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Acquiring Explicit User Goals From Search Query Logs



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Acquiring Explicit User Goals From Search Query Logs
Markus Strohmaier
Graz University of Technology
and Know-Center
Peter Prettenhofer
Graz University of Technology
Mark Kröll
Graz University of Technology
Knowledge about user goals is crucial for realizing
the vision of intelligent agents acting upon user intent
on the web. In a departure from existing approaches,
this paper proposes a novel approach to the problem
of user goal acquisition: The utilization of search
query logs for this task. The paper makes the following
contributions: (a) it presents an automatic method for
the acquisition of user goals from search query logs
with useful precision/recall scores (b) it provides
insights into the nature and some characteristics of
these goals and (c) it shows that the goals acquired
from query logs exhibit traits of a long tail distribution.
1. Introduction
To realize the vision of intelligent, goal-oriented
agents on the web, agents must have programmatic
access to the set and variety of human goals, in order to
reason about them and to provide services that help
satisfy users’ needs. In Berner’s Lee vision, an agent
aiming to “plan a trip to Vienna” would need to have
some means to understand that “plan a trip” is likely to
involve a set of other goals or services, such as “contact
a travel agency” and “book a hotel”. This type of
knowledge has been characterized as commonsense
knowledge, i.e. knowledge that humans are generally
assumed to possess, but which is extremely difficult
for computers to acquire. Examples of current research
projects aiming to capture and organize commonsense
knowledge, including knowledge about human goals,
are CyC [6] or Openmind / ConceptNet [7]. However,
existing attempts suffer from two main problems: 1)
the goal acquisition problem (or bottleneck), which
refers to the costs associated with knowledge
acquisition and 2) the goal coverage problem, which
refers to the difficulty of capturing the tremendous
variety and range in the set of human goals. These
problems have hindered progress in capturing broad
knowledge about human goals, and have hindered the
development of intelligent agents, services and
applications on the web.
On the web, search engines represent a primary
instrument through which users exercise their intent
today. This allows search queries to indirectly convey
knowledge about users’ goals and intentions, which are
usually latent, implicit, dynamic and private. Given
that existing attempts to capture knowledge about
human goals are usually limited, an interesting
question in the context of search is: Can we
automatically acquire knowledge about a large variety
of user goals from search query logs? In this paper, we
study if, how and to what extent it is possible to
automatically acquire knowledge about explicit user
goals (such asbook a hotel”) from search query logs.
2. Human Subject Study
In order to gauge the results of an automatic
acquisition approach addressing this problem, we first
conducted a human subject study aiming to 1) define
the notion of explicit user goals more rigorously and 2)
to learn about its principal agreeability.
Definition of Explicit User Goals: We define
queries containing explicit user goals in the following
A search query is regarded to contain an explicit
user goal (or short: explicit goal) whenever the query
1) contains at least one verb and 2) describes a
plausible state of affairs that the user may want to
achieve or avoid in 3) a recognizable way.
An example of such a query would be “book a
hotel”. A query does not contain an explicit goal when
it is difficult or extremely hard to elicit some specific
goal from the query. Examples include blank queries,
or queries such as “car” or “travel”, which embody user
goals on a very general, ambiguous and mostly implicit
Questionnaire Design: To explore the utility of
this definition, we have conducted a questionnaire in
which four human subjects (Computer Science
graduate students) were instructed to manually label
3000 queries randomly obtained from the AOL search
query log [8] (after a number of sanitization and pre-
processing steps were performed). The subjects were
required to independently answer a single question for
each of the 3000 queries. The question for each query
followed this schema: Given a query X, Do you think
that Y (with Y being the first verb in X, plus the
remainder of X) is a plausible goal of a searcher who
is performing the query X? To give two examples:
Given query: “how to increase virtual memory
Question: Do you think thatincrease virtual memory” is a plausible
goal of a searcher who is performing the query “how to increase
virtual memory”? Potential Answer: Yes
Given query: “boys kissing girls” Question: Do you think that
kissing girls” is a plausible goal of a searcher who is performing
the query “boys kissing girls” Potential Answer: No
After the question-answering task, we assigned the
answers for each query to the corresponding categories
ourselves in the following way: each answer “Yes”
resulted in classifying the query as a “query containing
an explicit goal”, each answer “No” resulted in
classifying the query as a “query not containing an
explicit goal”. The results are reported next.
Agreeability of Constructs: We calculated a
function e(q) per query, which is the percentage of
human subjects who labeled a given query as
containing an explicit goal (cf. [5]). The chart in Figure
1 shows that 243 queries out of 3000 have been labeled
as containing an explicit goal by all 4 subjects (8.1%,
right most bar), and 134 queries as containing an
explicit goal by 3 out of 4 subjects. The majority of
queries (79.2%, left most bar) has been labeled as not
containing an explicit goal unanimously by all
subjects. A relatively small number of queries was
controversial (middle bar, 3.3%). Figure 1 shows that
e(q) approximates a dichotomous agreement
distribution, which provides preliminary evidence for
the agreeability of our constructs. To further explore
agreeability, we calculated the inter-rater agreement κ
[2] between all pairs of human subjects A, B, C and D.
Cohen’s κ measures the average pairwise agreement
corrected for chance agreement when classifying N
items into C mutually exclusive categories. The κ
values in our human subject study range from 0.65 to
0.76 (see Figure 1). Both measures combined, the
inter-rater agreement κ and the distribution of e(q), hint
towards a principle (yet not optimal) agreeability of
our construct definition. In the remainder of this paper,
we use these results to inform the development of an
automatic classification approach.
A - B 0.70
A - C 0.69
A - D 0.65
B - C 0.76
B - D 0.75
C - D 0.76
Figure 1. e(q) Distribution and
3. Acquiring Explicit User Goals
Based on the human subject study, we now
introduce an inductive classification approach that
aims to perform the task of classifying queries into one
of the two categories (containing/not containing an
explicit goal) automatically.
Training Set: We have created a manually labeled
dataset for the purpose of training an automatic
classification approach. The manually labeled dataset
is based on the majority vote among the human
subjects of the human subject study presented
previously. Out of the 3000 labeled queries, the
negative examples were defined by the two bars on the
left hand side of Figure 2 (2525 total), and the positive
examples were defined by the two bars on the right
hand side (377). The bar in the middle represents the
controversial queries which were removed.
The approach for classifying queries consists of two
basic steps: POS tagging and classification.
POS Tagging: We can assume that queries
containing explicit goals can, to some extent, be
identified by the occurrence of certain syntactical, part-
of-speech patterns. To investigate this, we used a
Maximum Entropy Tagger for part-of-speech tagging
all queries. We used the Penn Treebank tag set
containing 36 word classes which provides a simple
yet adequately rich set of tag classes for our purpose.
Feature Set Description: The following feature
types were utilized:
Part-of-Speech Trigrams: Each query can be
translated from a sequence of tokens into a
sequence of POS tags. Trigrams were generated by
moving a fixed sized window of length 3 over the
POS sequence. The sequence boundaries were
expanded by introducing a single marker ($) at the
beginning and at the end allowing for length two
POS features. The query “buying/VBG a/DT
car/NN” would yield the following trigrams:
Stemmed unigrams: Queries can be represented
as binary word vectors or ‘Set of Words’ (SoW).
The Porter stemming algorithm was used for word
conflation and stopwords were removed.
We chose a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM)
using all the features as our classification method. The
performance of this approach is discussed next.
Evaluation: Table 1 presents the confusion matrix
on the manually labeled dataset and corresponding
True Positive (TP), False Positive (FP), False Negative
(FN) and True Negative (TN) scores.
Table 1. Confusion matrix
Classified as Æ Containing an
Explicit Goal
Not Containing an
Explicit Goal
Containing an
Explicit Goal 239 (TP) 138 (FN)
Not Containing an
Explicit Goal 73 (FP) 2452 (TN)
Our approach achieves a precision of 0.77, a recall
of 0.63 and an F1 score of 0.69. All values refer to the
class that represents queries containing goals. A
precision of 77% means that in 77% of cases, our
approach agrees with the majority of human subjects.
These results represent a significant improvement over
previous approaches [9]. Although there are slight
differences in the evaluation procedure and the type of
knowledge captured, the precision of explicit goals
acquired with our approach is roughly comparable to
precision scores reported for the ConceptNet
commonsense knowledge database.
4. Results
In the following, we present the results of applying
our automatic classification approach to a pre-
processed version of the entire AOL search query log
containing more than 20 million search queries.
Selected Statistics: Applying our automatic
classification method yielded a result set containing
explicit user goals consisting of 118.420 queries,
97.454 of them unique. With a precision of 77%, the
result set comprises an estimated 75.039 true positives
(actual queries containing explicit goals).
The 20 most frequent queries from the result set are
presented in Table 2. Each example is accompanied by
the rank and the number of different users who
submitted the query (frequency). Queries containing
the token ”http” were filtered out and those queries
containing expletives / objectionable content were
replaced by “deleted”. Some of the most frequent
queries containing goals relate to commonsense
knowledge goals, such as lose weight”, get pregnant” or
listen to music”, which provides some evidence of the
suitability of search query logs for the knowledge
acquisition task. Yet, the bias introduced by the corpus
(search queries) and the population (i.e. AOL users)
deserves attention: Many frequent queries deal with
web-related or AOL specific issues, such as the queries
add screen name” or “cancel aol service”. Entries such
as “wedding cake toppers”, “pimp my ride”, and “skating
with celebrities” represent false positives.
Table 2. 20 most frequent goals
Nr. Query #Users Nr. Query #Users
1 add screen name 205 11 cancel aol
2 create screen
137 12 pimp my
3 rent to own 120 13 cancel aol
4 listen to music 108 14 “deleted” 49
5 pimp my space 102 15 ”deleted” 48
6 pimp my ride 97 16 how to lose
7 assist to sell 93 17 how to get
8 wedding cake
64 18 change my
9 skating with
58 19 discover credit
10 lose weight fast 56 20 check my
If search query logs would be utilized for
knowledge acquisition, a relevant question to ask is:
How diverse is the set of goals contained in search
query logs? The diversity of goals would ultimately
constrain the utility of a given dataset for expanding
existing knowledge bases. In order to explore this
question, we present a rank/frequency plot of the data
depicted in Table 2. In Figure 2, goals are plotted
according to their rank and the set of different users
who share them.
Figure 2. Rank-frequency plot of goals
The distribution in Figure 2 shows that while there
are very few popular goals, a majority of goals is
shared by only a few users. In other words, the curve
approximates a power-law distribution, implying the
existence of a long tail effect of user goals. This
suggests that the explicit goals in the result set are
diverse and cover a broad range of different goals.
Qualitative Analysis: We selected an arbitrary set
of verbs and corresponding goals for more detailed
inspections. In Table 3, the 10 most frequent goals
which contain the verbsget”, “make”, “change” or
be” are listed. Frequency refers to the occurrence of
the goal in the result set.
The goals in Table 3 are the result of identifying the
first verb in a query containing a goal, and truncating
any tokens prior to this verb. Queries marked with a
“*” represent queries that are contained in
ConceptNet’s commonsense knowledge base (v2.1) as
well. Many goals in Table 3 are related to existing
commonsense knowledge goals, such as “be pregnant”,
be rich” or “be funny”.
Table 3. 10 most frequent goals containing
get, make, change and be
# Verb: get Verb: make Verb: change Verb: be
1 get
money* (87)
change my
password (100)
be anorexic*
2 get rid of
ants (28)
make your
own website
change my
screen name
be pregnant*
3 get out of
make money
at home (41)
change screen
name (32)
be bulimic
4 get rich or
die tryin
make money
fast (39)
change my aol
password (28)
be rich* (11)
5 get rid of
make money
online (34)
password (24)
be emo (8)
6 get married
make the
band 3 (30)
change my
profile (21)
be funny* (8)
7 get rich*
make money
from home
change your
name (21)
be happy*
8 get rich
with trump
make new
screen name
change* ( 20) be sexy* (7)
9 get out of
debt* (15)
make up (23) change my
email address
be in love*
10 get rid of
moles (14)
make out
change aol
password (14)
be an actress
5. Related Work and Conclusions
In previous research, He et al. [3] have studied the
acquisition of explicit user goals from search result
snippets (i.e. the segments of text listed on the result
pages of search engines). Our work is different in the
sense that it studies search queries themselves as a
source of explicit goals, which can be suspected to
better reflect user intent. Broder’s high level taxonomy
of search intent, proposing a distinction between three
classes of search goals, has stimulated a series of
follow-up research on category refinement and
automatic query categorization [4][5]. While previous
research has achieved considerable progress in the
categorization of queries into high-level goal
taxonomies serving a primarily functional purpose (to
improve search), this work focuses on the acquisition
of goal instances (explicit goals) from search query
logs for knowledge capture purposes.
Our work shows that search query logs have the
potential to address the two problems (goal acquisition
and goal coverage) of acquiring knowledge about
human goals on the web. In a departure from existing
approaches, we present an automatic classification
approach and experimental results that introduce
search query logs as a feasible, yet largely untapped
resource for this task.
Acknowledgements: This work is funded by the FWF
Austrian Science Fund Grant P20269 TransAgere and
the Know-Center. The Know-Center is funded within
the Austrian COMET Program.
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... This observation suggests that it is useful to distinguish between at least two classes of queries: (1) queries that contain explicit goals and (2) queries which do not.Table 1 contrasts queries of both classes. Results from a larger human subject study corroborate the existence of these two classes and furthermore hint towards a theoretical separability (Strohmaier et al., 2008). To tap into Search Query Logs for knowledge acquisition purposes, we propose to automatically identify and extract queries which contain explicit goals. ...
... We refer to the task of acquiring goals from textual resources as Goal Mining. This problem covers a broad range of interesting aspects, including the acquisition of goals from scientific articles (Hui & Yu, 2005), organizational policies (Potts et al., 1994), organizational guidelines and procedures (Liaskos et al., 2006), Search Query Logs (Strohmaier et al., 2008) and others. In the area of understanding natural language text, knowledge about human goals gains significance as a novel dimension to be considered. ...
... (Regev & Wegmann, 2005)) 3) in a recognizable way (cf. (Strohmaier et al., 2008)). " Recognizable " refers to what (Kirsh, 1990) defines as " trivial to identify " by a subject within a given attention span. ...
A better understanding of what motivates humans to perform certain actions is relevant for a range of research challenges including generating action sequences that implement goals (planning). A first step in this direction is the task of acquiring knowledge about human goals. In this work, we investigate whether Search Query Logs are a viable source for extracting expressions of human goals. For this purpose, we devise an algorithm that automatically identifies queries containing explicit goals such as find home to rent in Florida. Evaluation results of our algorithm achieve useful precision/recall values. We apply the classification algorithm to two large Search Query Logs, recorded by AOL and Microsoft Research in 2006, and obtain a set of ∼110,000 queries containing explicit goals. To study the nature of human goals in Search Query Logs, we conduct qualitative, quantitative and comparative analyses. Our findings suggest that Search Query Logs (i) represent a viable source for extracting human goals, (ii) contain a great variety of human goals and (iii) contain human goals that can be employed to complement existing commonsense knowledge bases. Finally, we illustrate the potential of goal knowledge for addressing following application scenario: to refine and extend commonsense knowledge with human goals from Search Query Logs. This work is relevant for (i) knowledge engineers interested in acquiring human goals from textual corpora and constructing knowledge bases of human goals (ii) researchers interested in studying characteristics of human goals in Search Query Logs.
... Moreover, goal search can take advantage of previous queries that the user placed on the search engine. Some interesting work on this topic has already been done by M. Strohmaier and his colleagues [41, 79]. We also need to experiment further with techniques for elicitation, capture, review and maintenance of user preferences, since these are paramount for the success of our proposed methodology. ...
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