perform a social interaction tell-a-lie task and a remote collaborative tic-tac-toe game, while also monitoring the vehicle’s behavior. The social presence was measured using the Harms and Biocca questionnaire, one of the most widely used tools for evaluating the user’s experience. We found that there are significant statistical differences for Co-presence, Perceived Emotional Interdependence, and Perceived Behavioral Interdependence, and participants were able to easily interact with the avatar in the mixed reality scenario. The proposed study procedure could be taken further to assess the driver’s performance during handover procedures, especially when the autonomous driving system encounters a critical situation.
... The core characteristics of VR are the level of immersion and interactivity. Slater and Wilbur (1997) highlighted that immersion is a description of the technology's ability to stimulate users senses via graphics and multiple sensory modalities and provide proprioceptive feedback about body movements (Slater & Wilbur, 1997). In contrast, Witmer and Singer (1998) do not define immersion as a pure technological attribute but more as a subjective, individual belief, that is, a psychological phenomenon. ...
... The core characteristics of VR are the level of immersion and interactivity. Slater and Wilbur (1997) highlighted that immersion is a description of the technology's ability to stimulate users senses via graphics and multiple sensory modalities and provide proprioceptive feedback about body movements (Slater & Wilbur, 1997). In contrast, Witmer and Singer (1998) do not define immersion as a pure technological attribute but more as a subjective, individual belief, that is, a psychological phenomenon. ...
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Background Virtual reality (VR) is considered a promising approach to support learning. An instructional design is essential to optimize cognitive processes. Studies show that VR has unique instructional and pedagogical requirements. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and applicability of the modality principle, which was previously validated in 2D classic multimedia, for learning with VR. The modality principle states that multimedia information presented as spoken narration is superior to on‐screen text. Methods A prospective experimental study with two compared conditions of instruction: VR‐based learning guided by on‐screen text (n = 34) versus spoken narration (n = 28). Students' cognitive learning experiences were captured by eye‐tracking and electrodermal activity (EDA). In addition, students' knowledge was evaluated using a pre–post knowledge test. Results and Conclusions Overall, there was no significant difference in knowledge retention between the participants who learned with on‐screen text compared to spoken narration. However, results from the eye‐tracking analysis showed that students who learned with the on‐screen text devoted longer visual attention toward important learning activity areas of interest, suggesting a better ability to discern between relevant and irrelevant information. Conversely, students who learned with the spoken narration expressed significantly more EDA peak responses, proposing a higher cognitive load. Implications This study outlines that while learning with VR was effective, the modality principle might not apply to learning with VR. Moreover, the analysis of the learning process suggests even an inverse effect, favouring the provision of instructional scaffolds as on‐screen text. Future research should evaluate this effect on long‐term knowledge retention.
... For immersion to exist, interaction between the user and the created environment is necessary, such as a movement of the user's head, there must be immediate feedback from the side of the environment. In relation to presence, this is a psychological state of a subjective experience of being in a different place than reality [21]. The presence in virtual reality can be in three ways: ...
... These two components are related to each other, the better the immersion created by the environment, the better the user's presence in it, making it possible to remove the user as much as possible from reality [21]. ...
Article
Virtual reality and augmented reality have the potential to enhance and widespread practical learning environments in professional courses efficiently in a cost-efficient manner by limiting the costs of real resources substituting them with fixed costs from.VR/AR applications with virtual resources. There are advantages in the learning process, as practical, active and visual learning methods are more efficient and virtual and augmented reality can digitalize these procedures and replicate them at scale with different degrees of virtualization. In this work we aim to provide a framework that allows the creation of VR and AR experiences for learning or training proposes in a serious environment adding gamification elements to keep user engaged in the learning/training process. In the process gamification adaptation to VR/AR environment is demonstrated in real applications. The learning tasks in this approach are not necessarily changed or take advantage of new forms of interactions and guidance but aim to be replicated in a blend between virtual and real environments. In this regard, we hope to advance gamification application to account for more elements, such as VR/AR interaction, digital twins and digital aids in a learning application. In this article we detail possible scenarios for the application of virtual reality and augmented reality combined with machine learning in serious games and learning scenarios.
... Immersion in virtual environments aims to give users a "vivid illusion of reality" [27,28] and is measured in comparison to the real and physical world having the highest levels of immersion. As such, virtual realities are often a technological collaboration of immersion and presence [28,29] to surround a user in a digital space that mimics visual, auditory, and other sensory elements of the physical reality. ...
... Immersion in virtual environments aims to give users a "vivid illusion of reality" [27,28] and is measured in comparison to the real and physical world having the highest levels of immersion. As such, virtual realities are often a technological collaboration of immersion and presence [28,29] to surround a user in a digital space that mimics visual, auditory, and other sensory elements of the physical reality. VR is hence measured in terms of the extent to which a virtual environment can surround users to simulate immersion and presence. ...
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Conference Paper
The demand for additive manufacturing (AM) continues to grow as more industries look to integrate the technology into their product development. However, there is a deficit of designers skilled to innovate with this technology due to challenges in supporting designers with tools and education for their development in design for AM (DfAM). There is a need to introduce intuitive tools and knowledge to enable future designers to DfAM. Immersive virtual reality (VR) shows promise to serve as an intuitive tool for DfAM to aid designers during design evaluation. The goal of this research is to, therefore, identify the effects of immersion in design evaluation and study how evaluating designs for DfAM between mediums that vary in immersion, affects the results of the DfAM evaluation and the mental effort experienced from evaluating the designs. Our findings suggest that designers can use immersive and non-immersive mediums for DfAM evaluation without experiencing significant differences in the outcomes of the evaluation and the cognitive load experienced from conducting the evaluation. The findings from this work thus have implications for how industries can customize product and designer-talent development using modular design evaluation systems that leverage capabilities in immersive and non-immersive DfAM evaluation.
... Early researchers in the field of VR made the distinction between immersive VR and desktop computer VEs, stating that desktop systems are less immersive because they do not surround the user in the virtual space (Psotka, 1995). On the other hand, VR systems that use head-mounted displays (HMDs), create an immersive experience by following the four factor model of immersion proposed by Slater and Wilbur (1997) in that these displays occlude the physical world (inclusive), involve the sensory system extensively (extensive), surround the viewer with the virtual world (surrounding), and are vivid in content and resolution (vivid). To better understand the link between immersive VR and learning, the current experiment investigated whether training a procedural task in immersive VR using a HMD led to better learning than if the training took place using a nonimmersive desktop system. ...
... Immersion can be considered as an objective property of a technology that describes the degree to which a system delivers a virtual experience that is equivalent to a real-world experience (Slater 2003(Slater , 2018Slater & Wilbur, 1997). For instance, a tracked HMD that allows for physical interaction within the virtual environment (VE) is more immersive than a desktop interface that uses a mouse and keyboard. ...
... The degree of vividness is related to the richness of the display, the content of the information, the resolution, and the quality. These aspects of immersion are related to the display of information; and (5) Matching requires a match between the participant's proprioceptive feedback about body movement and the information generated on display (37,38). (38). ...
... One additional study provided 13 adverse events in an attachment, including motor impairment, nausea and disorientation, neck pain, and dizziness (39). Table 3 shows the objective level of immersion based on the FIVE criteria developed by Slater et al. (37). Many studies (62.5%) met the criteria for moderate immersion (40,(42)(43)(44)(45), with the remainder being 12.5% high immersion (4), 12.5% low immersion experiences (41), and 12.5% information unavailable for immersion (29). ...
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Virtual reality (VR) interventions are increasingly being used in rehabilitating and treating patients with neurological disorders. This study aimed to explore the effects of VR exercise interventions for patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A systematic review of the published literature on randomized controlled trials of VR technology applied to patients with AD was conducted using the preferred reporting entry for systematic reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines. Descriptive analyses were performed to assess the quality of the studies in terms of the characteristics of the included studies, samples, diagnoses, types of VR technologies, subjective and objective levels of immersion, and quality of studies. Eight studies were included, including a pooled sample of 362 patients with AD. A systematic review showed that most studies focused on patients with AD’s cognitive and physical functions. The main finding was that VR interventions could help improve cognitive and physical balance in patients with AD. However, future studies should emphasize design and use well-accepted assessment tools to validate the effects of VR interventions further.
... For example, the headset and accompanying devices synchronise to cultivate a vivid environment. Slater and Wilbur (1997) describe immersion in terms of features such as 'inclusivity' and 'surroundings'. That is, 'inclusivity' would, in a perfect world, fully exclude the non-virtual world, delivering only the virtual stimuli, meanwhile 'surroundings' would fully encompass the user with an unrestricted view of the virtual world, rather than provide a panoramic view of a single viewpoint. ...
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Article
Quantitative methods have thus far been the predominant methodological stance of virtual presence research, leaving much to be desired in terms of qualitative understanding. Yet, virtual experiences are a highly personal engagement, unique to each individual, and their presence in virtual reality can be viewed in terms of its experiential individuality. This aspect of the virtual experience is overlooked by conventional quantitative methods, which clusters ratings or scores to form group deductions. Therefore, to address the qualitative gap in the literature and provide an appropriate examination of virtual experiences from the perspective of the individual, an Interpretative Phenomenological Approach was undertaken. This alternate methodology sought to reveal which aspects of virtual experiences users identify as enabling feelings of presence. Examination of common themes among accounts of individuals were performed, to investigate the generation of feelings of presence in virtual reality. Online recruitment provided six interviewees who participated in online semi-structured interviews, prior to Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Three superordinate themes were identified: visual satisfaction, freedom of interaction and suspension of real life. Expectance, realism and prevention of disbelief are among the sub-themes identified that contributed to the interviewee’s highly present experiences. The identified themes demonstrated the greatest influences of enabling a deeper sense of presence, in turn enhancing their experiences within virtual reality. In acknowledging these mitigating influences, it is hoped this may enable future virtual systems to build upon the research provided and produce consistently high-presence experiences. Consequently, this can aid educational, therapeutic and entertainment applications of virtual reality.
... The main modality is vision through a head-mounted binocular display, supported by spatially simulated audio sources and haptic stimulators in the hand controllers. With sufficient presence (Slater and Wilbur 1997), the world sensed by the learner -an imagined sociotechnical space -becomes fundamentally different compared to real-life experience. As this space is generated by a computer program, it exhibits inherent modifiability. ...
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Chapter
Advances in virtual reality (VR) technology afford creation of immersive virtual learning environments that simulate real-life learning contexts with increasing fidelity. When supported by sufficiently advanced artificial intelligence (AI)-based tutoring software, such environments may facilitate asynchronous, embodied learning approaches for learning hard, procedural skills in industrial settings – addressing timeliness, accuracy, and scalability issues common in the industry. This chapter reflects on the pedagogical setting of immersive virtual reality-based hard skills training guided by an AI tutor software agent. We examine the interfacing of traditional intelligent tutoring system (ITS) software with an immersive virtual environment. Further, we suggest the philosophies of embodied, embedded, enacted, and extended (4E) cognition as a way to fully consider learner epistemology in a virtual world and to account for and make full use of the unique opportunities afforded by the synthetic nature of the immersive virtual learning environment. To explore possibilities for improved pedagogical approaches, we project the 4E cognition approach into the abovementioned learning context and outline a theoretical framework for a VR-native AI tutor. We then propose VR-native pedagogical principles for such as framework that could inform follow-on research.
... In IVR, people have the "feeling of being" in the virtual environment and interacting with the virtual agents (VAs) inside it [2][3][4][5]. The concept of "presence" describes this quality of subjective experience in IVR [5][6][7][8]. The sense of presence is rooted in a paradoxical state of consciousness: people, even though they know that what they see is not real, react as if it is. ...
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Conference Paper
Nowadays, virtual technology with embedded virtual agents is increasingly present in everyday life. Therefore, understanding the characteristics of psychological experience in social interaction with virtual agents can be useful for theoretical and application purposes. Here, we aim to understand whether individual differences in empathy can influence social interaction with virtual agents. To this end, we designed a correlational study comparing individual propensity towards empathic traits and the ability to take the perspective of a virtual agent (VA) to understand whether and how they are associated. In an Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) scenario, participants had to locate a glass according to the perspective of a virtual agent. They were seated behind a circular virtual table around which, in various positions closer and further away, VAs with a glass placed in front of them could appear. Participants had to decide whether the glass was to the right or left of the VA's body midline. The results showed an association between some components of empathy and localization time: the higher the tendency to identify with a fictional character, the faster the participants were to locate the glass in all positions of the virtual agents around the table. Likewise, the higher the tendency to experience feelings of empathy, the faster they were in locating only when the VA was close to the observer. These preliminary results suggest that individual differences in empathy and the location of virtual agents help define how people experience virtual social interactions.
... 31). Notably, these conceptualizations of social presence, sourced by researchers in both CMC and HCI alike, all reaffirm the construct as being inherently subjective in nature, determined by the user's perceptions of the medium (Gunawardena, 1995) and, like spatial presence, being a psychological experience of the user, afforded by but distinct from the technology itself (Cummings & Bailenson, 2016;Slater & Wilbur, 1997). Nonetheless, even from an affordance-based perspective on social presence, objective characteristics of a medium-just like characteristics of the communication context or users themselves (Rice, 1992(Rice, , 1993-are likely to constrain and shape these subjective perceptions. ...
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Initially the province of telecommunication and early computer-mediated communication (CMC) literature, multiple systematic reviews suggest “social presence” is now used for an increasingly diverse set of phenomena across various communication settings. Drawing upon Chaffee’s (1991) description of concept explication as the dialectic process between the conceptual and operational aspects of research, this study provides a mixed methods analysis of social presence measures to evaluate construct validity and inform a modified conceptual definition. Results reveal several distinct constructs commonly measured in the empirical literature on social presence, including salience, perceived actorhood, co-location/non-mediation, understanding, association, involvement, and medium sociability. Based on the frequencies and co-occurrences of these constructs within instruments and across different research fields, we conclude that social presence, in practice, most commonly consists of the perceptual salience of another socialactor. Implications for the measurement and theorizing of social presence—and its distinction from other social experiences with media—are then considered.
... Immersion, presence, and interactivity are considered core features of VR technology ( [22], [25]). According to Slater and Wilbur [23], immersion is defined as "a perception of being physically present in a non-physical world by surrounding users of a VR environment with images, sound or stimuli" so that they feel to actually be "there". Immersion thus describes the embedding of the user in the virtual world. ...
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Preprint
Due to the corona pandemic, numerous courses were held using digital solutions in order to be able to continue teaching. Conventional collaboration tools (Zoom, Big Blue Button, etc.) were used in particular to digitally map a synchronous session for teaching and learning purposes. While these conventional collaboration tools offer a solid basis for communication between learners and teachers, aspects such as presence or a realistic type of interaction are neglected. In this work, we report on the experiences from a computer science seminar where virtual reality (VR) technology was used as an alternative solution for teaching and group work. The benefits of VR compared to conventional collaboration tools were examined using questionnaires and interviews with the participants. On the one hand, the results show the high potential of VR to increase the clarity and experienceability of learning content and to promote cooperation through social presence. On the other hand, the use of VR brings with it some technical and organizational difficulties that should be taken into account in the didactic implementation.
... Unlike augmented reality, virtual reality immerses its users in virtual space and disengage them from the physical environment where they are in [14]. Virtual reality technologies allowed people to sense that they are a part of and present in another world which is apart from immediate physical reality [15]. Steffen et al., [14] pointed out two important advantages of virtual reality: (1) Exclusion from physical word allows physical representations to jump through space and time since physical laws exist only in physical reality, and (2) VR makes people experience things that are impossible in physical reality due to laws of nature such as breathing underwater and flying. ...
Article
Çalışmanın amacı, Web of Science veri tabanında indekslenen Genişletilmiş Gerçeklik ile ilgili bilimsel makaleleri kümelemek ve sınıflandırmaktır. Bu amaca ulaşmak için Genişletilmiş Gerçeklik ile ilgili yayınlar bulundu ve veri tabanından toplandı. Veri önişleme için NLTK kütüphanesi kullanılmıştır. Sözcükleri vektör formatına dönüştürmek için Sklearn kütüphanesindeki TF-IDF yöntemi kullanıldı. Daha sonra yayınların anahtar kelimeleri K-Means kullanılarak kümelenmiştir. Her bir kümedeki anahtar kelimeler, her yayının özeti boyunca arandı. Yayın, en fazla sayıda anahtar kelimenin özetindeki kelimelerle eşleştiği küme adı olarak etiketlendi. Ardından, Support Vector Classifier ve Multinomial Naive Bayes makine öğrenmesi algoritmaları ile Gated Recurrent Unit derin öğrenme algoritmaları sınıflandırma için gerçekleştirilmiştir. Derin öğrenme ve makine öğrenmesi sonuçları karşılaştırılmış ve bu karşılaştırma, veri setinin makine öğrenmesine kıyasla derin öğrenmeye daha uygun olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Support Vector Classifier, Multinomial Naive Bayes ve Gated Recurrent Unit için doğruluk değerleri sırasıyla %90,4, %77,2 ve %99,8 olarak bildirilmiştir. Bu çalışma, GRU mimarisinin klasik makine öğrenmesi algoritmalarından daha etkili olduğuna dair kanıtlar sunmaktadır.
... B. dem Immersionsgrad der Technologie. Immersivität ist eine technische Eigenschaft, welche sich aus dem Zusammenspiel zwischen Hard-und Software zusammensetzt und durch die Inclusiveness, Extensiveness, dem Surrounding und der Vividness systematisch beschrieben werden kann (Slater, 2003;Slater & Sanchez-Vives, 2016;Slater & Wilbur, 1997). Es gilt als relativ gesichert, dass der Immersionsgrad der Technik positiv mit der Entstehung räumlicher Präsenz zusammenhängt (Cummings & Bailenson, 2016). ...
Article
Durch die fortschreitende Digitalisierung gewinnen virtuelle Entspannungsinterventionen, insbesondere monoskopische 360°Naturaufnahmen, zunehmend an Bedeutung. Während der bisherige Fokus auf der Wirksamkeit monoskopischer 360°Naturaufnahmen lag, haben nur wenige Studien die zugrundeliegenden Wirkfaktoren untersucht. Hierfür untersucht diese Sekundäranalyse, ob die räumliche Präsenz den Einfluss der Immersivität einer monoskopischen 360°Strandaufnahme auf die selbstberichtete und psychophysiologische Entspannung (Hautleitfähigkeit und Herzrate) mediiert. Explorativ wurde überprüft, ob dieser Mediationseffekt durch das Alter, Geschlecht oder die Technologieängstlichkeit der Teilnehmer beeinflusst wird. Insgesamt nahmen 102 junge Erwachsene (40.5% weiblich) an einem randomisiert kontrollierten Innersubjektexperiment teil. Alle Teilnehmer durchliefen drei Erholungsbedingungen, in denen sie eine monoskopische 360°Strandaufnahme über ein head-mounted display (HMD) und einen Computerbildschirm sahen und eine Kontrollbedingung ohne Strandvideo durchliefen. Vor der jeweiligen Erholungsbedingung wurden, um das physiologische Aktivierungsniveau zu erhöhen, den Teilnehmern Kopfrechenaufgaben gestellt. Die Multilevel Mediationsanalyse ergab, dass die Strandaufnahme via HMD signifikant entspannender erlebt wurde als über den Computerbildschirm. Dieser Unterschied wurde durch die räumliche Präsenz mediiert. Explorative Analysen zeigten, dass der Mediationseffekt nicht durch das Alter, Geschlecht oder die Technologieängstlichkeit der Teilnehmer beeinflusst wurde. Entgegen den Erwartungen wurden keine Unterschiede in der Hautleitfähigkeit und Herzrate zwischen den Bedingungen und auch kein mediierender Einfluss der räumlichen Präsenz auf die Psychophysiologie festgestellt. Diese Studie konnte erstmalig aufzeigen, dass die räumliche Präsenz ein bedeutsamer Wirkfaktor für die selbstberichtete Entspannung einer monoskopischen 360°Strandaufnahme ist, welcher nicht durch das Alter, Geschlecht oder die Technologieängstlichkeit beeinflusst wird. Allerdings ist die Aussagekraft durch fehlende psychophysiologische Entspannungsunterschiede zwischen den beiden Bedingungen eingeschränkt. Entsprechend werden weiterführende Studien zu den Wirkfaktoren monoskopischer 360°Naturvideos benötigt.
... The immersion experience in media has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields, and the basic concept along with it is spatial presence [24]. Spatial existence is defined as the subjective feeling of the user "being there" in the space embodied by the medium [25,26]. Spatial presence refers to experiences created by technologies (i.e., media systems) [27,28]. ...
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The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a significant change in the field of architecture and design education. Students and educators have been forced to rapidly adopt virtual courses, and returning to the physical classroom in the near future is still uncertain. This study investigates the recent remote learning experiences of tertiary students in Architecture programs through a questionnaire. In addition to the three dimensions of the community of inquiry (CoI) framework, including teaching, social, and cognitive presences, spatial presence is explored in this research because learners’ presence of space can affect their learning experience. The findings indicate that first- and second-year students have significantly different remote learning experiences than third- to fifth-year students, depending on their experience in face-to-face classes. The extended survey concludes with a discussion of three approaches to reflective learning in online architectural design education. This paper provides systematic knowledge of students’ perceptions of distance learning during the pandemic and contributes to developing smart education environments in architectural pedagogy.
... L'IMMERSION ET LA TÉLÉPRÉSENCELa (télé)présence est souvent mobilisée avec le flux et l'immersion(Nah et al., 2014). Les notions de (télé)présence et d'immersion se confondent à tel point qu'il est quasiment impossible de dissocier les deux concepts(Michailidis et al., 2018 ;Brown et Cairns, 2004).En effet, ces deux concepts ont même été mobilisés avec une signification identique dans plusieurs travaux (e.g.McGloin et al., 2013 ;Mcgloin et al., 2015 ;Nelson et al., 2013).Cependant, il est plus aisé de distinguer la (télé)présence du flow dans la mesure où le flow nécessite une interaction dans le monde virtuel à contrario de la (télé)présence(Slater et Wilbur, 1997 ;Weibel et Wissmath, 2011).SelonCharfi (2012, p. 97), la téléprésence « se présente comme une composante de l'état d'immersion », alors que pourGeorgiou et Kyza (2017), il existe une réciprocité entre l'immersion et la téléprésence. En effet, selon ces auteurs, l'engagement et l'engouement conduisent à la téléprésence tandis que la téléprésence induit une immersion totale. ...
Thesis
Résumé : La réalité virtuelle (RV) réunit les plus grandes marques et les consommateurs dans le métavers pour vivre des expériences de consommations ludiques sur le « web 4.0 », révolutionnant l’expérimentation et la découverte d’offres. En interagissant physiquement, le consommateur devient l’acteur principal, au plus près de l’expérience réelle. L’objectif de la thèse est de comprendre dans quelle mesure les composantes expérientielles influencent ce sentiment d’incarnation et quels sont les effets de ce dernier sur l’attitude et le comportement du consommateur. La démarche de recherche hypothético-déductive nous amène à construire un cadre théorique en marketing expérientiel puis d’explorer le phénomène par des études qualitatives à visées exploratoires afin d’élaborer un modèle conceptuel. Le modèle intègre la position du corps (assis vs. debout) et les défis (absence vs. modérés vs. avancés) tels les déterminants de l’incarnation ainsi que l’immersion et le plaisir tels les facteurs explicatifs de l’incarnation et des intentions comportementales. L’étude quantitative (n=328) est analysée par un modèle d’équations structurelles PLS. Six unités expérimentales composent le contexte expérientiel relatif la visite d’une destination touristique virtualisée. Les résultats confirment le rôle des effets prédictifs ainsi que ceux joués par des médiateurs et modérateurs entre certaines relations du modèle conceptuel. La recherche présente les apports méthodologiques et théoriques et formule des préconisations à destination des professionnels et de chercheurs dans le cadre de futures recherches.
... Its consubstantiation with virtual reality (VR), while still underresearched, could offer a way to increase the immersion and engagement of patients during therapy sessions in comparison to the methods already in use, reinforcing the benefits of traditional RT. In this sense, our team recognizes VR as a fully immersive interactive simulation that evokes a solid perception of one being psychological present in a virtual environment, independently of that environment being synthetized or a replica of the real world [20]- [22]. By feeling engaged in this environment, we hypothesize that PwD might link fictional events to personal memories and, as a result of this association, experience feelings similar to those felt during the real moment [23]. ...
Conference Paper
Without a cure for dementia, researchers are focusing on reminiscence therapy, which effectively improves patients' quality of life. The use of virtual reality as a complement to this non-pharmacological therapy could help mitigate the loss of oral communication competencies in people with dementia. This systematic literature review aimed to investigate the effect of virtual reality-based reminiscence therapy in people with cognitive impairment or dementia and to understand how the reminiscence program should be designed. The literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and included results through 31 March 2022. A total of seven articles were included. Overall, the results support the use of virtual reality-based reminiscence therapy in people with cognitive impairment or dementia. In general, virtual reality was found to be pleasant and safe to use, with potential to stimulate communication competencies and lead people to recall positive memories without threatening side effects. However, no changes were observed in behavioral, psychological, or quality of life indicators. In addition, the reminiscence programs were too heterogeneous to trace a clear pattern. The findings of this systematic literature review suggest that virtual reality-based reminiscence therapy for these groups is scarce in literature. It is vital to conduct further research in this area, given that seven articles do neither represent the severity of the conditions nor the possible potential of virtual reality-based reminiscence therapy.
... 'Immersive' is used to refer to the software and technology used to detect and interact with a particular environment. 'Presence', on the other hand, is concerned with the experience of 'being there' and can be defined as a user response that depends on the individual and the context (Slater & Wilbur, 1997). VR environments can be divided into different computer-based system and Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) groups according to the presence, feeling of immersion and interaction possibilities they provide (Araiza-Alba et al., 2022). ...
Article
This study considers if the 360° video Virtual Reality (VR) environment is a less stressful alternative to giving actual presentations, and thus better able to support the development of the presentation skills of teacher candidates. Mixed method research was conducted in which 12 teacher candidates gave an average of 5 minutes of presentations on different days, both in a virtual and in a face-to-face school environment, before a group of listeners whom they hadn’t seen before. The candidates’ pulses were compared during presentations conducted in both environments, and the audio recordings were analysed with the PRAAT program. Further evaluation was conducted at the end of the process using an opinion form and interviews. No significant differences were found between the two groups, except in 2 of the 9 different sound analysis variables related to anxiety and the pulse of the candidates. The candidates generally felt that the 360° video VR experience was quite realistic, and that it could be an effective method of addressing concerns about giving presentations. It was therefore concluded that 360° video VR environments could be effectively used in teacher education as an alternative to the actual presentation experience.
Chapter
Research suggests that immersion in computer games is beneficial for recovering from stress and improving mood. However, no study linked explicit measures of presence—individually experienced immersion—to mood enhancement. In the present experiment, immersion of a gaming activity was varied, and levels of presence and enjoyment were measured and connected to mood repair after a stress-induction. The participants (N = 77) played a game in virtual reality (VR; high immersion), on the desktop (medium immersion), or watched a recording of the game (low immersion). Positive emotions were enhanced in the high and medium, but not the low immersion condition. Presence was a significant predictor in the VR condition. Furthermore, an explanatory mediation analysis showed that enjoyment mediated the effect of presence on mood repair. These findings demonstrate positive effects of presence experiences in gaming. Strong presence in VR seems especially helpful for enhancing mood and building up positive emotional resources.
Chapter
As virtual reality (VR) games are getting more widespread, the need to understand the interaction between players and the VR games is gaining prominence. The present study examines player endorsement of virtual reality games from an amalgamation of technology acceptance, self-determination, and flow theory perspectives. A survey was carried out with participants (N = 396) who had played a VR game at least once and at most five times. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that perceived ease of use was the primary predictor for satisfaction of self-determination constructs (autonomy and competence) and flow constructs (immersion and concentration), which in turn predicted player enjoyment. Accordingly, the results suggest the importance of including self-determination constructs in addition to the flow perspective within the context of technology acceptance model, for explaining the acceptance of VR gaming. Findings also showed that enjoyment resulted in positive attitudes towards VR gaming, and these attitudes predicted intention to play VR games.
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We investigated the learning outcome of teaching an agent via immersive virtual reality (IVR) in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we compared IVR to a less immersive desktop setting and a control condition (writing a summary). Learning outcomes of participants who had explained the topic to an agent via IVR were better. However, this was only the case for participants who scored high on absorption tendency. In Experiment 2, we investigated whether including social cues in the task instructions enhances learning in participants explaining a topic to an agent. Instruction manipulation affected learning as a function of absorption tendency: Low-absorption participants benefitted most from being instructed to imagine they were helping a student peer pass an upcoming test, while high-absorption participants benefitted more when they were to explain the text to a virtual agent. The findings highlight the crucial role of personality traits in learning by teaching in IVR.
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Background : Virtual reality hypnosis is a combination of visual immersion in a virtual reality environment and clinical hypnosis. It can be used in addition to conventional techniques, for sedation and pain management during wound care. Patients undergoing painful and long-lasting procedures under regional anesthesia could also benefit, from this technique alleviating the need for sedative-hypnotic medication. Case presentation : Two patients with relative contra- indications for general anesthesia underwent lengthy orthopedic surgery of the upper limbs under regional anesthesia with additional virtual reality hypnosis. Written informed consent was obtained from both patients before surgery. A 69-year-old man, with a previous medical history of severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis (ѳ 0.69cm2, max/mean gradient of 91/58mmHg) sustained a proximal humerus fracture-dislocation and was scheduled to undergo shoulder hemi-arthroplasty. Anesthesia was provided with ultrasound-guided continuous interscalene block at the C5-C6 level (11mL levobupivacaine 0.5%) combined with a single-shot superficial cervical plexus block (6mL levobupivacaine 0.5%). The second case was a 56-year-old man suffering from rheumatoid arthritis with severe restrictive lung function due to interstitial lung disease and bilateral bronchiectasis. He received a unilateral elbow prosthesis. Continuous infra-clavicular brachial plexus block, per- formed under ultrasound guidance was provided (20 mL mepivacaine 1.5%). Both patients required prolonged immobilization on the operating table. We used virtual reality hypnosis to induce sedation and improve comfort without using medication. This was provided by headphones and head-mounted goggles, showing computer generated images of underwater scenes (Aqua module, Oncomfort ™). Both surgeries were uneventful during which time cardiorespiratory stability was maintained. Patients were comfortable during and satisfied after surgery. No sedative drugs were given before nor during the procedures. Conclusion : Non-pharmacological sedation can be achieved with virtual reality hypnosis. When com- bined with regional anesthesia, this technique provides satisfactory sedation when pharmacological methods may be hazardous.
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Metaverse platforms have become increasingly prevalent for collaboration in virtual environments. Metaverse platforms, as opposed to virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality, expand with enhanced social meanings within virtual worlds. The research object in this study is the chime bells of Marquis Yi of Zeng, one of China's most treasured cultural heritage sites. We aimed to create a metaverse platform for the chime bells of Marquis Yi of Zeng to provide visitors with a highly immersive and interactive experience. First, we collected the materials and data of the chime bells and other exhibits, as well as historical information. Then, the data were processed and integrated for 3D model reconstruction. In addition, we designed the virtual roaming system through which visitors could interact with the exhibits to obtain multimedia information and even knock to ring the chime bells. Finally, we built our system to connect multiple visitors in different geographic locations and encourage them to collaborate and communicate within the virtual space. This platform helps users visualize cultural heritage, simulates real-life tour experiences with intuitive manners of interaction, and motivates visitors’ interest in traditional culture. This research also reveals the potential use of metaverse-related techniques in cultural heritage sectors.
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Virtual reality (VR) immerses users in others’ lives, creating empathy and understanding long after the VR scenario has finished. As VR technology has matured, VR scenarios have begun to be used in complex real-world areas such as education, health and organisational change. These scenarios can be of variable technical quality, with limited interactive capacity, unrealistic environments and clunky or absent avatars. In this study, three scenarios related to gender inequality training were constructed with glitches in the core immersive qualities of presence, interactivity and plausibility in order to understand their effect on the immersive experience. Using a multi-step in-depth series of qualitative interviews to examine the whole immersive process, the results show that immersion is not compromised but changed by glitches. Limited interactivity led to uncomfortable interactions that allowed participants to process difficult emotions; implausible situations surfaced buried norms and prejudices; and avatar variation gave rise to a sense presence that also included distance, which gave the user opportunities for critical reflection. These results point towards immersion as a robust and richly textured concept, while interactivity, plausibility and presence can best be understood as dimensions rather than goals. Totally seamless and immersive experiences may not only be utopian but also unnecessary. The glitches in low-end productions can produce powerful communication without expensive technology.
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The emergence of immersive virtual reality (IVR) technologies has raised interest in 13 the use of fire and rescue services (FRS) as a supplement to the established practice-based hot 14 fire-live simulation (HF-LS) training. This is due to features such as time efficiency, portable 15 technologies, and training in scenarios not possible in HF-LS. However, whether IVR provides 16 realistic firefighter training situations has been called into question. Previous studies have 17 revealed differences regarding perceived presence in, and attitudes toward IVR training 18 between novice firefighters (who can only relate to HF-LS training) and experienced 19 firefighters (who can relate to both HF-LS and real fires). In the present study, two groups of 20 experienced full-time employed firefighters, 53 from Brazil and 18 from Sweden tested the 21 same IVR technology. The hypothesis was that differences in national education and training 22 programs and real fire experiences might influence experiences in IVR technology. This study 23 examines the differences and similarities in experienced presence, opinions on whether the 24 graphical representations and tasks performed convey realism, and attitudes toward the IVR-25 supported training format. Data were collected via systematic post-training presence 26 questionnaires and observations. The results revealed a highly experienced presence and 27 perceived realism of the representations by the participants from both countries. However, 28 attitudes toward using IVR technologies differed. The motivation to utilize currently available 29 IVR training tools was higher in Brazil than in Sweden. This may be partly explained by less 30 frequent HF-LS training opportunities in Brazil. Nevertheless, further research is needed to 31 investigate the training transfer of IVR technologies and how these can better support skills 32 training. 33
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This research explores the cross-modal correspondence effect of ambient color on people's taste perception in virtual reality (VR). To this end, we designed and conducted two experiments to investigate whether and how taste-congruent ambient colors in VR influence taste perception measured by four aspects: (1) taste ratings of a neutral drink; (2) taste association with virtual environments; (3) associated scenarios when immersed in these virtual environments; and (4) participants' liking of these environments. In Experiment 1, participants adjusted the ambient light with different cross-modal-related colors in the immersive environments and reported their scaling of the Virtual Reality Sickness Questionnaire (VRSQ). Comfortable light intensity for each ambient color was obtained and color recognition problems were observed. In Experiment 2, participants tasted black tea (as the neutral drink), after being exposed to eight different virtual environments with different ambient colors. Results showed that the pink ambient color significantly increased the sweetness ratings. Differences in the color-taste association and environment liking were also observed in the ambient color conditions. Our results provide new insights into the cross-modal correspondence effect on ambient color and taste perception not found in prior work in VR scenarios.
Chapter
As part of the curriculum at the Department of Tourism, Brawijaya University, Malang City, Indonesia, the authors are conducting a virtual tourism course to understand the interrelation of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) in the tourism and hospitality fields. Moreover, this course also included practicums to create and use varied, immersive systems such as Web-VR, 3D VR, Multiplayer 3D VR, Marker-Based AR, and Marker-Less AR content in the context of tourism business etiquette and procedures as a virtual tour guide. In continuation, under the coordination of the tourism laboratory, they initiated a virtual living lab together with students and stakeholders that focus on strengthening Malang's City identity as a heritage city by using AR/VR technologies. Therefore, this chapter aims to define and recognise basic insights of the concept, types, and characteristics of remote practicum methods. Specifically, this review also describes with examples required equipment and best practice software and explains the advantages and limitations that may occur.
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Cooperation allows to reach goals that one single organism cannot achieve. In ethological studies the mechanisms of cooperation have been widely investigated; new experimental paradigms are now introduced in controlled environments to simplify the approach and to go deep inside the strategies of cooperation. One of these experimental paradigms is the “loose string task”, for example used with chimpanzees and birds. Analyzing the strategies and the mechanisms used by artificial organisms to perform a cooperation task, we observed that vision can help agents to solve the problem better than communication.
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Driving simulation is an indispensable tool for researching and developing future mobility concepts in urban areas, as it provides safe and reproducible driving conditions. However, urban traffic in driving simulation raises new challenges as human drivers have to interact with artificially modeled vulnerable road users, including pedestrians. State-of-the-art modeling approaches for pedestrians in driving simulation are rather simplistic and fail to produce a realistic impression of pedestrians and, therefore, also fail to deliver valid test conditions. In this paper, we present a concept on how to generate more realistic pedestrians in driving simulation by applying motion-captured gestures from real humans to artificial pedestrian models. Besides expected positive effects on presence and risk perception in simulator experiments, the linking of visualization and agent models allows for the implementation of interactive driving situations.
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Virtual reality (VR) offers the opportunity to create virtual worlds that could replace real experiences. This research investigates the influence of user motivation, temporal distance and experience type on the satisfaction with the VR experience, and the degree of acceptance of a VR experience as a substitute for a real experience. The results suggest that the degree of acceptance of a VR experience as a substitute for a real experience is higher for passive VR experiences compared to active VR experiences. Furthermore, the results support the assumption that users are more satisfied with passive VR experiences.
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A hyper-connected digital universe referred to as the ‘metaverse’ bears the promise of fundamentally changing how consumers, brands, and firms will transact and interact in a seamlessly interconnected space of virtual realities. The potential of the metaverse is being accelerated by the increasing tendency of (i) consumers engaging and transacting in virtual spaces and (ii) firms investing millions of dollars in developing metaverse-related technologies. However, given the rapid evolution, there is a lack of clear understanding of the current scope of the metaverse and the consequent implications for marketing practice and research. This study integrates the findings from an extensive literature review of multiple disciplines and expert viewpoints of industry leaders to propose a definition and an organizing framework for the emergent metaverse. Subsequently, the authors discuss how metaverse-induced changes contribute to novel implications for marketing practice and propose a research agenda to guide future academic studies and marketing initiatives.
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Will there only be one Metaverse in the future? Since October 2021, many virtual worlds suddenly called themselves “Metaverse”, but is that justified? What is the meaning behind the pervasive term Metaverse? How can it be approached from a pragmatic and research-oriented point of view, and maybe separated a bit from pure marketing? This paper tries to contextualise the term and thereby offer an orientation for readers from different industries. Based on a review of past and present activities, we will propose our own definition of the term Metaverse. This is applied to analyse different application scenarios before the paper continues with a general discussion. In a direct comparison, we will tabulate some worlds that already call themselves a Metaverse and check them against criteria from our own definition. In conclusion, we present relevant focal points for a potential future Metaverse resulting from this comparison.
Chapter
Due to physical and cognitive deficits, it is often difficult and costly for individuals who have suffered a stroke to access on-site neurorehabilitation. Telerehabilitation offers the opportunity to improve the rehabilitation process as it can provide intensive supervised rehabilitation in the home environment. The term telerehabilitation refers to the provision of therapeutic services at a distance, enabled by electronic telecommunication and information technologies. Services are provided through a variety of technical systems with different purposes and capabilities. This chapter provides an overview of technical solutions for providing telerehabilitation services to treat the main consequences of stroke, namely paresis of the upper and lower extremities, and communication difficulties. We describe the communication tools, sensor technologies, virtual reality systems, and robots for service delivery and explore the facilitators and barriers to successful implementation. Evidence is summarized in the context of teleassessment, telemonitoring, and teletherapy.
Chapter
In the recent years, the use of virtual reality (VR) to enhance motor skills of persons with activity and participation restriction due to disease or injury has become an important area of research and translation to practice. In this chapter, we describe the design of such VR systems and their underlying principles, such as experience-dependent neuroplasticity and motor learning. Further, psychological constructs related to motivation, including salience, goal setting, and rewards are commonly utilized in VR to optimize motivation during rehabilitation activities. Hence, virtually simulated activities are considered to be ideal for [1] the delivery of specific feedback, [2] the ability to perform large volumes of training, and [3] the presentation of precisely calibrated difficulty levels, which maintain a high level of challenge throughout long training sessions. These underlying principles are contrasted with a growing body of research comparing the efficacy of VR with traditionally presented rehabilitation activities in persons with stroke that demonstrate comparable or better outcomes for VR. In addition, a small body of literature has utilized direct assays of neuroplasticity to evaluate the effects of virtual rehabilitation interventions in persons with stroke. Promising developments and findings also arise from the use of off-the-shelf video game systems for virtual rehabilitation purposes and the integration of VR with robots and brain-computer interfaces. Several challenges limiting the translation of virtual rehabilitation into routine rehabilitation practice need to be addressed but the field continues to hold promise to answer key issues faced by modern healthcare.
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The use of virtual reality (VR) in interior design has increased dramatically. Its interactive and visualization benefits are undeniable. Designers, clients, developers, and stakeholders can immerse themselves in future or existing design projects without the need to be physically there. Thanks to more immersive and realistic experiences, the boundaries that separate the physical and the virtual world are becoming nonexistent. Nonetheless, research has focused on the visual characteristics of the virtual space, undermining the consequences for individuals engaged within it. In this study, we assessed the effects on mental workload caused by how individuals visualize themselves in VR using a virtual body (VB). The VB is typically represented by the use of avatars. An experimental setup was carried out with a convenience sample of 72 individuals. Participants interacted in an immersive VR interface with three different conditions of the VB. They were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions and engaged for a period of approximately 20 minutes in tackling a design‐like activity. Data were collected through self‐report questionnaires in addition to a psychophysiological device accounting for the cognitive load (CL) and task difficulty. The statistical analysis supported differences in CL between conditions. A more detailed visual representation of the VB increased the sensation of being there but contributed extraneous CL that can hinder the task at hand. The findings of this study can guide interior designers in selecting the type of VB they should use for their immersive VR experiences.
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This contribution focuses on 'new narratives' dealing with the global issue of migration which however stands only as a paradigm of other forms of systemic injustice and discrimination. Taking paradigmatic projects-Clouds over Sidra (2015) and This Room (2017)-I will set off to look behind the promise of interactive, immersive narratives to let users 'walk in someone else's shoes'. This article explores in how far the specific affordances of VR affect the engagement with content and the potentially transformative impact the producers are aiming at. Are we dealing with an exploitive gaze, are we drawn into a 'human rights spectacle', or do new forms of narrative enable response-able witnessing? The theoretical framework brings together recent theories of VR non-fiction, drawing on the tradition of documentary theory and approaches to interactive storytelling, as well as findings in social psychology, especially conceptualizations of immersion, empathy, and presence in VR environments. Addressing problematic socio-cultural, socio-political and media-ethical constellations (the risk of 'improper distance', of dehistoricizing and depoliticizing complex issues, of reinscribing hegemonic points-of-view and of imposing one's own truth over the actual experiences of 'others', colonizing their feelings) I suggest a form of critical dis-immersion, arguing that the potential of new narratives does not consist in its amplification of visual illusion and immediate affective response but rather in its ability to model a different concept of subjectivity, questioning established regimes of gaze and perspective of the 'self' in relation to others.
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Have you ever picked up a stuffed toy and pretended to play with it in your childhood? We are motivated by the novel use of stuffed toys in enhancing extended reality interaction. A key goal of extended reality is to induce the feeling of presence in its users. Naturally mapped control interface has been shown to enhance presence. The literature also indicates that a high degree of freedom tracking is important to extended reality. Based on these observations, we show that a free-form naturally mapped control interface is well-motivated via a theoretical contextualization. We explore the possibility of building such a controller in the form of stuffed toys. To realize stuffed toys as controllers, a novel soft-pose estimator empowered by cage-based deformation is proposed. It is shown to be effective in tracking the poses and deformations of real soft objects even by training with synthetic data only. Three gameplay prototypes are developed to demonstrate that interactive play can be enabled by the soft-pose estimator. They also form the basis for two user studies that validate the success of tracking stuffed toys with the soft-pose estimator for interactive play.
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this paper is funded by the U.K. Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC), and Department of Trade and Industry, through grant CTA/2 of the London Parallel Applications Centre. Thanks to Anthony Steed for his continued help with the experiments described in this paper. The Virtual Treadmill is the subject of a patent application in the UK and other countries. References
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Using the advantages of the sense of presence generated by virtual reality, a system to help children with autism was developed. Two case studies with children showed virtual reality has the potential to provide a safer, customized learning environment for individuals with autism. A model of reality that discusses historical and perceptual rules as well as input stimuli in forming a sense of presence is described.
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Two studies were performed to investigate the sense of presence within stereoscopic virtual environments as a function of the addition or absence of auditory cues. The first study examined the presence or absence of spatialized sound, while the second study compared the use of nonspatialized sound to spatialized sound. Sixteen subjects were allowed to navigate freely throughout several virtual environments and for each virtual environment, their level of presence, the virtual world realism, and interactivity between the participant and virtual environment were evaluated using survey questions. The results indicated that the addition of spatialized sound significantly increased the sense of presence but not the realism of the virtual environment. Despite this outcome, the addition of a spatialized sound source significantly increased the realism with which the subjects interacted with the sound source, and significantly increased the sense that sounds emanated from specific locations within the virtual environment. The results suggest that, in the context of a navigation task, while presence in virtual environments can be improved by the addition of auditory cues, the perceived realism of a virtual environment may be influenced more by changes in the visual rather than auditory display media. Implications of these results for presence within auditory virtual environments are discussed.
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This paper reports the results of three studies, each of which investigated the sense of presence within virtual environments as a function of visual display parameters. These factors included the presence or absence of head tracking, the presence or absence of stereoscopic cues, and the geometric field of view used to create the visual image projected on the visual display. In each study, subjects navigated a virtual environment and completed a questionnaire designed to ascertain the level of presence experienced by the participant within the virtual world. Specifically, two aspects of presence were evaluated: (1) the sense of "being there" and (2) the fidelity of the interaction between the virtual environment participant and the virtual world. Not surprisingly, the results of the first and second study indicated that the reported level of presence was significantly higher when head tracking and stereoscopic cues were provided. The results from the third study showed that the geometric field of view used to design the visual display highly influenced the reported level of presence, with more presence associated with a 50 and 90° geometric field of view when compared to a narrower 10° geometric field of view. The results also indicated a significant positive correlation between the reported level of presence and the fidelity of the interaction between the virtual environment participant and the virtual world. Finally, it was shown that the survey questions evaluating several aspects of presence produced reliable responses across questions and studies, indicating that the questionnaire is a useful tool when evaluating presence in virtual environments.
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Reports from adventitiously deafened individuals of a sense of unconnectedness with their surroundings, of a sense that the world seems “dead,” offer a compelling rationale for the argument that auditory cues are a crucial determinant of the sense of presence. Moreover, the crucial element of auditory stimulation for creating a sense of presence may be the auditory background, comprising the incidental sounds made by objects in the environment, rather than the communication and warning signals that typically capture our attention. Although designers of virtual environments have most often tried to maximize the sense of presence in the user by attempting to improve the fidelity of visual displays, the arguments presented here suggest that background auditory stimulation may be useful or even critical for achieving a full sense of presence.
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An operator's sense of remote presence during teleoperation or use of virtual environment interfaces is analyzed as to what characteristics it should have to qualify it as an explanatory scientific construct. But the implicit goal of designing virtual environment interfaces to maximize presence is itself questioned in a second section in which examples of human-machine interfaces beneficially designed to avoid a strong sense of egocentric presence are cited. In conclusion, it is argued that the design of a teleoperation or virtual environment system should generally focus on the efficient communication of causal interaction. In this view the sense of presence, that is of actually being at the simulated or remote workplace, is an epiphenomena of secondary importance for design.