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Factor structure of scores from the Maslach Burnout Inventory: A review and meta-analysis of 45 exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic studies

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... Con respecto al de análisis de datos, no existen estudios que analicen las PCI. No obstante, se ha observado que en general no se siguen las recomendaciones de la APA (Wilkinson y APA Task Force on Statistical Inference, 1999), por ejemplo, informar del error muestral, de la potencia observada, de la fiabilidad de las mediciones, de los tamaños del efecto y de los intervalos de confianza (Aguayo et al., 2011;Wheeler et al., 2011). En cuanto a la validación de instrumentos de medida, sobre todo el MBI por ser el más empleado, se ha constatado que en bastantes estudios de análisis factorial, tanto exploratorio como confirmatorio, los procedimientos utilizados son incorrectos: tamaño muestral, método de rotación y método de retención de factores, estimación de la fiabilidad, método de estimación de la matriz de correlaciones, uso de índices de ajuste, correlación de errores o eliminación de ítems para mejorar el ajuste (Worley et al., 2008). ...
... No obstante, varios autores han informado de la ocurrencia de algunos errores de este tipo. Por ejemplo, se ha observado la presencia de errores en la interpretación del p-valor (Badenes-Ribera et al., 2015) y de inducción de la fiabilidad (Aguayo et al., 2011;Wheeler et al., 2011), una práctica no recomendada, que puede estar relacionada con una mala interpretación del concepto de fiabilidad (Sánchez-Meca y López-Pina, 2008). ...
... Vargas, De la Fuente y Lozano, 2011;Olivares y Gil-Monte, 2009; Squires,Finlayson, Gerchowet al., 2014;Wheeler, Vassar, Worley y Barnes, 2011). ...
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La investigación en Psicología se caracteriza por hacer uso del método científico, sobre todo el hipotético-deductivo. Recientemente se han publicado varios trabajos que muestran las dificultades con las que los psicólogos se encuentran a la hora de investigar. Algunas de ellas son la diversidad de modelos teóricos, la ausencia de estudios de replicación, los errores en el diseño, la alta tasa de falsos positivos, las prácticas inadecuadas de análisis de datos y la lentitud e ineficacia de la transmisión del conocimiento científico. En este trabajo, mediante una revisión narrativa, se pretende reflexionar de manera crítica sobre la ocurrencia de estos problemas en el campo de la Psicología de la Salud Ocupacional, en concreto, el síndrome de burnout. Se aportan evidencias de que algunos problemas mencionados a nivel general coinciden con los de este campo. Finalmente se discuten estos resultados.
... Currently, there are three versions of the MBI: the General Survey (MBI-GS), used for workers in general; the Educators Survey (MBI-ES), used in the educational area; and the Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), used for the health services [11]. Several studies have been published carrying out exploratory and/or confirmatory analyses of the factorial structure of the MBI in different professional groups [12]. Although the studies carried out with health professionals have focused mainly on nursing professionals, both emergency and non-emergency nursing care [13,14], even exploring differences between countries [15], there are also some studies including physicians [16], and including all emergency professional profiles [17]. ...
... Our figures were very similar to the internal consistency [4] (0.90 for EE, 0.79 for DP, and 0.71 for PA). Similar results were also found in other studies [16,[33][34][35][36], even in those carried-out in other countries [14,15,17,[37][38][39][40][41][42], indicating that the scale maintains its validity despite crosscultural differences [12,15]. ...
... Item 12, designed to measure PA, has been shown to be cross-loaded on the EE factor; similarly, item 16 is an EE item with significant loadings on the DP subscale [4]. Apart from items 12 and 16, similar problems have also been observed with other items, such as 6 and 22, which did not load on the expected factor or did not load on any factor [12]. Despite confirming the three-factor structure, our findings from CFA were more in line with studies that suggested that the initial three-factor structure could better fit the data if several items were excluded [14,36,[39][40][41]. ...
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Background The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is an instrument commonly used to evaluate burnout syndrome. The goal of the present study was to assess the internal reliability and the performance of the items and the subscales of the MBI-HSS (the version for professionals working in human services) by validating its factorial structure in Spanish urgency healthcare personnel. Methods Cross-sectional study including 259 healthcare emergency professionals (physicians and nurses) in the Spanish health region of Lleida and the Pyrenees. Burnout was measured using the Spanish validated version of the MBI-HSS. Internal reliability was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The sampling adequacy was assessed using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure along with the Bartlett’s test of sphericity. A principal axis exploratory factor analysis with an oblique transformation of the solution and a confirmatory factor analysis with maximum likelihood estimation were performed. Goodness-of-fit was assessed by means of the chi-square ratio by the degrees of freedom, the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR), the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), the Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) and the comparative fit index (CFI). Results The three subscales showed good internal reliability with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients exceeding the critical value of 0.7. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five factors with eigenvalues greater than 1. Nevertheless, confirmatory factor analysis showed a relatively satisfactory fit of the three-factor structure (χ²/df = 2.6, SRMR = 0.07, RMSEA = 0.08, TLI = 0.87, CFI = 0.89), which was improved when several items were removed (χ²/df = 1.7, SRMR = 0.04, RMSEA = 0.05, TLI = 0.97, CFI = 0.98). Conclusions Although it is necessary exploring new samples to get to more consistent conclusions, the MBI-HSS is a reliable and factorially valid instrument to evaluate burnout syndrome in health professionals from the Spanish emergency services.
... Secondly, the conceptualisation of burnout has not been universally accepted and different factor structures for the concept's operationalization have been argued and established ranging from unidimensional, two factor, three-factor, bifactor, and second-order models. [10]. Furthermore, a key component of MBI-assessed burnout, professional (in)efficacy has been shown to be a divergent factor and perhaps more suitable as an outcome of burnout than a core component [10][11][12]. ...
... [10]. Furthermore, a key component of MBI-assessed burnout, professional (in)efficacy has been shown to be a divergent factor and perhaps more suitable as an outcome of burnout than a core component [10][11][12]. ...
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Background Burnout is an increasing public health concern that afflicts employees globally. The measurement of burnout is not without criticism, specifically in the context of its operational definition as a syndrome, also recently designated as such by the World Health Organisation. The Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT-23) is a new measure for burnout that addresses many of the criticisms surrounding burnout scales. The aim of this study is to determine the validity, reliability, and measurement invariance of the BAT-23 in South Africa. Method A quantitative, cross-sectional survey, approach was taken (n = 1048). Latent variable modelling was implemented to investigate the construct-relevant multidimensionality that is present in the BAT. For measurement invariance, the configural, metric, scalar, and strict models were tested. Results The analyses showed that the hierarchical operationalisation of BAT-assessed burnout was the most appropriate model for the data. Specifically, a bifactor ESEM solution. Composite reliability estimates were all well above the cut-off criteria for both the global burnout factor and the specific factors. The measurement invariance tests showed that gender achieved not only strong invariance, but also strict invariance. However, ethnicity initially only showed strong invariance, but a test of partial strict invariance did show that the mean scores could be fairly compared between the groups when releasing certain constraints. Conclusions The BAT-23 is a valid and reliable measure to investigate burnout within the Southern African context.
... At last, personal accomplishment refers to the employees' feelings of being competent and productive at work. Of these three factors, emotional exhaustion has been viewed as the primary manifestation of burnout syndrome [30], and as noted above, it has been related to insomnia in previous research. ...
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Insomnia is one of the most common problems, affecting more than 35% of the world’s population. To achieve a better understanding of this problem the focus of this research is to understand how emotional exhaustion at work may lead to insomnia. To help to combat it, we tested a mediation model including engagement factors. The sample was composed of 823 participants. 38.3% (315 subjects) were male and 61.7% (508 subjects) were female. Mean age was 42.65 years old (9.05 = SD). Main results showed that emotional exhaustion is directly and statistically significant related to insomnia. However, different engagement factors showed different weights in buffering this relationship. Emotional exhaustion showed a statistically significant impact on insomnia. Vigor and absorption helped to buffer the impact of emotional exhaustion over insomnia. Our study has some limitations. First, the sample was acquired by not aleatory processes. Another limitation is that our sample was composed of individuals with decision-making capacity. Lastly, our research is a transversal study. Future research should take these limitations into account and conduct longitudinal research with aleatory sampling procedures.
... Insomnia items are measured from the scale developed by Morin, Belleville, Bélanger, and Ivers [106]. The emotional exhaustion item was measured from the scale developed by Worley, Vassar Wheeler, and Barnes [107]. The item intolerance of uncertainty was measured from a scale developed by Carleton, Norton, and Asmundson [108]. ...
Article
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Since the end of 2019, COVID-19 has continued to spread around the world. The police have performed various epidemic prevention and routine duties. This study explores how police officers’ COVID-19 fear, resistance to organizational change, intolerance of uncertainty, and secondary trauma affect emotional exhaustion and insomnia in the context of COVID-19. A total of 205 valid police samples were collected in this study, and the established hypotheses were tested using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The results of the study confirmed that during the COVID-19 outbreak, secondary trauma of police officers positively affects emotional exhaustion and insomnia; intolerance of uncertainty positively affects emotional exhaustion; resistance to organizational change positively affects intolerance of uncertainty and emotional exhaustion; intolerance of uncertainty mediates the relationship between resistance to organizational change and emotional exhaustion; COVID-19 fear positively influences secondary trauma.
... Moreover, some attempts to replicate the construct validity have failed (e.g., Schwarzer et al., 2000). However, a review and meta-analysis of 45 studies on the overall factorial structure of the MBI support the three-dimensionality of the instrument, under the condition that the three dimensions are not considered as independent as originally stated, but as interrelated factors (Worley et al., 2008). ...
... In the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Maslach et al. (1997) explained burnout in the three dimensions of emotional exhaustion describing the stress factor, cynicism resulting in depersonalization describing the negative shift in attitude towards others, and a sense of low personal accomplishments describing a negative shift in attitude towards oneself. Emotional exhaustion is the dimension that is considered the most descriptive of burnout symptoms as it describes the stress factor in burnout (Worley et al., 2008). Further, Hills (2019) built on the concept of emotional exhaustion in the MBI and made the Emotional Exhaustion Questionnaire (EEQ) to catch effects outside of work on emotional exhaustion to build a broader questionnaire for use in psychopathology. ...
Research
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This research aimed to investigate different relationships affecting employee health and innovative work behavior. The relationships between motivation, gratitude, work engagement, and emotional exhaustion were investigated and four scales were filled in by 635 participants recruited online. A structural equation model (SEM) was developed referred to as the Work Engagement and Emotional Exhaustion (WEEE) model. Using self-determination theory (SDT), the WEEE model may explain how the fulfillment of basic psychological needs or lack thereof affects employee health, innovative work behaviors, and work climate through the connection to workplace bullying and workaholism. We argue that this new theoretical model may contribute to building a tool for monitoring how corporate initiatives affect employee health and innovative work behaviors, and welcome future attempts at replication.
... We used three measures as outcome variables: burnout, worsening burnout, and adaptation. Burnout was measured with a validated, nonproprietary single-item burnout scale (Dolan et al., 2015) that was built upon the emotional exhaustion scale of the original Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1981;Worley et al., 2008). We focus on emotional exhaustion rather than the depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment aspects of Maslach's three-part burnout definition because of the primacy of emotional exhaustion in an acute crisis. ...
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Background: Psychological safety-the belief that it is safe to speak up-is vital amid uncertainty, but its relationship to feeling heard is not well understood. Purpose: The aims of this study were (a) to measure feeling heard and (b) to assess how psychological safety and feeling heard relate to one another as well as to burnout, worsening burnout, and adaptation during uncertainty. Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of emergency department staff and clinicians (response rate = 52%; analytic N = 241) in July 2020. The survey measured psychological safety, feeling heard, overall burnout, worsening burnout, and perceived process adaptation during the COVID-19 crisis. We assessed descriptive statistics and construct measurement properties, and we assessed relationships among the variables using generalized structural equation modeling. Results: Psychological safety and feeling heard demonstrated acceptable measurement properties and were correlated at r = .54. Levels of feeling heard were lower on average than psychological safety. Psychological safety and feeling heard were both statistically significantly associated with lower burnout and greater process adaptation. Only psychological safety exhibited a statistically significant relationship with less worsening burnout during crisis. We found evidence that feeling heard mediates psychological safety's relationship to burnout and process adaptation. Conclusion: Psychological safety is important but not sufficient for feeling heard. Feeling heard may help mitigate burnout and enable adaptation during uncertainty. Practice implications: For health care leaders, expanding beyond psychological safety to also establish a feeling of being heard may further reduce burnout and improve care processes.
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The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between burnout and psychosomatic symptoms among high school students in the city of Zarqa in Jordan. To achieve this point the researcher selected a sample consisting of 60 students of high school, half of them males with an average age (17.35) and a standard deviation of (0.53), and the other half were females with an average age (17.15) and a standard deviation of (0.62). The results showed a positive correlation between burnout and psychosomatic symptoms, and that psychosomatic symptoms can be predicted through burnout, and no differences in burnout due to sex, as there were no differences in psychosomatic symptoms due to the sex except for the aspect of the heart, in favor of females.
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