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Foucault: A Very Short Introduction

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... With his work, Foucault contributed a specific understanding of power, which views it as dispersed and pervasive to all human relations, as something that is embodied, performed and therefore constitutive of identities and practices (Burchell et al., 1991;Gutting, 2005). Power according to Foucault is expressed through accepted and dominant forms of knowledge and discourse, which act to discipline society. ...
... Based on studies that document conflicting interests over carnivore conservation and the political processes through which they are managed, power has become central to new and deeper understandings of coexistence between people and carnivores. Foucault's theory of governmentality (Foucault, 2007(Foucault, , 2008Cavanagh, 2018) contributes a specific understanding of power, which views it as dispersed and pervasive to all human relations, as something that is embodied, performed and therefore constitutive of identities and practices (Burchell et al., 1991;Gutting, 2005). Power according to Foucault is expressed through accepted and dominant forms of knowledge and discourse, which act to discipline society. ...
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Relationships between humans and large carnivores are multi-layered and built on a variety of values, beliefs and interactions. When the experience of coexistence is predominantly negative, both local livelihoods and carnivore conservation can suffer. By focusing on an area of Spain where local communities have always lived alongside wolves and bears, this research aims to study how local experiences of coexistence are shaped by governance approaches. The study is a comparison between four different sites with distinct socio-political characteristics and with different large carnivore management policies. Semi-structured and informal interviews were carried out with over 60 informants, and both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a sample of livestock farmers (n=271), hunters (n=157) and beekeepers (n=40), in order to compare carnivore acceptance levels and narrative constructs across the study sites. // The thesis begins by introducing the broader context in which interactions with carnivores take place, and by exploring how changes in the landscape and in traditional livestock farming practices driven by agricultural policy have shaped local perceptions of the environment and of resource user’s role within it. The thesis then presents a synthesis the wolf governance systems in place across the study sites, and explores their effects on coexistence between wolves and local resource users. Using theories on environmentality, I analyse the ideological approaches underlying carnivore governance, and then look at how these approaches are received on the ground, by examining how local resource users either assimilate or resist governance approaches. The final chapter then focusses on two study areas with similar bear presence, to investigate the sociopolitical drivers that result in different levels of acceptance of bears among resource users. In doing so, it looks at the ways in which narratives over bear recovery, protected area management and land tenure resonate with each other and serve to reinforce one another.
... In it, he defined postmodernism as an 'incredulity towards metanarratives ' (1984, p. xxiv). Metanarratives, also known as grand narratives, are ideological, generalised or unifying accounts about a societal group or circumstance that are unquestionably accepted as true (Brown, 2013 Prison (1975), Foucault theorised that human behaviour can be controlled and modified by one party exercising power over another (Gutting, 2005). This subjection can be achieved through objectifying, repression, surveillance, normalising judgement and controlling the dissemination of knowledge (Gutting, 2005;Howell & Prevenier, 2001). ...
... Metanarratives, also known as grand narratives, are ideological, generalised or unifying accounts about a societal group or circumstance that are unquestionably accepted as true (Brown, 2013 Prison (1975), Foucault theorised that human behaviour can be controlled and modified by one party exercising power over another (Gutting, 2005). This subjection can be achieved through objectifying, repression, surveillance, normalising judgement and controlling the dissemination of knowledge (Gutting, 2005;Howell & Prevenier, 2001). In turn, the power exerted by those in authority creates an accepted version of reality by producing a docile and compliant population (Brundage, 2013). ...
Thesis
Tanya Langtree studied the evolution of nursing praxis between the sixteenth and mid-nineteenth centuries. Tanya found pre-professionalised nursing practice was scientifically informed and aimed to restore health, promote comfort and prevent complications. These findings disrupt assumptions about early nursing and encourages the profession to reframe its understanding of the past.
... In looking at traditional bureaucracies and practices that are strongly prevalent where poverty is high, how can these developed world notions of female equality be effectively implemented? According to Foucauldian thinking, at any given period of time, in a given context, there are substantial constraints placed on how people are able to think due to implicit rules in place (consciously or unconsciously active) that restrict their range of thought (Gutting 2005). This section begs consideration of the need to uncover these 'implicit rules' in the thinking of people from within these nations. ...
... In Foucauldian terms, the work of deep transformation and reform is required when considering the above issues around caste. This is brought about through an open and turbulent atmosphere of continuous and revolutionary criticism (Gutting 2005) directed at the status quo as well as reforms that emerge as a revolutionary response to the status quo. In short, to disable the negative agency given to caste through the religious and cultural structures in place, it will be necessary to disrupt the current status quo as well as critique the reforms that come after until a new transformation within these nations is palpably noted. ...
Chapter
Gender inequality has been promoted through the justification of gender-based differential treatment and an inequality of resource distribution within developing nations. Through the increase in innovation in our present digital age, the existence of inequality in female education within these nations has been made profoundly transparent (UNESCO 2012). This chapter focuses on studying this issue within four countries in the South Asian region – Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka – chosen due to their close geographical location and shared historical background. A long and common history of colonisation and its influence on the legal, political, economic and educational systems within these nations provide a common ground for the comparative analysis conducted in this chapter. While issues around gender inequality are highly complex in nature, the purpose of this chapter has been to highlight some of the inequalities in education faced by women in the South Asian region. In highlighting the contributing factors that influence the perpetuation of female inequality in education such as poverty, patriarchy, culture, religion, access and politics (Klugman et al. 2014; Razzaq and Forde 2014; Solotaroff and Pande 2014), this chapter focuses on developing an initial understanding of the need for a dominant praxis that addresses these issues in order to bring the transformation that is needed within the South Asian region.
... All are thoroughly adult constructs. Indeed, as Foucault might argue, all are fundamentally more imposing constructs, constructs of a larger (supra-learner/supra-child/supra-adult) agency -that is, modern society in its powerful entirety (Foucault, 1977;Gutting, 2005). Regardless of source, all are ultimately funnelled through a cult of expertise: the expert is all-powerful. ...
Chapter
The opening chapter of this book orients the reader through the introduction of the concept of the socioecological learner. In so doing the chapter clears the ground through a diffractive untangling of the socioecological learner drawing upon research vignettes and the touchstone concepts of the Anthropocene, Posthumanism and Common Worlds as Creative Milieux (In this collection, the authors engage the French plural of milieu: milieux, not milieus). This ‘clearing of the ground’ is an ontological and epistemological approach of de-territorializing the learner for a post-Anthropocene world. It opens up the space for de-learning and de-imagining (‘de’ meaning ‘from’ in Spanish) the learner as a socioecological learner.
... Repressive hypothesis for Foucault is superficial (Gutting 2005:93, Carrette 2000 In , Foucault describes that became one of the West most highly valued techniques for 1978:59). The practice of confession in the western society is not limited to the priest but there is confession to ones psychiatrist, doctors, and so on. ...
Book
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Foucault’s work is full and rich in its conceptual insight for philosophers to work on. Among his works one of the most essential contributions for the philosophical concern is the one taken up as the basis for this book that is “Power and Knowledge Nexus”. Foucault discussed the relationship that exists between power and knowledge in terms of the response they have to social, political, medical and legal reality as a “discourse”. Foucault’s work is heavily depends on the analysis of power and knowledge through which human beings are transformed into the subject. This study is focused on this area, with the general objective of making situational analysis at three levels which are “Globalization” at world scale “African situation” at the regional scale and “Ethiopian Education” at country level by examining present Africa both economically, politically and culturally and the idea of “Neo -liberalism in the Ethiopian Context” at country level. The study attempted to devise a three step approach setting out theoretical constructs, collecting relevant, practical evidence that finest fit to the theory, and drew conclusions through interpretive perceptive by making critical analysis. The findings of the study revealed that in the process of globalization the westerns, try to impose their cultural values on Africa. The traditional African values which are based on mutual respect and understanding are eroded. Ethiopian indigenous education is marginalized and colonized. Key Concept Foucault, Power and Knowledge nexus, Globalization, Ethiopian education.
... Examining how the recognized discourses of truth and knowledge at the lower levels of society are used and generalized as "serving forms of global domination" is a key component to the ascending analysis of power (Foucault, 2003). Gutting (2005) stated that individuals and agencies at the higher levels of society are most interested in how individuals and agencies at the lower levels of society construct and maintain instruments of marginalization. With this methodology, researchers can bottom-up trace and process the potential dangers within the resilience discourse. ...
Article
Since the 1970s, the construct of resilience has become detached from its original context of trauma and reassembled as a normative behavior, patterned after society’s dominant class. A decade after becoming a focus of academic attention, resilience began to influence the advocacy community through the strengths-based approach commonly used by social workers. While many continue to use resilience within the context of trauma, mainstream society has marketed a new construct of resilience with dangerous, underlying assumptions. This conceptual article uses post-structuralism to problematize the construct of resilience within social work and provides suggestions on how to more cautiously and comprehensively implement resilience in social work education, practice, and research. This theoretical application of post-structuralism in social work is important in that it urges social workers to be more critical and to better advocate for marginalized groups through practices and methodologies. This work provides direction for future research, methodological and theoretical positioning for researchers, and guidance for skill building in social work education.
... 94 Bir başka ifadeyle postmodern tarih, şimdi zaman olarak beşerin elindeki kurgular olmak yerine daha çok kişinin, kendi zamanına ait daha derin anlamları ortaya çıkarmak üzere işittiklerini ve okuduklarını yorumlamasıdır. 95 Bu yüzden beşer olarak kendimizi bize ait olan, geçici incelemelerle değil, ailemizdeki hâlimizle veya içinde yaşadığımız cemiyet veyahut devlete yansıyan hâlimizle anlamalıyız. Zira her türlü subjektiflik odağı, zaman açısından yanıltıcı ayna hükmündedir. ...
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Postmodernite, yazar-metin ilişkisinden ziyade okuyucuya bağlı metin anlayışını geliştirmek, değiştirmek, şeklini bozmak, yapısını sökmek suretiyle metnin homojenliğini ortadan kaldırıp “heterojenliğini” savunmakta; bunu yaparken kendine özgü “ileri yapısalcılık (post-structuralism), yapı-sökücü (destructionist) negatif akılcılık, negatif okuma gibi özgün teoriler geliştirmeyi” amaçlamaktadır. Bu makalede Hermenötik biliminin tarihini klasik, modern ve postmodern filozofların teorilerini listeleyerek verdikten sonra eleştirel özellikte okuyucu merkezli okuma, okuyucuyla uyumlu eleştirel anlama, mitten arındırılmış sübjektif diyalojik dil, şimdiki öznel zaman veya tarih, bireysel yapı-bozucu anlatı, negatif, çoğulcu eleştirel akıl ve negatif estetik gibi posthermenötiğin temel yorumlama yapıtaşlarını inceledik. Bu bağlamda diyebiliriz ki Post-Hermenötik, postmoderniteye bağlı geliştirilen sadece özgün din olgusuna değil, seküler edebiyat ve sivil hukuk gibi alanlarda yorum teorileri üreterek çeşitli anlama imkânlarına veyahut yorum farklılıklarına vurgu yapmakta; böylelikle hiç olmadığından daha keskin ve radikal yorumlara yönelebilmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: modernizm, postmodernizm, din bilimleri, Hermenötik, yorum. POSTHERMENEUTICA: HERMENEUTİCS IN THE POSTMODERN STUDY OF RELIGIONS Abstract: Postmodernity advocates the “heterogeneity of the text, destroying its homogeneity, by linking up to its reader rather than the author-text relationship as well as by deforming it, changing it; by doing so, it aims to bring about some specific theories such as post- structuralism (post-structuralism), de-structuralism, negative rationalism and negative reading. In this article, after having enlisted the theories about Hermeneutics done by classical, modernist and postmodernist philosophers we examined the basic composite elements of posthermeneutics such as reader-centered reading, critical understanding proper to the reader, subjective-dialogical language, instant or present time-history, individual deconstructive narration, critical pluralist and negative-reason, and negative aesthetics. In this context we may say that posthermeneutics is bound not only to postmodern religious phenomenon, but also to the theories of interpretation produced in the fields such as secular literature and civil law, insisting on various possibilities of understanding as well as more diverse theories oriented towards more sharpened and radical interpretations. ______
... But the principle is the same in both cases: the mere fact that a cognitive state is an effect of power does not exclude it from the realm of knowledge. Power and knowledge are logically compatible (Gutting, 2005: 53) The doctor, as an institutional and dependable figure, gives false information, and affects the woman's decision. He renders his field of power to domination, and he was not contested since he used his institutional status. ...
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The Dekalog series, comprised of ten films made by Kieslowski in 1989-90 for the Polish TV, inspired by the Ten Commandments (Decalogues) in the Torah, treats the goodness and innocence of human beings, as well as the evilness and anxiety. Generally, as a common element in all films of the series, appears the triangle of order-submission-disobedience and the power field becomes a tide moving back and forth between different characters. According to Foucault, power is perceived differently today, compared to the past. In the earlier times, power was perceived to be the rulership of a king over its subjects, while today, different types of power exist. Foucault argues that the punishment directed towards the body before is now directed to the soul. The discourse in the Ten Commandments that directs people what to do and what not overlaps the Foucauldian definition of power and the punishment of the soul. This phenomenon appears in every film of the series differently, through the characters and the plot. This article’s objective is to examine Kieslowski’s Dekalog series through the relationship between order, submission and power, and to discuss the effects of this relationship over the characters.
... In this specific internal survey, normalising judgement operates in that students rate individual modules which then places these modules 'on a ranked scale that compares them to' the other modules (Gutting, 2006, p. 84). When one module failed to attain the 'minimal threshold' (p. ...
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The UK National Student Survey (NSS) has high status on the agenda of UK universities. Its rise in status is linked to its influence on national rankings and associated funding streams referenced to the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF). Consequently, many universities have implemented further assessments of student satisfaction, thereby putting additional internal performative pressures on courses and individual lecturers. The research contribution of this article comprises an analysis of the NSS through Foucault's notion of 'governmentality', with a particular focus on his work on 'discipline' and 'neo-liberal governmentality'. More specifically, by utilising qualitative data from interviews, research diaries and observations, it will be demonstrated how the NSS functions as a 'disciplinary' technology of government which subjects lecturers, departments and universities to intersecting panoptic gazes and perpetual ratings. In addition, the NSS can also be considered 'neo-liberal' in that it governs the academic population through narrow conceptions of 'freedom' and omnipresent competition. The article proposes that it is through the amalgamated forces of intersecting panoptic gazes, on the one hand, and neo-liberal free-market principles, on the other, that student feedback develops its power to govern.
... And there were another four whose conceptualisation could be characterised as Foucauldian (Gutting, 2005), with abuse constructed as deriving from unequal power relations: ...
Article
Background: A common factor in the abuse of people with intellectual disabilities in residential settings has been the failure of care staff and frontline managers to recognise poor practice at an early stage and prevent its development into a culture of abuse. In this context, staff understandings of abuse and poor practice in residential services for people with intellectual disabilities were explored. Method: Semi-structured interviews (n = 56) were undertaken with care staff and frontline managers working across England. Interviews included the use of vignettes, based on real-life experiences of people with intellectual disabilities, to prompt discussion. Results: Staff struggled to define either "abuse" or "poor practice", focussing more on individual acts or omissions than on institutional practices. When faced with vignettes, staff demonstrated a lack of agreement regarding what constitutes either abuse or poor practice. Conclusions: The implications for practice in residential care settings and for safeguarding training are discussed.
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This new conflict resolution textbook offers a genealogy of the field demonstrating how various political challenges faced by the west gave rise to the field's diverse theories, approaches and research methodologies. Using articles that best demonstrate these ideas we present the field as three overlapping eras, or "Epochs." Epoch 1 (1945-1989) Epoch 2 (1990-2001) Epoch 3 (2002-today). This introduction outlines our approach and will help you see how the textbook can useful for a variety of undergrad and grad classes on conflict resolution and other related subjects. To order a review copy please visit: https://www.rowmaninternational.com/book/introduction_to_conflict_resolution/3-156-0d2e841a-0cdd-425a-b69c-832e0a26dfd9
Chapter
Educational endeavours that have sought to bring the aura of creativity in music education are often characterised by an intimacy and a fragility that render them utterly powerless in the face of unexamined convictions, prejudices, impositions, exclusionary practices, and acts of intimidation that prevail in music education—acts of oppression and exertion of symbolic violence whose story is yet to be written, despite recent developments in that direction. In this chapter I will try to ponder over the notion of symbolic violence as a central feature of beginning to learn a musical instrument. Thus I will try to sketch a ‘topical’ notion of symbolic violence, denoting the ways in which teachers impose particular musical practices through induction into learning practices that reproduce musical values that are misrecognised as ‘self-evident’ and ‘natural’, while refusing to engage with their students’ meaning making processes, thus closing the door to alternative readings of their students’ creativity. Further I will offer an untidy reading of a young child’s practice of improvisation showing how children’s complex ‘innocence’ might create a window through which symbolic violence can be exposed, worked upon, and resisted. The chapter focuses on how a 6-year-old girl (Leoni) comes into improvisation and how her practice of improvisation is re-appropriated on the basis of her experience with formal instrumental tuition. I experiment with the possibility of offering a quasi-literary representation of a spontaneous piano improvisation created by Leoni in a home setting, and of the discussion on her music that followed. I then use a long discussion on improvisation I had with her 5 months later—it is between those two meetings that she had begun taking piano lessons, lessons that are seen as materialising a process of symbolic violence. Lastly, I comment on two short improvisations recorded a few days after this last discussion. Resisting oversimplification and reductionist/cognitivist perspectives I try to suggest a poetic, reflective and untidy approach to how we listen to children’s subaltern practice of improvising. I also try to show how children’s creative agency forges a trajectory that is always mediated by culturally framed constraints, yet opens up possibilities for re-appropriation and hence of resistance, through its potential to offer a holistic experience of musical flow, an experience that may not be a priori understood as antithetical or antagonistic to more formal aspects of music training.
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This paper aims at exploring sociological theories of body as an alternative approach for developing interdisciplinary Islamic studies. Three importants poinst are made trough reviewing relevant theories and literatures. First, it offers understanding of the new development in sociological theories of the body. Second, it gives emphasize on, and elaborates, the theory of docail body, which was initially developed by Michel Foucault. Third, it will analyze the Panduan Busana Muslimah book as a sample of how to use the theory of body to study one of the most prominent Islamic symbols of Islamic revivalism, the jilbab.[Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menawarkan teori tubuh sebagai salah satu alternatif pendekatan dalam kajian Islam interdisiplin, yang sering kita sebut sebagai pendekatan integrasi-interkoneksi. Untuk mencapai hal dimaksud, tiga aspek akan dibahas secara mendalam. Pertama, makalah ini menjelaskan teori-teori baru yang berkembang dalam sosiologi tubuh. Kedua, makalah ini menekankan pentingnya teori docail body yang digagas oleh Michel Foucault. Dan ketiga, makalah ini memberikan contoh aplikasi singkat bagaimana teori tubuh itu dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis salah satu fenomena revivalisme Islam.]
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The paper examines the various layers of narratives in selected stories from Alice Munro’s short-story collections Something I’ve Been Meaning to Tell You and Dear Life from the perspective of relevant feminist issues persisting to this day. By analyzing Munro’s narrative technique in the autodiegetic narratives “Material,” “The Eye,” and “Dear Life,” the paper aims to reveal the personal and the authentic female voices intricately woven into the trivial and mundane story worlds―voices otherwise denied public space. The design of these autodiegetic narratives produces the effect of autobiographical fiction, but it is the seemingly commonplace character-narrators whose authentic discourses ultimately blur the line between fiction and fact. Munro purposefully undermines the autobiographical narrative unity by allowing several female narratives to flow into the main narrative and provide a new space for the examination of gender, gender inequality, and limitations extending to the present day.
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This article examines the European Union (EU)’s recent impetus to enhance military capacity building by funding the research and development of new and emerging technologies such as dual-use drones. A proactive agenda can be identified at the EU level to invest in and bolster the creation of modular and high-end capabilities for security and defence. In this regard, the article argues that there is an undeniable technologization and militarization trend to capitalize on civil innovation in the case of competitive dual-use drone technologies. Nevertheless, there is a puzzling element in the fast promotion of watershed developments in the case of complex and increasingly automated weaponry and what the research identifies as the ‘double-efficiency’ framing of civil–military drones as both highly proficient and cost-effective capabilities. What drives the normalization of dual-use drones as preferential technologies for internal and external security purposes in the EU? By drawing on critical technology theory and security studies scholarship, the article explores the ‘double-efficiency’ framing of dual-use drones and the technological expertise behind discursive strategies reinforcing the importance of European defence cooperation in the drone sector.
Chapter
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Openness has become an important, all‐encompassing term denoting activities facilitated by sharing, using, producing, and redistributing information and communication resources within digital information systems. We compare theoretical advancements that emphasize processes and characteristics of openness with the limitations of extant approaches that have largely focused on improvements to productivity and efficiency. Based on Foucault and Bruner's ideas, this paper contributes a new critical narrative approach to understanding openness explicitly focused on structural transformation and power. The analysis focuses on the case of open development, examining 20 key studies based primarily on developing countries. The critical narrative approach unpacked the production of power/knowledge across actors, intentions, and outcomes of openness research and practice. We find that discursive formations are reliant on technocentric and normative ideals of researchers, leading to narratives of hypothetical outcomes that exclude marginalized perspectives. We propose hermeneutic composability and contesting normative narratives of openness as analytical techniques for an integrated, mutually constitutive conception of interactions between individuals, open artefacts, and open social praxis.
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This chapter raises questions about the relationship between the personal and the sociocultural‐political realm and ask whether existing theoretical models of psychological experience accommodate our sense of humanity or alienate us from it. It reviews the work of Karl Marx, Michel Foucault, and Svetlana Boym, three approaches that deal with alienation, subjectivity, and estrangement respectively. Within this framework, the chapter considers the ideas of Erich Fromm, and R. D. Laing whose work also addresses the political nature of experience and the importance of context in a world that is social, cultural, and historical. At the core of Marx's thesis is the concept of historical materialism, which was founded on an intellectual platform constructed by German philosopher Georg Hegel. Political psychology needs to adopt an epistemology that is rooted in the everyday, in the world of people's experience of the world, of themselves, others, and the material landscape in which we move and continually create.
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Openness has become an important, all-encompassing term denoting activities facilitated by sharing, using, producing and redistributing information and communication resources within digital information systems. We compare theoretical advancements, which emphasize processes and characteristics of openness, with the limitations of extant approaches that have largely focused on improvements to productivity and efficiency. Based on Foucault and Bruner's ideas, this paper contributes a new critical narrative approach to understanding openness explicitly focused on structural transformation and power. The analysis focuses on the case of open development, examining 20 key studies based primarily in developing countries. The critical narrative approach unpacked the production of power/knowledge across actors, intentions and outcomes of openness research and practice. We find that discursive formations are reliant on techno-centric and normative ideals of researchers, leading to narratives of hypothetical outcomes that exclude marginalized perspectives. We propose hermeneutic composability and contesting normative narratives of openness as analytical techniques for an integrated, mutually-constitutive conception of interactions between individuals, open artefacts and open social praxis.
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The chapter considers the ways in which we draw upon our cognitive and sensory experiences in terms of knowledge generation and dissemination. A consequence of seeking to forge merged human relations is our need to learn to interpret situations within the context of dialogic experiences. When creating performance, we work through interrelating scenarios, seeking ways to arrange emerging and relating ideas in material forms. What the discussion particularly focuses on are the ways that choices are made between individuals working in groups and the principles that inform the social realities of their shared practice. These attributes are grounded in an appreciation for the role of aesthetics and ethics in our ways of being critically engaged in learning.
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This draft is part of a bigger chapter on the theoretical framework that guides my PhD research. Work in progress. Please do not quote or cite without permission. Comments/ feedback/ suggestions always welcomed.
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Conventional roles and responsibilities of the learner have placed the learner in a singular position within a hierarchy of authority and power – as the passive recipient of learning, of being taught. The socioecological learner, however, holds a special position in relation to this convention, a position mediated through a socioecological approach to understanding the world. A socioecological model provides a multi-dimensional perspective on social and ecological systems, in which interconnectedness, flow of energy and materials, linkages, relationships and feedback play central roles. It follows that the roles and responsibilities of the learner should reflect such an ecology. The demands of the Anthropocene – both as global crisis and as opportunity – present an urgent need to shift the relationships between the currently siloed hierarchical, socially constructed categories of ‘learner’, ‘teacher’ and ‘researcher’. The emergence of posthumanism provides stimulus that unsettle these conventions. The category of ‘socioecological learner’ challenges long-held presumptions around relationships between teacher, researcher, learner, participant, knowledge and data. An alternative vision is one of a postmodern and posthuman future, a future in which a milieux-contextualised shift of learner to learner-teacher-researcher encompasses a crucial shift from learner-as-human-in-society to learner–as-posthuman-in-zoe.
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The American author Dennis Lehane, published his masterpiece Shutter Island in 2003. In his psychological novel, alongside the thrilling themes of crime and crisis, a heavy undercurrent of power and punishment grabs reader's attention. From a literary philosophical side, Foucauldian notions of madness, “the composition of forces” upon the mentally disturbed patients, could captivate a critic’s attention. It is therefore, beneficial to analyze the Dissociative Personality Disorder of the protagonist of the novel. The present study aims to investigate “the composition of forces” in Shutter Island (2003) based on Michel Foucault’s Discipline and Punish (1975). Foucault in his book scrutinizes “the composition of forces,” how individuals and bodies are placed, and redirected in larger machines, like choosing good soldiers and training them for army. Among Foucault’s ideas, “the composition of forces” has been considered as one of the primary and essential tools of maintaining the disciplinary power. The study concludes that the main character of the novel shows resistance and denial through his process of treatment. In fact, his Dissociative Identity Disorder is a manifestation of the way he wants to escape from the superintending forces of the disciplinary power.
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Sexual ethics in India are still heavily inscribed by colonial ideas that privileged Victorian morality and regional ethnopolitical compulsions. While the existence of a robust history of sexual ethics that celebrates sexuality is evident in India, in the sculptures in ancient temples and wall paintings, as well as in texts like Kamasutra, these parameters are commonly believed to have belonged to an ancient period. Today, patriarchal control over female sexuality is pervasive in India, and its legitimacy is drawn from tradition. This appears to be a travesty, and the truth is far from what is portrayed. While it is impossible to uncover practices and beliefs that have a Pan-Indian implication, it is possible to examine evidence at a regional level. This paper attempts to reveal early attitudes to sex and sexuality in Kerala based on an analysis of a genre of folksongs from the Malabar region of Kerala, vadakkan pattukal (literally “songs from the north”). Uncovering past cultural beliefs and attitudes to sexuality is imperative, especially in current times, when patriarchal backlash and right-wing ideologies seek to control female sexuality and reproductive rights under the pretext of assertive nationalism and cultural identity.
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This chapter inverts the logic of anti-psychiatry to investigate four key critical psychiatrists whose contributions represent “psychiatry against itself.” They are Italian psychiatric reformer Franco Basaglia, Martinican revolutionary psychiatrist Frantz Fanon, French psychoanalytic rebel Jacques Lacan, and Scottish radical psychiatrist R.D. Laing. What is intriguing about the psychiatrists associated with the anti-psychiatry movement and what unites them is negation. Each psychiatrist negated some aspect of contemporary psychiatric practice that made him a rebel, a radical, a reformer, or a revolutionary anti-psychiatrist. Each wielded a tool the author names Badiou’s sickle. Psychiatry and anti-psychiatry are explored using Giorgio Agamben’s philosophical archaeology. The work of two other influential figures is also reviewed: American psychiatrist Thomas Szasz on the myth of mental illness and French psychologist-philosopher Michel Foucault on reordering medical perception and psychiatric thought. A closing Envoi explores why mental health cannot be reduced to games and wordplay or fanciful notions of madness.
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The films Citizen Kane and Forrest Gump are employed to show the impact of framing a story on knowledge formation. It advances from Saussure to argue the intervention of the political in explaining the varying of meanings. The chapter presents a genealogy of Critical Muslim studies. It outlines how Critical Muslim Studies diverges from Islamic Critical Theory, Critical Muslim Theory and Critical Muslim of Ziauddin Sardar. The benefits outlined of applying Critical Muslim Studies. A new term, scotoma, is introduced to account for the lack of the colonised narrative in Eurocentrism. The employment of ‘problematisation’ is promoted as applied by Foucault.
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This article examines the diachronic development of Shiʿi exegetic discourse on the sentence Khalaqakum min nafs wāḥida wa-khalaqa minhā zawjahā (“created you from a single soul and created its mate from it”) in the Quranic verse 4:1, customarily read as describing the creation of the first couple, Adam and Eve. Applying feminist discourse analysis and focusing on the Arabic-language commentaries of twelve premodern Imāmī exegetes from the third/ninth to the eleventh/seventeenth century, my study reveals that the medieval commentary material both accumulated and transformed along a hermeneutical trajectory comprising three distinctive discursive stages. The first stage established the lore on Eve’s creation in dismissive terms, and the second strengthened these misogynous views to make the potential substance of Eve’s creation even more negligible. This concept was further expanded in the third discursive stage, in which the weak woman, inclined toward the material and the corporal, was seen as created to provide service and entertainment for the man. Her creation was thus used to justify gender hierarchy, even the seclusion of women.
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The article discusses one of the most pressing problems of today’s Western civilization—the harmonious interaction of innovation and tradition. The issue is presented from the perspective of media research by renowned media theorist Marshall McLuhan, the starting point of which is the almost absolute dependence of human behaviour on the media environment, its structure and characteristics. In McLuhan's view, so-called old media (e.g., writing) create an environment in which newer and more technologically advanced media inevitably discriminate the old ones. Therefore, from McLuhan’s point of view, any harmonious state between innovation and tradition in, say, a book-based culture is impossible. However, based on the research of both primitive societies and the latest achievements of civilization, the media theorist proposes a solution—an electrical media-based human living environment, in which any inconsistent state is made impossible due to the information transmitted at the speed of light, ensuring an integrative rather than discriminatory approach to tradition. Based on less frequently discussed texts by McLuhan and data from the archives of his written legacy, the article reveals the development of such an approach, the main arguments, and the implications for areas of culture such as education or scientific cognition. It also shows how McLuhan's search for harmonious media interaction changed his general view towards the media and their subject, the human being.
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Negotiations between continuity and discontinuity have characterized Srividya traditions for centuries; these are primarily studied through texts or the juxtaposition of textual prescriptions with observed practices, leaving the process of how Srividya practitioners negotiate esoteric and orthodox tendencies unexplored. Building on extensive fieldwork among practitioners of a contemporary South Indian Srividya tradition, I present the dynamics animating such transformations. Focusing on kalavahana, one of the tradition's central rituals aimed at identifying with Devi, I trace the underlying forces that gradually replace its most esoteric aspects (centred around the body and pleasure) with conventional worship (external or meditative practices), refashioning the tradition as part of mainstream Saktism. While some practitioners conform to the new canon, others, for whom the changes diminish ritual efficacy, secretly continue embodied practices. Through a Foucauldian archaeologico-genealogical analysis, I investigate which regimes of truth and ontological coordinates allow the ritual to change, and which diminish its efficacy. While at first negotiations between continuity and discontinuity appear driven by socio-political motives, ultimately they are governed and legitimized by fundamentally diverging modes of being. A pre-objectified worldview demands embodied experiences (including unconventional practices invoking pleasure) while a dualistic framework endorses representational practices (such as meditation and idol-worship).
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The education sector is experiencing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in the implementation of the distance learning (PJJ) system to reduce the risk of virus transmission. This system, however, has several obstacles, including the internet network, social inequality, uncertainty in choosing the appropriate learning method, and the decline in student achievement. This problem is also faced by smart class students at Hang Tuah Senior High School 2 of Sidoarjo, forcing its teachers to be able to create innovative learning and act actively to discipline their students. This study aimed to determine the teachers’ role as a panopticon for smart class students during distance learning. The qualitative research method was implemented using Foucault’s genealogical approach and the research informants were determined using the snowball technique. The results of this study reveal that the teachers’ role as a panopticon for the students is carried out with a hierarchical observation, giving reward and punishment, and repeated test system. This study concludes that the role of the teachers as a panopticon during distance learning at Hang Tuah Senior High School 2 of Sidoarjo is particularly useful for disciplining smart class students to carry out their obligations and prevent a decline in academic achievement even though the activities are done virtually.
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Given all the uncomfortableness, fears, shame, and troubles associated with memories of Australian carceral history, it is surprising that Australians are interested in reusing sites of decommissioned prisons at all. The uncomfortable past juxtaposes basic ideas of preservation, not to mention the further transformation of old gaols to places for comfortable residences and shops. Her Majesty’s Prison Pentridge is used here as a case study, where the exact site of a century-and-a-half of notoriously brutal incarceration and source of uncomfortableness to the local community was transformed to residential and mixed-use developments. Perhaps due to those memories slipping away, or probably due to pragmatic economic opportunities allowed by urban consolidation policies, such acute transformation became possible. This paper joins an unsettled debate surrounding the phenomena of converting old prisons to contemporary buildings and shops inhabited by non-prisoners using Pentridge as a recent example.
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Die politischen und sozialen Orte, an denen Machtkonstellationen generiert und interagiert werden, sind mannigfaltig; einer dieser Orte mit einer massenwirksamen Relevanz sind Fernsehserien: Der machtanalytische Fokus liegt dabei, wie im Folgenden theoretisch noch argumentativ entwickelt wird, in einer Tendenz der optimierten Selbstüberwachung in der Alltagskultur, die ohne Gewalt erfolgt und dabei die Macht der Ohnmacht als leitendes Identifizierungsmotiv sichtbar werden lässt. Dieses Motiv wird im vorliegenden Beitrag in seinen Variationen anhand eines Vergleichs von drei Fernsehserien in den Blick genommen, die höchst different – und zugleich alle jeweils: höchst erfolgreich – sind: Benjamin Blümchen (Kiddinx, seit 1988), Game of Thrones (HBO, seit 2011) und American Dad (Fox/TBS, seit 2005).
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The Case of Ellen West by Ludwig Binswanger [The case of Ellen West: An anthropological-clinical study (trans. by Werner M. Mendel and Joseph Lyons). In: Existence: A new dimension in psychiatry and psychology (Rollo May, Ernest Angel, and Henri F. Ellenberger, Eds.). New York: Basic Books, pp. 237–364, 1958] is at once the founding case of existential analysis, one of the most famous cases in modern psychiatry, and a “whodunit” mystery involving the founders of psychiatry. Its aporias – hidden problems and unresolved questions – cast a shadow on existential analysis and phenomenological psychiatry. Binswanger proposed an analysis of “the existential Gestalt to which we have given the name Ellen West.” The complexity of her case triggered a series of consultations with Emil Kraepelin, pioneer of psychiatric classification, who diagnosed melancholy (a profound depression), while an unnamed “foreign” psychiatrist found simple psychasthenia (obsessive-compulsive disorder). Binswanger diagnosed schizophrenia, confirmed by Eugen Bleuler, who named this emblematic condition of psychiatry. Convinced of her incurable diagnosis, Ellen West demanded to be released. After 3 days with her family, she wrote that she felt relieved, yet that evening she took poison and died. Writing more than 20 years after her death, when the principals of the case were dead, Binswanger declared her suicide “authentic.” Was her death an “authentic suicide” as he insists, an “assisted suicide” (Naamah Akavia, Sci Context 21:119–144, 2008), or a case of “psychic homicide” (David Lester, Psychoanal Rev 58:251–263, 1971)? Despite numerous consultations and multiple rereadings of her case from psychiatry and psychoanalysis to history and philosophy [Michel Foucault, “Introduction et notes,” in Ludwig Binswanger, Le rêve et l'existence (trans. by Jacqueline Verdeaux) Paris: Vrin, pp. 65–119, 1954], “Ellen West” remains an enigma. The case of “Ellen West” is a mirror of twentieth-century psychiatry, declares phenomenology as a dead end for psychiatry (Vincenzo Di Nicola, Letters to a young therapist: Relational practices for the coming community . New York/Dresden: Atropos Press, 2011), and is presented as a case study for evental psychiatry based on the work of philosopher Alain Badiou. The striking range of psychiatric opinions expressed about Ellen West’s predicament leads to philosophical reflections about what constitutes a “case” in psychiatry.
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In Thailand, a military elite has repressed activity on the World Wide Web (Web) through ‘emergency’ surveillance acts following a coup d’état in May 2014. Since then, harsher punishments than have been imposed previously, less personal freedoms and even vaguer legislation, restrict ‘digital’ human rights. This fuels a ‘surveillance culture’ echoing George Orwell, whose novel 1984 describes a society driven by paranoia, peer-observation and self-censorship. In South-East (SE) Asia, repression of freedoms is not new. However, Thailand is, supposedly, a democratic country, where freedom of expression is enshrined in law. This shapes a worrying ‘digital’ future for Thai citizens where, since 2019, a newly ‘legitimate’ and military-backed government seeks to realise a socio-technical Thai Internet Panopticon. In this chapter, we consider why this is problematic.
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“Spatiality and Power” focuses especially on Foucault’s work of the 1960s. Our aim is twofold in doing this. On the one hand, we introduce the degree to which Foucault’s concerns, from the beginning, have been with fundamental questions of how spatialization and discourse find a coincidence, and hence the extent to which Foucault is a critical thinker of spatiality. In this, his thinking is a provocation to questions of thinking the urban. On the other hand, we are concerned with drawing out a question of method, or methodological procedures, that engaged Foucault, useful for our analyses. Early in the chapter, we emphasise that key terms deployed by Foucault when discussing method, those of ‘jurisdiction’ and ‘veridiction’, do not refer so much to themes or already-determined forms of knowing, but rather refer to procedures, conducts and problems: to how we proceed with what we have at hand. This suggests that our object of research, “the city,” is provisionally determined in a study that problematizes precisely the frailty of our methods for uncovering its contours.
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Through this book, I enter into a dialogue with contemporary feminist debate about the place of feminism in contemporary work against sexual violence and aim to provide an alternative to the dominant narrative of decline and co-option. In the current chapter, I engage with scholarly concerns about the diminution of feminism by introducing the reader to the methodological rationale for my empirical study on the production of feminist knowledge in sexual assault services in the state of NSW, Australia. The case study provides the crucial foundation for the argument in this book—that what has come to constitute feminist knowledge in the sexual assault services sector ought to be treated as a serious object of empiricist enquiry and an active production, rather than an inert fact. In this chapter, I explain the methodological approach used to design and conduct the study to show how the sexual assault services sector operates as a historically situated ‘field of feminist practice’. This exploration provides a broad account of the development of sexual assault support organisations in NSW as feminist women’s services, including personal narratives by women who worked in and were part of the sector’s early development. The chapter concludes with an outline of the current structure of NSW sexual assault services and synopsis of the constitution and operation of feminist knowledge across these services.
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This chapter examines popular discourses of discipline to determine an approach for an Anishinaabeg ethic of discipline. An Anishinaabeg ethic of self-discipline broadens understandings of physical activity amongst Indigenous Peoples to disrupt our apparent trajectory of ill health. This chapter explores discourses of nationalistic physical activity to determine how Indigenous bodies have been conditioned by assimilative processes and how this relates to popular notions of discipline. I also consider Indigenous scholars’ perspectives on discipline to contextualize an Indigenous viewpoint on discipline, which is connected to community well-being and decolonization processes. Thus, I discuss the importance of sustained commitment to physical activity, as was shown in the dibaajimowinan of the Anishinaabekweg and Elders, that Indigenous Peoples strengthen not only our bodies through self-disciplined physical activity but also our connections to our lands, our ancestors, and future generations. As we strengthen our bodies and ultimately improve our well-being and vitality, we also disrupt how settler colonialism requires our ultimate erasure.
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The prison system of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has been viewed by some scholars as effective in achieving the primary target of Chinese imprisonment: rehabilitation. This article aims to redress this argument. Drawing on interviews undertaken with 30 female parolees/ex-prisoners and 10 prison officers, this article argues that the Jifen Kaohe System in prison, which is strongly imprinted with Foucault’s theory of ‘disciplinary power’, is ineffective and is unable to make accurate judgements on the achievement of prisoners’ rehabilitation at selected women’s prisons. This article suggests that Foucault’s disciplinary power is theoretically problematic in producing a ‘new person’, not the least of its unawareness of contextualized culture, values and situations, and women’s agency in prison.
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This chapter explores the historical roots and modern trends that have contributed to the development of the theater of personal stories. The chapter begins with an overview of the burgeoning forms of theater where people share and enact personal and collective stories. This is followed by a description of trends within theater, actor training and performance art that influenced the development of the theater of personal stories. The chapter describes the emergence of psychodrama and key historical developments in documentary and activist theater aimed at political and social change. The chapter also examines the ways in which therapy and theater have been interwoven since the beginning of western theater, and concludes with a description of several successful mainstream theater productions focused on personal stories.
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Session limits are widespread in student counselling. The rationale is the need to allocate scarce resources in response to demand. A research study in an Irish university explored how the setting of standardised session limits was discursively constructed by a group of students and counsellors. It sought to privilege the voices of student clients and counsellors in order to explore the effects and consequences of this practice. Foucauldian discourse analysis was used to explore the discourses of both groups of participants and how these might link to their responses to session limits, in this case, six. Discourses endure over time and draw on social and cultural understandings which should be recognisable and can be identified by close examination of language. This study highlighted the discourses of stigma, recovery and personal responsibility, patient or consumer and expert knowledge, which were reflected in the various ways participants positioned themselves. The study draws on Foucault’s concept of disciplinary power and the production of ethical subjectivity to illustrate the dilemmas participants faced in their struggle to respond to session limits. In keeping with a Foucauldian approach, which suggests that the discourses upon which a phenomenon is constructed become more visible at its margins, the student client group had all received more than the standard six sessions. Although counsellors have the formal power to allocate the scarce resource of counselling sessions, the operation of this in practice is nuanced and full of ethical complexity. Disciplinary power is a particular type of power which subjects exercise over their own person, such as the application of rules of conduct and appropriate behaviour. The operation of disciplinary power, ethical subjectivity and discourses are inter-related, impinge on each other in various ways and are often in a state of flux and change.
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The representation of mental illness and individuals suffering from a specific mental illness in films is a phenomenon encountered since the first years of cinema. Mental diseases in many film genres such as horror, science fiction, comedy, and crime are used as scary, laughing, or drama elements. The representations of various psychopathologies in the films give an idea about these disorders to the ordinary viewer. However, these representations can accurately describe the reality and also have the risk of being defective and incomplete. It is seen that people who have mental disorders in cinema are generally presented in the way that ‘dangerous, violent, unpredictable characters' within the frame of limited and distorted patterns. It is possible to say that these cliché representations differ according to gender. Female characters with mental disorders are described as ‘beautiful and troubled women' in cinema. Related films were taken as an example in this study and it is aimed examine the representation of female characters with mental disorders in these films.
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This is a revised version of the book - some minor errors found in the Polish edition have been corrected as well as one major mistake concerning the number of women religious in South America, which dropped by almost 20% (and not increased by almost 160%) between 1974 and 2015.
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