Article

A Technique for Measurement of Attitudes

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Abstract

The project conceived in 1929 by Gardner Murphy and the writer aimed first to present a wide array of problems having to do with five major "attitude areas"--international relations, race relations, economic conflict, political conflict, and religion. The kind of questionnaire material falls into four classes: yes-no, multiple choice, propositions to be responded to by degrees of approval, and a series of brief newspaper narratives to be approved or disapproved in various degrees. The monograph aims to describe a technique rather than to give results. The appendix, covering ten pages, shows the method of constructing an attitude scale. A bibliography is also given.

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... After the lecture, subjects were allowed to explore the library of crystals on their own. The experience lasted for about 15 minutes and, at the end, we asked subjects to complete an anonymous online form with 27 questions asking for (i) basic background information; (ii) feedback regarding usability, comfort, and educational value of the application using Likert scale [35] or True/False values; and (iii) general suggestions and comments using open questions. Overall, we received very positive feedback suggesting that our application can be an effective mean to convey the spatial arrangement of atoms inside crystals and student would enjoy and benefit from having it as a support to crystallography lectures. ...
... Overall, they greatly enjoyed the experience (Q25 4.87±0. 35). In the open question box, From the open questions we received some interesting suggestions: two subjects proposed to add the name of the crystal on the desk, so that people do not forget which crystal they chose; some suggested to add a fake body showing legs and feet when looking down; one suggested to lower the lighting. ...
... The software architecture online form to evaluate their experience. The form included 27 Likert-scale[35] questions reported in ...
Article
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We present an educational application of virtual reality that we created to help students gain an in-depth understanding of the internal structure of crystals and related key concepts. Teachers can use it to give lectures to small groups (10-15) of students in a shared virtual environment, both remotely (with teacher and students in different locations) and locally (while sharing the same physical space). Lectures can be recorded, stored in an online repository, and shared with students who can either review a recorded lecture in the same virtual environment or can use the application for self-studying by exploring a large collection of available crystal structures. We validated our application with human subjects receiving positive feedback.
... Likert mappings were named for Rensis Likert, who developed them in his PhD thesis, and promoted them for the remainder of his long career [1][2][3]. They are mappings from responses to simple statements that are claimed to capture unobservable beliefs in a discrete scale that expresses both the direction and strength of preferences (e.g., traits, habits, consumption patterns, political orientation, and so forth). ...
... Let a particular survey instrument of n responses fill the i th of k Likert-scaled bins with probability q i . If X i is an indicator variable for choice of the i th bin, then the possible Likert scaled outcomes are X 1 ...
... Table 1 shows that for balanced Likert mappings, information loss and bias are insignificant. Table 2 summarizes an unbalanced mapping example, the Likert scale is built assuming respondents have N(μ standard , σ standard ) = N(0, 1) while the actual responses are significantly biased with distribution N(μ actual , σ actual ) = N (3,1). ...
Article
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Likert response surveys are widely applied in marketing, public opinion polls, epidemiological and economic disciplines. Theoretically, Likert mapping from real-world beliefs could lose significant amounts of information, as they are discrete categorical metrics. Similarly, the subjective nature of Likert-scale data capture, through questionnaires, holds the potential to inject researcher biases into the statistical analysis. Arguments and counterexamples are provided to show how this loss and bias can potentially be substantial under extreme polarization or strong beliefs held by the surveyed population, and where the survey instruments are poorly controlled. These theoretical possibilities were tested using a large survey with 14 Likert-scaled questions presented to 125,387 respondents in 442 distinct behavioral-demographic groups. Despite the potential for bias and information loss, the empirical analysis found strong support for an assumption of minimal information loss under Normal beliefs in Likert scaled surveys. Evidence from this study found that the Normal assumption is a very good fit to the majority of actual responses, the only variance from Normal being slightly platykurtic (kurtosis ~ 2) which is likely due to censoring of beliefs after the lower and upper extremes of the Likert mapping. The discussion and conclusions argue that further revisions to survey protocols can assure that information loss and bias in Likert-scaled data are minimal.
... The description of each measure and the questions asked to the participants for each measure are provided in Table 1. For each of the three measures, the participants answered the question using a 7-point Likert scale [46,47] that had the endpoints "Strongly disagree" (1) and "Strongly agree" (7), and the midpoint "Neutral" (4). The panel angle of the touchscreen panel was the independent variable in the study and had six levels (0 • , 15 • , 30 • , 45 • , 60 • , and 90 • ). ...
... The description of each measure and the questions asked to the participants for each measure are provided in Table 1. For each of the three measures, the participants answered the question using a 7-point Likert scale [46,47] that had the endpoints "Strongly disagree" (1) and "Strongly agree" (7), and the midpoint "Neutral" (4). Three measures, namely visibility, physical comfort, and preference, which have been the mainly considered measures in previous studies [1][2][3][4][5][6] dealing with the usability of touch interface-based products, were considered as the dependent variables in this study. ...
... The description of each measure and the questions asked to the participants for each measure are provided in Table 1. For each of the three measures, the participants answered the question using a 7-point Likert scale [46,47] that had the endpoints "Strongly disagree" (1) and "Strongly agree" (7), and the midpoint "Neutral" (4). ...
Article
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Control panels for kitchen appliances have been designed in various forms and with different design parameter values. Among these design parameters, the panel angle is one of the most important factors influencing the usability and user preference. However, few studies have been conducted regarding the panel angle effects in the context of kitchen appliances. There are only a few safety-oriented regulations or guidelines for kitchen appliance design. Therefore, in this study, the effect of the control panel angle of touchscreen kitchen appliances on their usability was empirically investigated for providing appropriate ergonomic recommendations. A total of six panel angles, namely, 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°, were employed in the experiment in consideration of the design parameter values used in existing slide-in/freestanding ranges. Three usability evaluation measures, namely, visibility, physical comfort, and preference, were employed. For each of the six panel angles, 20 participants performed temperature/power-level setting tasks and then subjectively rated the panel angle in terms of the three measures. The following major findings were obtained: (1) the control panel angle affected the scores of all three measures; and (2) when considering visibility, physical comfort, and preference comprehensively, the panel angle ranges 15°–42° and 15°–19° were recommended as the appropriate and optimal ranges, respectively. The findings of this study may be helpful in the ergonomic design of touchscreen panels for kitchen appliances, which can improve the usability of these panels and reduce human errors and response time in emergencies.
... El campo del AO, y especialmente los estudios de carácter empírico, se ha valido en gran medida de las escalas de Likert para la medición de sus dimensiones centrales. Sin embargo, si bien el método de construcción de la escala de Likert (1932) comprende pasos claramente definidos, el término Likert es utilizado de múltiples maneras y se lo ha encontrado aplicado tanto a escalas como a ítems. ...
... A efectos de cumplir con el objetivo propuesto, el presente artículo se estructura de la siguiente manera. En la siguiente sección, se expone el marco teórico de referencia, detallando los aspectos centrales de la escala de Likert, de acuerdo a la propuesta original del autor (Likert, 1932), y los pasos para la construcción de una escala de actitud. En la tercera sección se describe la Metodología aplicada en el proceso de revisión y análisis bibliográfico, del que resultó la selección de los 87 artículos empíricos estudiados en el presente trabajo. ...
... Dicho proyecto tiene por objetivo general proponer y aplicar un modelo de medición del grado de desarrollo de capacidades de Aprendizaje Organizacional (AO) e innovación en organizaciones basadas en conocimiento, y estudiar su relación con las dimensiones que caracterizan a una smart city, en el ámbito de la región centro -sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Rensis Likert creó esta escala en el año 1932 para medir actitudes (Likert, 1932). Se define una actitud como una predisposición aprendida para responder coherentemente de una manera favorable o desfavorable ante un objeto, ser vivo, actividad, concepto, persona o símbolo (Kassin, Fein y Markus, 2013;Devine y Plant, 2013;Oskamp y Schultz, 2009;y Fishbein y Ajzen, 1975;todos citados por Hernández Sampieri, Fernández Collado y Baptista Lucio, 2014). ...
Article
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La escala de Likert (1932), aplicada con el objetivo de medir actitudes mediante el relevamiento del nivel de acuerdo de un sujeto a una serie de ítems, es ampliamente utilizada en las Ciencias Sociales y, especialmente, en el campo del Aprendizaje Organizacional (AO). Si bien el método de construcción de la escala comprende pasos claramente definidos, el término Likert es utilizado de múltiples maneras y se lo ha encontrado aplicado tanto a escalas como a ítems. El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo analizar el uso de la palabra Likert en estudios referidos a la medición del AO y examinar su potencial asociación con el año de publicación. Se analizaron 87 estudios empíricos mediante técnicas descriptivas univariadas y bivariadas y se realizó un análisis de correspondencias concluyéndose que la expresión Likert-type se encuentra mayoritariamente en publicaciones de los primeros años (períodos 1997-2002 y 2003-2008) y que, en períodos más recientes (2009-2014 y 2015-2020) es preponderante el uso de Likert. El trabajo contribuye a dar cuenta de la diversidad de términos utilizados en el campo de la medición del AO en referencia a la escala de Likert, y de la existencia de asociación entre los años de publicación y los términos utilizados. PALABRAS CLAVE: Likert –Tipo-Likert –Escala–Ítem–Aprendizaje Organizacional –Medición.
... For example, "when sharing knowledge on social network sites, I want to increase my credits" or "Overall, I want social network sites to reward me for sharing knowledge". The measurement scale adopts the Likert (1932) 7-point scale, and the participants answer their degree of agreement with the range from 1 = strongly disagree, to 7 = strongly agree. ...
... For example, "I can know the value of the knowledge I have learned" or "I can use the knowledge I have acquired to solve problems". The measurement scale adopts the Likert (1932) 7-point scale, and the participants answer their degree of agreement with the range from 1 = strongly disagree, to 7 = strongly agree. ...
... For example, "I think my KS behavior is good" or "I believe my KS behavior is harmful". The measurement scale adopts the Likert (1932) 7-point scale, and the participants answer their degree of agreement with the range from 1 = strongly disagree, to 7 = strongly agree. ...
Article
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This study aims to explore what factors influence Internet users' willingness to share knowledge on social network sites. With the success and popularity of social network sites such as Google + , Facebook, Line, or Zalo, people realize that collective collaboration has become the cornerstone of the website's success. More and more Internet users are using social network sites for knowledge-sharing, which is playing a vital role in developing collective and collaborative knowledge. The research model in this study is based on Reasoned Action Theory (TRA) with a sample of 310 Vietnamese Internet users. A path analysis was used to test all the hypotheses using AMOS. We found that Absorptive Capacity and Organizational Self-Esteem have a positive and significant influence on Knowledge-Sharing Attitude. However, there is no positive and significant influence of Expected Return on Knowledge-Sharing Attitude. Besides, Knowledge-Sharing Attitude expectedly has a positive and significant influence on Knowledge-Sharing Intention. It is worth noting that although Expected Return has no positive and significant influence on Knowledge-Sharing Attitude, this finding helps to prove that in such an open online environment, Expected Return becomes an unimportant predictor for Knowledge-Sharing Behavior among Internet users.
... Section 2 measures student perceptions of responsibility in learning during ERT. Students answered six questions using a Likert scale (Likert, 1932). The questions focused on student responsibility and independence in their learning, student-instructor interactions, time management, and organisation. ...
... Section 3 assesses student perceptions of the impact of ERT on learning goal achievement and learning quality. It consisted of five questions that were answered using a Likert scale (Likert, 1932). The questions aimed to determine if ERT improved the quality of their education, enabled them to complete assignments faster and more efficiently, helped them better understand the subject material, helped them develop knowledge and skills and improved their motivation when learning. ...
Book
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... Decisional process The seminal background needed to design a master scale dates back to the early twentieth century, when American rating agencies began developing the tools needed for their activity [10]. In the meanwhile, flourishing research activity in psychology [11,12], being still ongoing nowadays [13,14], was devoted to designing master scales as a tool to map subjective attitudes collected through questionnaires into a quantitative framework. It is worth noticing that the schema reported in Figure 1 also holds in the latter context, considering the subjective attitudes as raw data and the questionnaire's structure as the rating system. ...
... Increasing values of HR correspond to a greater predictive power of the model, as a stronger separation between the distributions of defaulted and not defaulted individuals is implied by construction. Hence, the master scale s HR = argmax{HR(s)} (12) minimizes the loss of predictive power when turning the scoring model in a rating model. ...
Article
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Rating systems are applied to a wide variety of different contexts as a tool to map a large amount of information to a symbol, or notch, chosen from a finite, ordered set. Such a set is commonly known as the rating scale, and its elements represent all the different degrees of quality—in some sense—that a given rating system aims to express. This work investigates a simple yet nontrivial paradox in constructing that scale. When the considered quality parameter is continuous, a bijection must exist between a specific partition of its domain and the rating scale. The number of notches and their meanings are commonly defined a priori based on the convenience of the rating system users. However, regarding the partition, the number of subsets and their amplitudes should be chosen a posteriori to minimize the unavoidable information loss due to discretization. Considering the typical case of a creditworthiness rating system based on a logistic regression model, we discuss to what extent this contrast may impact a realistic framework and how a proper rating scale definition may handle it. Indeed, we show that choosing between a priori methods, which privilege the meaning of the rating scale, and a posteriori methods, which minimize information loss, is not strictly necessary. It is possible to mix the two approaches instead, choosing a hybrid criterion tunable according to the rating model’s user needs.
... Prioritization was performed using the Likert format of answers in surveys. It implies that the scores are valued as follows: 1 (very important, a patient has substantial difficulties with this, and the proposed solution is desirable) up to 5 (very unimportant, a patient can do this on their own without any difficulty, and the solution is not desirable) [9]. ...
... Prioritization was performed using the Likert format of answers in surveys. It implies that the scores are valued as follows: 1 (very important, a patient has substantial difficulties with this, and the proposed solution is desirable) up to 5 (very unimportant, a patient can do this on their own without any difficulty, and the solution is not desirable) [9]. Questions about demographics and disease-specific characteristics were included in the surveys. ...
Article
Objective: The goal of our study was determining the current needs and acceptance of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the field of assistive technologies using materials from the "RAMCIP" project (Robotic Assistant for Mild Cognitive Impairment Patient at Home). Methods: There were two target groups: a population with MS, and medical personnel experienced in treating MS patients. This study was based on a two-step design method (workshops and surveys). Using the Likert scale, we identified the prioritization of users' needs. Additionally, demographic and disease-specific data and their correlations with each other and with the level of priority of functionality were analyzed. Moreover, the acceptance aspect of the assistant robot and the respondents' readiness to use it were determined. Results: We gathered 307 completed surveys (176 from MS patients, 131 from medical personnel). Functional capabilities from the safety category were a high priority in most cases. The medium priority functions concerned daily activities that required physical assistance and home management. The differences in prioritization between the two groups were also found. Variables such as age, level of disability, cognitive impairment, depression, and fatigue were associated with the priority level of the functionalities. Conclusion: In summary, our findings might contribute to a better adaptation of robotic assistants to the needs and expectations of the MS population.
... For the second stage, we asked to the survey participants to rank the importance of each of the quality characteristics -from the quality model(s) identified as origin and from product characteristics -on a scale from -2 ("not important at all") to +2 ("extremely important") based on their technical knowledge and their own vision of the product and project quality. We chose to use a 5 points Likert's scale [242] (e.g., Figure 58) because usually all the stakeholders are already familiar with it. This scale is symmetric with the central value (i.e., point three here) considered to be the neutral value, and Likert's items can be assigned to values (e.g., 1 to 5, or -2 to +2) to facilitate their processing and analysis. ...
... As we described previously in Chapter VI.4.b, the survey is organized into four parts and uses Likert scales [242] for the enumeration of the possible answers (see Annex 9 for a copy of the survey). In the first part, we remind to the participant the objective of the survey usage which is to be able generate right quality model, and aligned A-SPICE, to qualify SW product quality of a variety of vehicle projects. ...
Thesis
Today, when a company designs, develops and manufactures goods or services, it must not only target a high level of quality for the products to satisfy customers, but also comply with many standards and regulations. This is particularly true with transportation systems where we can name few famous standards and guidelines: the ISO 26262 [1] addresses the software functional safety in automotive, the ARP4754 [2] provides guidelines for the development of civil aircrafts, and the DO-178C addresses software safety [3] in aeronautics. Furthermore, these safety guidelines impose to the company to be at the state of the art for processes and methods, when designing and developing a new vehicle.In the context of automotive systems’ development, our research aims to strengthen and unify quality definition, assessment, control, or prediction activities for automotive embedded software. Thus, to resolve this problematic, first we have to explore quality concept, qualimetry -the science of quality quantification [4]-, and the state of the art about quality modeling for embedded software. The result is not only to popularize and synthetize the knowledge behind these complex concepts but also, to confirm the choice of qualimetry as the right approach to solve our problematic, for which no proper solution exists yet.We then continue our study considering biology as key factor in our research. Therefore, we create a classified collection of clades of more than 450 quality models for software. We select the most appropriate quality model from this pool of quality models, and after introducing the concept of polymorphism in quality modeling, we demonstrate how to adapt and operationalize this model to automotive embedded software. This last achievement consequently replies to our original problematic.As a further conclusion of our research, we finally investigate whether a unique quality model for software product, as Zouheyr Tamrabet et al. [5] aim to propose, is more appropriate than a meta-model as quality model aggregator for software product, giving a first glimpse of the model result whose qualifier is the genome of software quality model.[1] “ISO 26262-6:2011 - Road vehicles - Functional safety - Part 6: Product development at the software level,” International Organization for Standardization, 2011.[2] “ARP4754A - Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems,” SAE International, Dec. 2010, [Online]. Available: https://www.sae.org/standards/content/arp4754a/.[3] “DO-178C - Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification,” Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics, Dec. 2011, [Online]. Available: https://my.rtca.org/NC__Product?id=a1B36000001IcmqEAC.[4] G. G. Azgaldov et al., “Qualimetry: the Science of Product Quality Assessment,” Standart y i kachest vo, no. 1, 1968.[5] Zouheyr Tamrabet, Toufik Marir, and Farid MOKHATI, “A Survey on Quality Attributes and Quality Models for Embedded Software,” International Journal of Embedded and Real-Time Communication Systems (IJERTCS), vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 1–17, 2018, doi: 10.4018/IJERTCS.2018070101.
... The questionnaire was sent to the teachers via Google Forms. The multiple-choice ones have been set according to the Likert [12] scale, as shown in Table 1, where five levels representing agreement, frequency, or satisfaction may be chosen. Figure 2. Teachers' answers about the use of Science/Physics Lab From Figure 2, it is possible to deduce that most teachers rarely use the Science laboratory in their daily teaching. ...
... The researchers in Table 3 have summarized an analysis of the discussion. The numbers in the columns are the medians of the Likert scale levels [12]. The resources are generally easily available materials (3,7) Too many resources are required (3,5) The classroom may be de-structured and changed in a laboratory (3,8) It isn't easy to experiment with it in a classroom (2,1) Some projects (see TEMI [14], for example) give the planning of several IBSE lessons. ...
Article
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In this paper we describe a primary school teachers’ training project which includes laboratory activities as part of non-formal education curricula. Fifty teachers and three researchers in the South of Italy were involved in the project. Some inquiry activities were proposed, while teachers and researchers co-planned some further laboratory activities and experiments, all of which were carried out with 9-10 aged pupils. In the case study described, children used artifacts made from simple and low-cost materials, and transformed them into instruments to experiment with electrical phenomena. By observing the researcher who directly acted in the classroom and actively attended the students during the laboratory phases, the teachers improved their professional knowledge in teaching Physics through laboratory activities within a non-formal environment.
... Questions were close-ended and answers were given in terms of perception on one of three Likerttype [17] scales (multiple answers not possible) based on established best practice response options [16]: An importance scale consisting of the levels: "Not important", "Slightly important", "Moderately important", "Quite important", and "Essential". ...
Preprint
We present a novel approach for teaching logic and the metatheory of logic to students who have some experience with functional programming. We define concepts in logic as a series of functional programs in the language of the proof assistant Isabelle/HOL. This allows us to make notions which are often unclear in textbooks precise, to experiment with definitions by executing them, and to prove metatheoretical theorems in full detail. We have surveyed student perceptions of our teaching approach to determine its usefulness and found that students felt that our formalizations helped them understand concepts in logic, and that they experimented with them as a learning tool. However, the approach was not enough to make students feel confident in their abilities to design and implement their own formal systems. Further studies are needed to confirm and generalize the results of our survey, but our initial results seem promising.
... Thus, Likert-type responses provide only an educated guess at student beliefs, and the likelihood of an evaluator guessing correctly is extremely remote. Originally, Likert scales were meant to be used as a quantitative, comparative measure of attitude (Likert, 1932). According to Aikenhead et al. (1987), the near-ideal one-dimensionality of Likert objects contrasts sharply with the multidimensional nature of authentic science in its socio-technological context. ...
Article
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This study aimed to develop a Nature of Science Understandings Questionnaire within Associated Approaches (NoSQ-AA) by discussing “consensus view” of the teaching of nature of science (NoS) in light of critiques and suggestions. The second purpose of this paper was to evaluate pre-service science teachers (PSSTs)’ nature of science understandings by using the developed instrument. Firstly, we examined the NoS approaches that have been proposed as options to the consensus view. We investigated the points at which approaches intersect and diverge from each other. Then, we incorporated the components of associated approaches under Reconceptualized Family Resemblance Approach to NoS (RFN) umbrella, which is the most detailed and developed for use in science education. Secondly, we developed 17 open-ended questions related to various contemporary socioscientific issues for the instrument and a holistic rubric to evaluate the PSST’s NoS understandings. The instrument was applied to sixty-eight 3rd PSSTs. The NoSQ-AA instrument evaluated the functional (reflective-interpretive) understandings of PSSTs on contemporary socioscientific issues rather than the declarative statements about NoS. We conducted consistency analysis considering the coding (86%) and the scoring (92%) of the PSSTs’ responses. The results of the study indicated that PSSTs’ NoS understandings were high; however, they expressed the social-institutional aspect less than cognitive-epistemic aspects of science in their responses. Besides, the categorical analysis of the responses demonstrated that two more categories titled “technology” and “social effects” can be included in associated NoS approaches. The findings indicate that measuring NoS understanding using the NoSQ-AA offers a holistic view of NoS and the relationship between science, technology, and society.
... The questions were answered on a five-point Likert Scale [46] in order to assess the level of agreement with the statement proposed [47] ranging from 'Strongly agree' to 'Strongly disagree'. Open-ended questions, producing qualitative data, were also used in the questionnaire, giving participants the chance to offer a subjective response based on their own experience and support the inductive reasoning. ...
Article
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After the International Maritime Organisation introduced the Maritime Cyber Risk Management in Safety Management Systems Resolution in 2017, with the compliance date set for January 2021, the Maritime industry has displayed an increased focus on its cyber-security. This quantitative research, supported by the socio-technical perspective, explores the employee perceptions of cyber-security onboard cruise ships. The results show that the cruise industry has made an attempt to increase its cyber-security by introducing a formal policy and training their employees. Employees, as a consequence, perceive cyber-security to be important. However, employee perceptions are not reflective of their behaviours onboard. This is because there are various technical and organizational obstacles to their cyber-security practices which have been overlooked. As a result, the cruise industry could do more to prioritise cyber-security on a day-today level in order to make sure that the employee experience is in alignment with cyber-security policies.
... For the pilot study, 44 students' responses were considered. The B-school students were asked to rate the competencies on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being rarely and 5 being always) (Likert, 1932) in the increasing order of importance. The pilot survey's reliability was tested using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, and Cronbach's alpha was calculated to measure the internal consistency of competencies, and the value ranges between 0.791 and 0.960 (critical thinking, α = 0.877; risk-taking, α = 0.791; problem-solving, α = 0.778; adaptability, α = 0.879; teamwork, α = 0.960; and creativity, α = 0.940. ...
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The higher education system, particularly management education institutions (MEIs), is recognized as a significant source of creative talent for organizations. Organizations have to carefully select the necessary talent from MEIs. In this light, MEIs would seek to maximize their students’ creativity competencies. This exploratory research study identifies the significant boosters of creativity-competencies employing a sample survey among 269 student-respondents on the verge of completing their MBA programmes. The relationships between the identified boosters were modelled using structural equation modelling. The study found that adaptive-thinking and teamwork serve as the foundation for various other competencies, eventually fostering creativity competencies among the MBA students. The study restricts the assessment of creativity competencies concerning selected MBA institutions. The model created will serve as the basis for developing creativity-competencies in management education. This study is new to examine the relationship among the individual competencies and traits boosting the creativity competencies and test the model in MEIs.
... It consisted of 33 questions (see Table 1) corresponding to the 11 variables in the theoretical model. The questionnaire structure was measured using a 5-point Likert scale [96] ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5) to record respondents' responses. ...
Article
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Vertical farming is a new branch of urban agriculture using indoor vertical space and soil-less cultivation technology to obtain agricultural products. Despite its many advantages over traditional farming, it still faces some challenges and obstacles, including high energy consumption and costs, as well as uncertainty and a lack of social acceptance. This study aims to investigate the influence of public acceptance on micro-vertical farming based on the deconstructed theory of planned behavior model. This model is adopted for statistical analysis to reveal the factors and their weights in influencing people’s behavioral intentions. The results indicate that the overall mean of the public’s behavioral intentions to use vertical farming is 3.9, which is above neutral (M = 3.00) but less than positive (M = 4.00). Differences in age, education level, and the living area of the public have significantly impacted behavioral intentions. Meanwhile, the statistical results support the hypotheses concerning the behavioral attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of the model, and also demonstrate that their decomposed belief structures considerably influence the public’s behavioral intentions to use vertical farming. Notably, perceived usefulness is the most critical driving factor in planting using vertical farming. The findings of this study contribute to better predictions of the effects of different elements of behavioral intention on vertical farming at the urban scale, which may provide a basis for decision making in the development of sustainable urban agriculture.
... At the start of our work, we decided to target a Likert scale [46] response format, with equally weighted items. We also pre-determined to use a 7-point Likert scale throughout our work with the same categories for each item, from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree-except for Survey 2 in which we ask about the relevance of terms, for which a lower number is encouraged [26]. ...
Preprint
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We developed and validated a rating scale to assess the aesthetic pleasure (or beauty) of a visual data representation: the BeauVis scale. With our work we offer researchers and practitioners a simple instrument to compare the visual appearance of different visualizations, unrelated to data or context of use. Our rating scale can, for example, be used to accompany results from controlled experiments or be used as informative data points during in-depth qualitative studies. Given the lack of an aesthetic pleasure scale dedicated to visualizations, researchers have mostly chosen their own terms to study or compare the aesthetic pleasure of visualizations. Yet, many terms are possible and currently no clear guidance on their effectiveness regarding the judgment of aesthetic pleasure exists. To solve this problem, we engaged in a multi-step research process to develop the first validated rating scale specifically for judging the aesthetic pleasure of a visualization (osf.io/fxs76). Our final BeauVis scale consists of five items, "enjoyable," "likable," "pleasing," "nice," and "appealing." Beyond this scale itself, we contribute (a) a systematic review of the terms used in past research to capture aesthetics, (b) an investigation with visualization experts who suggested terms to use for judging the aesthetic pleasure of a visualization, and (c) a confirmatory survey in which we used our terms to study the aesthetic pleasure of a set of 3 visualizations.
... The results were obtained using statistical tools such as tables and figures. A four-point Likert [28]; where the lowest scale represents strongly disagreed and the highest represents strongly agreed. ...
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The study assessed management control procedures and environment of Local Councils in Sierra Leone with reference to Bo and Kenema Districts Councils. The secondary objectives of the study were, to: 1) assess control procedures on the councils effectiveness; 2) assess control procedures in reducing fraudulent activities; 3) assess control procedures in promoting the councils performance; 4) identify the weaknesses in the control procedures; and 5) assess control procedures in achieving monitoring and supervision at the councils. The approach adopted for the study was a cross-sectional descriptive design, and the data were presented by the use of qualitative and quantitative methods. The target population of the study is twenty-eight (28) core staff members, out of which 26 core staff members were selected from both councils that adhered to control procedures and environment of Bo and Kenema Districts Councils. The approach adopted for the study was a cross-sectional descriptive design. Research design is the framework or blueprint for conducting meaningful research. The data were presented by the use of qualitative and quantitative methods. A four-point Likert scale was used, and questionnaires and documentary analysis were used as data collection tools. In order to improve performance and lessen control flaws, Bo District Council shows more support by adhering to its control processes. Control measures greatly benefited the councils at Kenema District Council in reducing its fraudulent activities, improving performance, and enhancing monitoring and supervision. The research paper therefore, recommends that the Local Service Commission should make available to the core staff members internal policies, acts and regulations to the 22 local councils in Sierra Leone. The study differs from earlier research by distinguished researchers in that it would assist organisations in reviewing, monitoring, and evaluating the councils' control procedures by reducing fraudulent activities and management breaches. Additionally, it would benefit the Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 6 Study about Management Control Procedures and Environment of Local Councils in Sierra Leone 187 Local Service Commission to improve its internal policies and practises to reduce the likelihood of false assertions that would hinder the councils' operations.
... The perception of raw beef consumers towards the safety of raw beef-eating was assessed based on Likert's scale [15]. The agreement of the raw beef consumers on the exposure to diseases from raw beef, the fatality of diseases originated from raw beef, the benefits of raw beef-eating, the effect of spices and alcohol on the raw beef borne pathogens, the effect of heating/cooling on raw beef borne pathogens, the contamination of raw beef with dangerous pathogens, the raw beef 's potential to transmit diseases to humans and the respondents' belief in the safety of raw beef-eating were the items used for the assessment of raw beef consumers perception. ...
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Apart from its nutritive value, meat is one of the substances for the transmission of pathogenic micro-organisms to consumers and the raw beef eating habit of Ethiopians can create a favourable condition for the transmission of pathogens from contaminated meat to raw beef consumers. The face-to-face interview of raw beef consumers was done using a structured questionnaire and 570 total samples were collected. A considerable number (74%) of raw beef consumers had favourable food choice; 85% of the raw beef consumers had favourable intentions to stop their raw beef eating habit, and 67% of them had an unfavourable perception of the safety of raw beef-eating. In conclusion, the study showed that raw beef consumers were not aware of the health risks of raw beef-eating. As a result, urgent sensitization intervention is required to shift the raw beef consumers from unhealthy eating habits to prudent (processed) eating practices.
... The Knowledge section encompassed questions on the respondent's level of knowledge on Responsible Parenthood and Family Planning and Family Planning Methods, the same with attitude and practices. A 5-point Likert scale (Likert, 1932) was used in rating the responses to the questions. ...
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Responsible parenting requires commitment, the right values, and a certain level of maturity to raise a family with a quality life. This research assesses the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) on Responsible Parenthood and Family Planning (RPFP) among selected 4Ps beneficiaries (n=659) in the five provinces of the Caraga Region. The socio-demographic and economic profiles of the respondents were correlated to their KAP on RPFP using multiple regression analysis. Results showed that most respondents are in their prime working age, married, Cebuano, high school graduates, embracing Christianity, from rural areas, nurturing a nuclear family with an average monthly income of P7, 287 for a family of six. Further, respondents are highly knowledgeable on RPFP while moderately knowledgeable about modern natural and artificial Family Planning Methods (FPM). Interestingly, they show a positive attitude towards RPFP and FPM but very frequently practice the principles of RPFP and occasionally practice FPM. The number of children and the age when they first become pregnant negatively affect their understanding of natural family planning. Whether their socio-demographic and economic status influences their KAP on RPFP, different government agencies whose mandate includes development should continue addressing various population issues. The study recommends a multi-dimensional, integrated, and holistic approach to addressing the various concerns that can contribute to an increased KAP among 4Ps beneficiaries towards the RPFP.
... The Likert scale, an widely used instrument especially in psychology, economics, and social science, introduced by Likert (1932) consists of a series of questions which are indicators of the latent traits to measure unseen variables. The latent variables are measured by the combined scores of all questions, which are on an interval scale (Tirakanan, 2008). ...
... According to the theories that underlie IPIP-Q60 and ESTCOL, individuals high on a certain dimension or scale of the questionnaire, should select more or less consistently "accurate-agree" responses and individuals low on the dimension or scale, should select "inaccurate-disagree" responses. Individuals between the extremes should therefore select "hard to tell" (other terms are also used, such as "neutral" or, as originally proposed by Likert (1932), "undecided") responses together with some moderate choices in one or another direction from the center but not "strongly" or "very" kinds of extreme answers. However, if the dimensions-scales-factors of individual differences are not continuous, then the respondents should sometimes select responses of the opposite kind. ...
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In this study, third in a series of studies of the relationships between the dominant type of the Word Meaning Structure (WMS) and various psychic processes, response patterns on personality questionnaires with Likert-type response format of individuals with different levels of education (including adult illiterates) in Brazil (N = 102) and in Estonia (N = 520) were assessed with person oriented methods of data analysis. We found that responses to two personality questionnaires (International Personality Item Pool Questionnaire, IPIP-Q60 and Estonian Collectivism Scale, ESTCOL) are inconsistent and do not correspond to theories that underlie construction and interpretation of such assessment tools. Two novel ways to assess inconsistent response patterns were developed. The Consistency Index (CI) characterizes between-item inconsistency and the Determinacy Index (DI) characterizes within-item inconsistency. The dominant type of the WMS and the level of education were related to both CI and DI. Higher level of between-item inconsistency characterizes everyday conceptual thinkers with lower levels of education and higher level of within-item inconsistency was observed among logical conceptual thinkers with higher levels of education. Systematic relationships between WMS and inconsistent patterns of responses indicate that responses on personality questionnaires cannot be interpreted in terms of personality characteristics. The results of our study also provide further support to the idea that dominant type of the WMS is a pervasive characteristic of the psyche and determines qualitatively possibilities and limits of the psychic processes. The results of this study are in agreement with the idea that WMS defines the “Great Divide.”
... In particular, we posed the following survey questions (Appendix A). The survey consisted of thirty-two questions, and used Likert scales (Likert 1932) to focus on quantitative aspects to obtain a comprehensive picture of mobile social media users' communication behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Statements were measured on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. ...
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Mobile social media has become a significant platform for information exchange and social interaction during public health emergencies, and it has experienced exponential growth during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has forced many emergency agencies to rethink the way emergency information is disseminated. Mobile social media can be applied to public health emergency response, and it has great potential value as a tool for fostering government-citizen relationships during public health emergencies. Furthermore, consideration of specific risk cultures and rigorous censorship of social media may influence citizens’ use of mobile social media during the pandemic or other public healthemergency. Thus, to investigate the specific mobile social media com-munication behaviors of Chinese citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic, we surveyed 2,074 mobile social media users in China from February to August 2020. We found that the state-oriented risk culture and strict censorship of social media, influence Chinese mobile social media users to seek and share information about the pandemic during public health emergencies; this finding has practical implications and academic value, because it increases the understanding of mobile social media users’ communication behaviors, supports shared situational awareness, and increases social resilience when responses to public health emergencies.
... we use Likert-type Scale when asking about concern or importance. The scale is provided on the Qualtrics software and is a psychometric scale developed for scaling responses in survey research [18]. We learned that participants had varying expectations of the meaning of a "commercial VPN" and that participants were not sure if the questions pertained to personal or professional use of VPNs. ...
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As more users adopt VPNs for a variety of reasons, it is important to develop empirical knowledge of their needs and mental models of what a VPN offers. Moreover, studying VPN users alone is not enough because, in using a VPN, a user essentially transfers trust, say from their network provider, onto the VPN provider. To that end, we are the first to study the VPN ecosystem from both the users' and the providers' perspectives. In this paper, we conduct a quantitative survey of 1,252 VPN users in the U.S. and qualitative interviews of nine providers to answer several research questions regarding the motivations, needs, threat model, and mental model of users and the key challenges and insights from VPN providers. We create novel insights by augmenting our multi-perspective results, and highlight cases where the user and provider perspectives are misaligned. Alarmingly, we find that users rely on and trust VPN review sites, but VPN providers shed light on how they are mostly motivated by money. Worryingly, we find that users have flawed mental models about the protection VPNs provide, and about the data collected by VPNs. We present actionable recommendations for technologists and security and privacy advocates by identifying potential areas to focus efforts and improve the VPN ecosystem.
... The interview process was designed to allow the researcher to explore with the homebuyers their lifestyles, attitudes and behaviours, and to gauge whether and to what extent they interacted with the REA Initiative. The data was intended to illuminate perception and performance of the Initiative and platform, influences on borrowing behaviour, and changes to propensity for mortgage uptake, thereby addressing Aim 1a Rensis Likert (1932), served as an ice-breaking device to actively engage participants and provide them with an easily-understandable method to quantify a qualitative feeling, as well as a springboard for longer responses. The questions were grouped into four categories: demographic attributes; lifestyle, attitudes and behaviour; ...
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Over the past 30 years, Australian housing prices and household indebtedness have risen steeply, wages have stagnated, and housing affordability has sharply decreased, posing grave socio-economic risks. Embracing the prevailing neoliberal discourse promoting housing investment as the path to wealth, Australian households have generated a property 'frenzy', using debt to 'manage' the increasing price/wage gap. The literature argues that their mortgage decision-making is increasingly susceptible to the predatory actors and persuasive designs of the current de-personalised and weakly-regulated digital lending environment. This thesis evaluates the impact of a novel digital lending initiative by a powerful consortium. Media company REA Group, owner of Australia's predominant digital property platform realestate.com.au, recently entered the Australian housing finance market, acquiring mortgage brokerages and partnering with a major bank. Cross-promoted by their owner, Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation, REA Group offers millions of homeseekers direct 24/7 access to those lending channels through their website. This mixed-method case study combines qualitative interviews of Melbourne-based homebuyer/borrowers, executives, brokers and regulatory/advocacy representatives, with secondary source analysis, triangulated by quantitative data, for an integrated analysis of this initiative. While homebuyer-participants are revealed to be self-protective 'judicious borrowers', confirmed by the Initiative's modest lending performance to date, the research exposes more consequential opportunities for the consortium, such as data collection, and mortgage origination and securitisation. This pioneering study also argues that the interdisciplinary nature of such digital initiatives obscures them from both academic analysis and regulatory oversight, highlighting the need for a more integrated, collaborative approach. Designed within the action-based worldview of Pragmatism, this work is intended to stimulate a broad range of research and policy development.
... where x i is the score connected to the appreciation and f i is the frequency, more exactly the number of answers registered for each score. Likert scale (Likert, 1932) reflects the agreement and disagreement of the respondents related to an item of a question. In the article we used both 4-and 5-Point Likert scale. ...
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The knowledge, perception, and behavior of young people toward ecotourism are important for the sustainable development of this sector. The purpose of this research is to evaluate and analyze the knowledge of young Romanian students about ecotourism and the main ecotourism destinations in Romania, their behavior in relation to the practice of this form of sustainable tourism at the local level in the last 2 years (2020 and 2021), and people’s use of the Internet for planning holidays and digital applications while traveling in nature. A quantitative research was conducted based on a self-administered questionnaire, structured in 13 sections on ecotourism, to which were added the sociodemographic data of the respondents. The conclusions of the research are that young people know well the main ecotourism destinations in Romania; they choose them according to the beauty of the landscape, multitude of outdoor activities, and the hospitality of the hosts. In the last 2 years of the pandemic, young people have visited several times the main existing ecotourism destinations locally, with an average vacation duration of 1–3 days. The Internet remains the main source of information, and in the field, they use mobile applications that allow the download of digital maps and recognize different plant species. By integrating various activities in nature, in close connection with the local culture, ecotourism can contribute to the sustainable use of local tourism resources. This study provides a detailed and realistic picture of the knowledge and the type of ecotourism experience that young people want. The implications are theoretical and managerial, highlighting the importance of assessing the preferences of young ecotourists, as a basis for developing ecotourism strategies, sustainable use of local tourism resources, and management of protected areas.
... Surveys based on the MUSIC® Model of Academic Motivation Inventory took place at the end of January 2018. Questionnaire consisted of two partsfirst with 26 questions where answers were based on six-point Likert (Likert, 1932) scale and second with open-ended questions. The first one was filled by 166 students out of 196 participating in the course (85%), the second by 112 out of 196 (57%). ...
... In the course of this research, the instrument was measured on a Likert Scale. Likert scale was -developed with the principle of measuring attitudes by asking people to respond to a series of statements about a topic, in terms of the extent to which they agree with them, and so tapping into the cognitive and affective components of attitudes‖ (Likert, 1932;McLeod, 2008). The scores were based on a five Likert-scale format ranging from ‗strongly disagree' to ‗strongly agree'. ...
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Studies attest to the fact that residential neighbourhood crime (RNC) which comes in the form of burglary, street incivility, robbery, graffiti and most times violent crime has been adjudged to have devastating consequences on the residents, immediate neighbourhood and government activities but not enough empirical works have been carried out to verify this. Hence, this study is set to quantitatively determine the veracity of the impact of residential neighbourhood crime on the residents, immediate neighbourhood and government activities using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results of the analyses reveal that RNC impacts significantly on the residents, immediate neighbourhood and government activities with the p-values standing at 0.001, 0.008 and 0.005 respectively. With the negative influence of RNC on human activities and existence, it is desirable for researchers, urban planners, realtors and policy makers to address the menace with a view to enhancing sustainable housing, improved housing investment and general economic prosperity.
... To ensure comprehensibility and feasibility as well as to address validity, the questionnaire was piloted by three primary care physicians and five persons without scientific or medical background. The final questionnaire (see Supplementary File 1 for English translation) contained questions regarding patient characteristics (age group, sex, population size of place of residence) and the COVID-19 status (symptom intensity, test result), as well as eight statements on point-of-care SARS-CoV-2 testing to be rated on a five-point Likert scale 19 and three statements to be completed in an open text format. These question formats were used in order to measure the degree of agreement for a series of statements (Likert scale) or to allow a broad range of answers (open text format). ...
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Anni Matthes,1,2 Florian Wolf,1 Jutta Bleidorn,1 Robby Markwart1,2 1Institute of General Practice and Family Medicine, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Thuringia, Germany; 2InfectoGnostics Research Campus Jena, Jena, Thuringia, GermanyCorrespondence: Anni Matthes, Institute of General Practice and Family Medicine, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University, Bachstr. 18, Jena, Thuringia, 07743, Germany, Tel +49 3641 939 5824, Fax +49 3641 939 5802, Email anni.matthes@med.uni-jena.deBackground: The use of point-of-care tests (POCTs) has been a central strategy to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, evidence on the application and consequences of POCTs within medical settings is rare.Purpose: To assess and understand patient perspectives on molecular point-of-care SARS-CoV-2 testing conducted in primary care.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey study among patients who were tested with a molecular SARS-CoV-2 rapid test (ID NOWTM COVID-19 rapid test, Abbott) in 13 primary care practices in the state of Thuringia (Germany) from February to April 2021. The following aspects were covered in the questionnaire through rating scales and open text formats: test characteristics, trust in test result, consequences of immediate result, cost amount willing to pay and expectations in the future. Open text answers were categorized; quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Mann–Whitney U-test to reveal differences in cost contribution depending on the test result.Results: A total of 215 patients from nine family practices and one pediatric practice participated. The immediate availability of the test result was important to the majority of patients (94.3%). 95.7% of patients trusted in their test result. Personal consequences of the immediate test result referred to pandemic measures, certainty of action and reassurance. For further tests, patients were willing to pay between 0€ and 100€ (interquartile range = 10– 25€) for the molecular SARS-CoV-2 POCT, regardless of the test result. Expectations of being offered the test again in case of renewed cold symptoms were reported by 96.2%.Conclusion: Patients highly appreciated molecular SARS-CoV-2 rapid testing conducted in primary care practices. The immediate availability of the test result led to adjustments in patients’ behavior and emotional wellbeing. However, potentially challenging for the implementation of POCTs in primary care practices may be the reimbursement of test costs and patients’ expectations in future situation.Keywords: POCT, rapid test, COVID-19, acceptance, feasibility
... Some of the questions and statements asked about students' attitude about school and learning and how they liked music lessons (concerning students' general opinions about music and other learning in school) required circling a given point in a Likert scale. A Likert scale (designed by Likert 1932) provided a list of responses to a given question or statement. The questionnaire was straightforward and user-friendly for the students to express their attitude in a convenient way. ...
Article
Instrumental music is one of the extra-curricular activities that students may join after school hours to acquire more music experience. There is limited number of studies in Hong Kong investigating the effect of group instrumental music training on primary school children. The impact of school-based music training on both academic and psychological issue is not well understood. This research aims at revealing the reasons that make students participate in these extra-curricular music activities, the benefits that students perceive in the music activities and how these music activities affect their aspiration in learning. This research focuses to investigate deeply in one context of a primary school in Hong Kong of the real life experience of students aged 9-12 about the above issue. This research indicates the factors motivating students to participate in music activities which are mainly parental, family and peer influence. Enjoying musical activities, listening to music, attending concerts, playing in music groups have demonstrated positive effects on the students. The support of parents, family, peers and self-beliefs are also important in sustaining students in their musical journey. In the research, students have reported their beliefs that music participation imparts some extra musical benefits. Interviews with parents and students indicate the benefits student perceived in the music participation include gaining love and enjoyment in music, developing social skills of teamwork, sense of belonging, communication, cooperation, confidence and satisfaction in their music playing with friends. Concentration, self-discipline, self-motivation, self-accomplishment, listening and memory skills are enhanced which help in other areas of learning. In addition, the research reveals that music makes students feel relaxed and releases their pressure from the heavy-loaded school work.
... The first part (A) of the questionnaire focuses on the demand of FES. In closed questions, the respondents replied to each statement using the Likert scale (Likert 1932), of which we assigned the points from 1 (one) to 4 (four), with 0 as "neutral answer." Detail definitions of the points are as follows: ...
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Ecosystem services are investigated from many perspectives, but there are very few studies comparing the perception of forest and demand for forest ecosystem services (FES) in a cross-cultural analysis. This study aims to map the demand for FES and find out the forest perception of forest visitors in both Czech and Chinese societies. Data were collected by structured questionnaire among three different groups of respondents ( n = 847) in six forest areas. The questions were focused on the demand for FES, expectations from the forest, preference for the visual form of the forest, and the willingness of forest visitors. Analysis demonstrates that the demand for some FES is related to geographical and cultural conditions. The results indicated that provisioning and regulation services are perceived as more important than cultural services. The differences by country were obvious in the cultural and provisioning services: Chinese demand more relaxing and meditation activities, whereas Czech demand mushroom picking. A significant outcome is a high demand of Chinese respondents for recreational facilities. Tree planting was rated as one of the most popular voluntary activity across the whole sample. Meanwhile, some findings point to an increasing pressure on forest ecosystems and their protection, which emerge due to the strong demand for recreational facilities. According to the findings, active involvement of forest visitors in various activities is recommended so that their appreciation of FES will constantly increase and to take into account the profile of visitors and incorporate them in forest management and planning in order to meet societal demand.
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The paper presents the details about the development and standardization of Career Maturity Scale for undergraduates especially the first-year students. The test initially consisted of 100 items. After the experts review; items were reduced to 60. This was followed by item analysis on 89 undergraduates the final draft included only 39 items. The Croanbach Alpha reliability was found to be 0.81. To establish the validity of the present scale the concurrent validity index was calculated which came out to be 0.81.
Article
Context Code readability, which correlates strongly with software quality, plays a critical role in software maintenance and evolvement. Although existing deep learning-based code readability models have reached a rather high classification accuracy, only structural features are utilized which inevitably limits their model performance. Objective To address this problem, we propose to extract readability-related features from visual, semantic, and structural aspects from source code in an attempt to further improve code readability classification. Method First, we convert a code snippet into a RGB matrix (for visual feature extraction), a token sequence (for semantic feature extraction) and a character matrix (for structural feature extraction). Then, we input them into a hybrid neural network that is composed of BERT, CNN, and BiLSTM for feature extraction. Finally, the extracted features are concatenated and input into a classifier to make a code readability classification. Result A series of experiments are conducted to evaluate our method. The results show that the average accuracy could reach 85.3%, which outperforms all existing models. Conclusion As an innovative work of extracting readability-related features automatically from visual, semantic, and structural aspects, our method is proved to be effective for the task of code readability classification.
Article
Objectives The characterization of clinical–emotional aspects of advanced cancer patients is essential for palliative care. To date, there is scarce information regarding the socio-demographic and clinical profiles, as well as the quality of care given to hospitalized patients under this condition, particularly in South American countries. The objectives of this study were to analyze the socio-demographic profile, symptoms (including psychological well-being), and the quality of life of advanced cancer patients admitted to the oncology ward of the General Hospital of the University of Campinas, Brazil. Methods In this cross-sectional study, patients were invited to fill the selected questionnaires such as Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and Palliative Care Outcome Scale (POS). Descriptive analyses were performed, regarding socio-demographic profile, symptoms, level of information over treatment aims, and quality-of-life scores. Results Fifty-nine patients were included, of whom 29 were male and 30 female, with a mean age of 58 years. Overall, 31.9% presented pain at the time of the interview, 52.5% depression, and 76.3% anxiety. The median individual scores for ESAS and POS (and interquartile range) were, respectively, 27 (17–41) and 14 (9–19). Patients with previous knowledge of treatment objectives reported worse depression scores in the ESAS (median 2 vs. 0, p 0.02), even when correcting for possible confounders. Significance of results In contrast to current literature, in which pain is a prevalent report, depression and anxiety were more evident in this specific population of hospitalized patients. This framework reflects the need for valuing not only physical but also emotional symptoms to achieve the integrality of care.
Article
The concept of Triple Bottom Line (TBL), plays a key role in transforming manufacturing enterprises into sustainable economic organisations operating in accordance with the principles of sustainable development. Due to the theoretical and cognitive gap identified by the author, the concept has been referred to the marketing mix of food industry enterprises functioning in the sector of economy, which is characterised by dynamism and constant increase of value. The article includes the aim of the study, the research hypothesis, the research problem and presents the research methods used. The aim of the study is to identify and determine the activities undertaken by food industry enterprises in relation to the components of the marketing mix, i.e. product, price, distribution and promotion mix subordinated to the Triple Bottom Line concept. The article is theoretical and empirical in nature and concludes with a summary that includes recommendations for future research directions.
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Gamification applied to education could impact positively (or negatively) students’ psychological and cognitive aspects, such as motivation, engagement and learning performance. Nevertheless, the perceptions of education professionals and their concerns about implicit biases and ethics that emerge from applying gamification to support learning has not been widely explored. Thus, we conducted a qualitative study that aims to identify gamification potential biases and ethical concerns, from teachers’ perspectives, in the Brazilian context. We designed a survey answered by 61 Brazilian teachers, who had not used gamification before - even thought they were aware of its potential benefits. Our results point out that social aspects, difficulties in planning and evaluation, psychological and behavioral impacts, and privacy of students are some of the main concerns related to ethics and biases. This paper contribution focused on providing a list of potential biases and ethical concerns to consider when designing and applying gamification in education.
Article
In northwestern Iran, the Changoreh Avaj earthquake occurred in 2002, destroying about 80% of the villages. The quake killed at least 261 people, injured 1300, and left more than 50,000 homeless. However, in the last decade, the sense of belonging in local people has attracted investment in infrastructure and resulted in a tourism boom. This study aimed to explore the effects of tourism development on the reconstruction of villages affected by the quake. The data investigated in this study were randomly distributed in the studied villages using official statistics, questionnaires, and observation in 2020. The statistical population of the current survey is the households of reconstructed villages, which was calculated based on the Morgan 335 table. The research findings showed that the KMO value was 56.361, indicating the appropriate data status for factor analysis. Bartlett’s value was 9764.279 and was significant at a 99% confidence level. The tourism development in the villages of Changoreh Avaj has also improved physical infrastructures such as power lines, gas, drinking water networks, and access to road networks and local markets. These villages have been re-planned and built with the investment from a second-home tourism organization and the cooperation of the government and residents. Housing was constructed with durable materials and under the supervision of civil engineers in new locations. Old dwellings were demolished, and the new ones were designed and constructed similar to urban settlements.
Article
Two main functions of public facilities are providing services to residents and maintaining environmental quality. There is currently no index that states the parameters of indoor air comfort quantitatively for worship buildings. The comfort for a building will affect the physical and mental health of its occupants. The research has identified and formulated an indoor air comfort index for worship buildings based on temperature, noise, odour, relative humidity, and light intensity that can be the best recommendations for district/city governments. The research has conducted using qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative method is based on filling the questionnaires by respondents and the quantitative method is based on the measurement of five parameters at the research site. The formulation obtained from the results of the weighting of the questionnaire and the index for each parameter. The indoor air comfort index is obtained based on five levels: uncomfortable, less comfortable, quite comfortable, comfortable, and extremely comfortable. The results of the research place of worship gave an index value of 4.0 at Tridharma temple that has declared comfortable, an index value of 2.9 at Church of Immanuel that have declared quite comfortable, and a range of index values of 3.1-3.8 at seven other sites that has declared comfortable.
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Attitude of employees coupled with cultural factors has continued to dictate the gender-based division of labor, rights, responsibilities, opportunities, and access to and control over resources. Likewise, women participation in management position at work place is still questionable in many developing countries including Tanzania. This paper is set to determine the factors which influence women participation in LGAs in Morogoro district that constitutes Morogoro municipal and district council. A cross-sectional research design was adopted and both multistage and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 192 employees involved in the study. Structured interview and focus group discussion were the main methods used for data collection. This paper adopts the Likert scale for examining employee's attitudes towards women's participation in decision making position at workplace. Results revealed that there were no marked difference between response from male and female; similar trends were also observed among respondents from Morogoro district councils. Moreover, findings indicate that more than half of the respondents (61.5%) had positive attitude toward women decision making in the organisation whereas 38.5% had negative attitude towards decision making in the organisation. Therefore, the paper concludes that negative attitude prevailing among some employees cannot be ignored, hence recommend to the government and other gender activists to ensure that the implication for employers, administrators and policy makers are discussed at all levels of LGAs.
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Introduction: Clinical indications on how to approach caregiving with a person living with dementia underline the need "to have an empathic attitude" requiring the caregiver to view the world from the perspective of the person with dementia. However, it is not easy for the caregiver to understand the perspective their patients have on day-to-day experiences. To put the caregivers in the person with dementia's shoes, the Virtual Dementia Tour (VDT) was developed in 2001, and has been administered to millions of health professionals, community leaders, and family caregivers. Method: In this paper we present the Italian version of the VDT and discuss its internal validity and test-retest reliability for the pre-post experience survey defined by the VDT procedure. Results: An Italian sample (N = 419; mean age = 44.8; standard deviation 14.2) completed the tour and a 5-item survey provided before and after the experience revealed the disposition toward people with dementia changed. Discussion: The VDT Italian version wasrevealed to be valid in supporting a positive perspective change in the perception of dementia as is seen in the original VDT used in English-speaking countries. Highlights: Empathy predicts a higher quality of caregiving for the person living with dementia.The Virtual Dementia Tour (VDT) provides an experience from the person living with dementia's perspective and supports empathy.We present the first Italian version of VDT and its manual translation and validation.Italian VDT internal consistency and test-retest reliability were calculated.Results confirms the reliability and validity of the Italian VDT for empathy.
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Objective to evaluate the effectiveness of triamcinolone Hexacetonide (TH) Intra-Articular Injection (IAI) in hand Interphalangeal Joints (IP) of Osteoarthritis (OA) patients to improve pain and joint swelling; improve function, goniometry, and grasping force, and assess IAI influence on radiographic evolution over 1-year. Methods A randomized, double-blind study. 60 patients who underwent IAI at the most symptomatic IP joint were randomly assigned to receive TH+Lidocaine (LD) (TH/LD group) or just LD (LD group). Patients were assessed blindly for 1-year, at baseline and 1, 4, 8, 12, and 48 weeks. The following variables were assessed: articular pain and swelling, AUSCAN and COCHIN functional questionnaires, grip and pinch strength, goniometry, perception of improvement, acetaminophen consumption, and simple radiography. Repeated-measures ANOVA test was used to analyze the intervention response. Results Sixty patients completed the follow-up. There were nine missed assessments. 97% were women; mean age of 61-years (SD = 8.2), and approximately 5-years of disease (SD = 3.6). Half of the patients present radiographic classification Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) grades I and II, and the other half grades III and IV. The two groups evolved similarly at 48-weeks. TH/LD group had a better evaluation in joint swelling and acetaminophen consumption (p = 0.04 and p < 0.001, respectively) at 48-weeks. Radiographically there was no statistical difference between groups (KL, p = 0.564; erosive OA, p = 0.999; worsening, p = 0.573). Conclusion The IAI IP hands OA is effective for the improvement of joint swelling and decrease of analgesic consumption and does not influence the radiographic evolution of the injected joint.
Article
Higher education institutions have been increasingly dependent on adjunct faculty to provide instruction at undergraduate and graduate levels. At professional schools, most faculty begin teaching graduate courses with limited to no formal training or teaching experience as industry expertise is the primary requirement for employment. Despite the availability of ample pedagogical resources to advance teaching, these faculty require additional support during their induction into academia. This paper describes the design and operationalization of the New York University Faculty Success Initiative (FSI), an innovative, semi-structured, faculty-centered onboarding and professional development program that provides quality, longer term preparation to new faculty throughout their first semester of instruction to increase their teaching effectiveness and their sense of connection to their academic unit. An analysis of multiple qualitative and quantitative data sources indicates that FSI led to an increase in teaching effectiveness and played a significant role in transitioning professional faculty from practitioners to educators. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s41686-022-00069-x.
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