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Why inconsistent leadership is regarded as procedurally unfair: The importance of social self-esteem concerns

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Three experimental studies examined to what extent leader's consistent use of procedures constitutes an important procedural fairness rule and influences people's reactions as a function of social self-esteem. In line with a recent claim that more attention should be devoted to different procedural fairness rules (Brockner, Ackerman, & Fairchild, 2001), the findings of Study 1 demonstrated that inconsistent leaders were evaluated as less procedurally fair and influenced feelings of uncertainty about oneself in ongoing interpersonal interactions. Study 2 showed that manipulating leader's consistency influenced people's procedural fairness judgments and willingness to replace the leader, but only among those low in social self-esteem (SSE). Finally, Study 3, using another consistency manipulation, demonstrated that variations in consistency made participants feel bad about themselves, particularly when they were low in SSE. These findings are discussed in light of research on relational models of justice and sociometer theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

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... Our research focuses on how followers are impacted by a phenomenon referred to as "inconsistent leadership" (e.g., Katz-Navon et al., 2020;Mullen et al., 2011). Inconsistent leadership has been variously defined in the literature as the (a) inconsistent application of rules (De Cremer, 2003), (b) interaction of safety-specific transformational leadership and passive-avoidant leadership (Mullen et al., 2011), and (c) mid-range scores on leadership measures, such that actual leadership could vary between low and high expressions of the leadership behaviors in question (Katz-Navon et al., 2020). Our research rests on the assumption that leaders are not always perceived as consistent (e.g., Herr et al., 2019;Lee et al., 2018;Nielsen et al., 2019). ...
... Extensive evidence exists demonstrating that both positive and negative leadership behaviors influence followers, and recent research confirms that positive and negative leader behaviors do indeed co-occur (e.g., Arnold et al., 2017;Barling et al., 2018;Johnson et al., 2012;Lin et al., 2016). Several combinations of potentially inconsistent leader behaviors have been considered, including when aggressive, abusive or undermining leader behaviors are interspersed with transformational, positive LMX, ethical leader behaviors (e.g., Chénard-Poirier et al., 2021;Lian et al., 2012), when organizational justice from leaders varies (De Cremer, 2003;Matta et al., 2017Matta et al., , 2020, and when passive leadership behaviors are interspersed with transformational leadership (e.g., Mullen et al., 2011). ...
... Because leader gender did not act as a moderator in study 1, leader gender is treated as a covariate in this study. Follower self-esteem is also included as a covariate, as some forms of negative leadership behaviors and perceived leadership inconsistencies are more detrimental to followers with low self-esteem (Day & Hamblin, 1964;De Cremer, 2003;Nahum-Shani et al., 2014). ...
... Different theories provide competing predictions about how people with differing self worth perceptions might react to aversive leader behaviors. For instance, self-enhancement theory (SEnT; Allport, 1937;Hull, 1943) argues that all people view leaders' abusive interactions with antipathy, and its compensatory view argues that those espousing less self worth would perceive leaders' abusive interactions as especially aversive and unfavorable (De Cremer, 2003;Jones, 1973). ...
... SEnT argues that everyone reacts negatively to abusive supervision (Shrauger, 1975), with those espousing less self worth being particularly dissatisfied as they have an especially strong desire for positive interactions that compensate for their lower self-views (De Cremer, 2003;Jones, 1973;Leary & Baumeister, 2000). Inversely, SVT posits that people prefer interactions that affirm their self-views, whether positive or negative (Swann, 1983). ...
... SEnT, which assumes that aversive leader interactions largely result in negative employee reactions because employees desire positive, self-enhancing leader interactions (De Cremer, 2003;Mackey et al., 2017). However, this theoretical viewpoint is unable to explain why some employees might have stronger or weaker (or even null) reactions to aversive experiences. ...
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Higher-performing employees are extremely important to organizations due to their superior contribution to unit performance and vaulted value within their teams. In turn, they espouse higher work-specific self-worth evaluations that influence how they react to abusive supervision. Taking a self-verification perspective, we theoretically explain how performance (through work-specific self-worth) augments the aversive nature of abusive supervision, which in turn affects higher-performing employees’ job embeddedness and subsequent decisions to quit their jobs. Across three field studies, our model is supported as we find that performance is positively related to work-specific self-worth, which magnifies the negative effects of abusive supervision on satisfaction. Consequently, we discover that as job performance (and in turn self-worth) increases, abusive supervision indirectly reduces job embeddedness and increases turnover through two forms of satisfaction. We expound upon how these findings contribute to both theory and practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Although concepts of consistent "good" or "bad" leadership have dominated previous research (Judge and Piccolo, 2004;Schyns and Schilling, 2013;Montano et al., 2017), there is a growing interest in understanding the implications of inconsistency in leadership (e.g., De Cremer, 2003;Mullen et al., 2011). Consistency or inconsistency can mean different things in different contexts: First, consistency may refer to stability in leader behavior across persons, time and situations (De Cremer, 2003). ...
... Although concepts of consistent "good" or "bad" leadership have dominated previous research (Judge and Piccolo, 2004;Schyns and Schilling, 2013;Montano et al., 2017), there is a growing interest in understanding the implications of inconsistency in leadership (e.g., De Cremer, 2003;Mullen et al., 2011). Consistency or inconsistency can mean different things in different contexts: First, consistency may refer to stability in leader behavior across persons, time and situations (De Cremer, 2003). Second, consistency can mean congruence between leaders' behavior and their own values, or between leaders' and followers' values, as reflected in the concept of authentic leadership (Avolio et al., 2004). ...
... In this study, we focus on (in-)consistency between follower-directed leadership (i.e., staff care) and both leaders' and followers' self-leadership (i.e., self care). The common denominator of these different conceptualizations is the notion that inconsistent leader behavior creates uncertainty for followers with detrimental consequences in terms of undermining trust and perceived fairness (e.g., De Cremer, 2003;Breevaart and Zacher, 2019). Accordingly, we argue that due to the leader's role model position, inconsistency between follower-directed leadership and self-leadership creates ambiguity and conflict for followers as to which healthspecific attitudes and behaviors are accepted, rewarded or sanctioned in the workplace, which in turn leads to stress. ...
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Health-oriented leadership consists of three dimensions that contribute to employee health: staff care, i.e., health-specific follower-directed leadership, as well as both leaders’ and followers’ self care, i.e., health-specific self-leadership. This study explores profiles of follower self care, leader self care and staff care, and investigates the relationships with follower health in two samples. We identified four patterns of health-oriented leadership: A consistently positive profile (high care), a consistently negative profile (low care), and two profiles showing inconsistencies between follower self care, leader self care, and staff care (leader sacrifice and follower sacrifice). The high care profile reported the best health compared to both the low care profile and the inconsistent profiles. The follower sacrifice profile reported more strain than the leader sacrifice profile, while strain and health levels were the least favorable in the low care profile. Findings reveal that (in-)consistency between follower-directed leadership and self-leadership contributes to follower strain and health.
... Our research focuses on how followers are impacted by a phenomenon referred to as "inconsistent leadership" (e.g., Katz-Navon et al., 2020;Mullen et al., 2011). Inconsistent leadership has been variously defined in the literature as the (a) inconsistent application of rules (De Cremer, 2003), (b) interaction of safety-specific transformational leadership and passive-avoidant leadership (Mullen et al., 2011), and (c) mid-range scores on leadership measures, such that actual leadership could vary between low and high expressions of the leadership behaviors in question (Katz-Navon et al., 2020). Our research rests on the assumption that leaders are not always perceived as consistent (e.g., Herr et al., 2019;Lee et al., 2018;Nielsen et al., 2019). ...
... Extensive evidence exists demonstrating that both positive and negative leadership behaviors influence followers, and recent research confirms that positive and negative leader behaviors do indeed co-occur (e.g., Arnold et al., 2017;Barling et al., 2018;Johnson et al., 2012;Lin et al., 2016). Several combinations of potentially inconsistent leader behaviors have been considered, including when aggressive, abusive or undermining leader behaviors are interspersed with transformational, positive LMX, ethical leader behaviors (e.g., Chénard-Poirier et al., 2021;Lian et al., 2012), when organizational justice from leaders varies (De Cremer, 2003;Matta et al., 2017Matta et al., , 2020, and when passive leadership behaviors are interspersed with transformational leadership (e.g., Mullen et al., 2011). ...
... Because leader gender did not act as a moderator in study 1, leader gender is treated as a covariate in this study. Follower self-esteem is also included as a covariate, as some forms of negative leadership behaviors and perceived leadership inconsistencies are more detrimental to followers with low self-esteem (Day & Hamblin, 1964;De Cremer, 2003;Nahum-Shani et al., 2014). ...
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Leadership research has a long and impressive history of identifying how followers are affected by their leaders. The vast majority of this research has addressed one leadership “style” at a time, reinforcing the idea that leaders are consistent in their behaviors despite emerging evidence to the contrary. Drawing on uncertainty management theory, the ambivalence literature, and empirical evidence, we propose that followers’ perceptions of inconsistent leadership results in ambivalence towards leaders, which in turn affects followers’ workplace attitudes and well-being. Across two studies using different methodologies (randomized experimental study, survey), we find support for a conditional indirect effect in which leaders’ inconsistent behaviors predict an array of follower outcomes through the mediating effect of followers’ subjective ambivalence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Second, inconsistent supervisor behaviors create relational uncertainty (De Cremer, 2003), by informing followers that their relationship is unstable (van den Bos & Lind, 2002). In addition, mixed messages can thwart employees' need to experience a coherent sense of self, leading to a threatening and disorienting feeling of self-uncertainty (Nahum-Shani et al., 2017). ...
... In contrast, DLB occurring in an otherwise less supportive or unsupportive relationship should simply be experienced as routine events, leading to fewer or more limited negative consequences. (De Cremer, 2003;Lind & van den Bos, 2002;Proudfoot et al., 2015;van den Bos et Lind, 2002;van Harreveld et al., 2015) Petty tyranny and transformational leadership are two antagonistic types of leadership behaviors that respectively fall into the categories of DLB and CLB. ...
... De Cremer, 2003;Lind & van den Bos, 2002;Proudfoot et al., 2015;van den Bos et Lind, 2002; van Harreveld et al., 2015) ...
... Due to the dual nature of ambivalences, it is of theoretical and practical implications to examine the boundary conditions that influence the outcomes. Albeit this importance, surprisingly, only few empirical studies, to the best knowledge of the authors, discussed the moderators between leader-follower ambivalent relationships and outcomes (De Cremer, 2003;Nahum-Shani et al., 2014;Lee et al., 2019;Suurd Ralph, 2019). In these articles, most of the argument is based on stress-buffering effects, which is narrow to understand these influences. ...
... When ambivalence occurs between leader and follower, we call it "ambivalent leader-follower relationship." Some conceptual and empirical studies have accumulated in the ambivalent leader-follower relationships, such as paradoxical leadership (Zhang et al., 2015), emotional complexity of leader (Rothman, 2017), leader inconsistency (De Cremer, 2003;Mullen et al., 2011Mullen et al., , 2018, and leader hypocrisy (Greenbaum et al., 2015). This study mainly focuses on the outcomes or some specific ambivalent leadership behavior, and less attention was paid to the clarification of the ambivalent leader-follower relationship. ...
... To search all possible leader-follower ambivalence relationships, we used several keywords in topics to conduct (3) Inconsistency in decision making (De Cremer, 2003) ----Multiplex tie (4) (5) (6) LMX ambivalence (Lee et al., 2019); Relational ambivalence (Guarana and Hernandez, 2015;Ingram, 2015) --Behavior (7) (8) (9) High LMX & abusive supervision (Lian et al., 2012) (10) ...
Article
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Researchers have emphasized the positive and negative influences of ambivalent leader-follower relationships, but it is not clear when the ambivalent relationship is associated with good or bad influences. To answer this question, we reviewed the definition and identified 10 different types of ambivalent leader-follower relationships. Further, we demonstrate that the negative outcomes (more inflexibility, disengagement, and worse performance) can be explained by the workplace stressor perspective, and that the positive outcomes (more flexibility, engagement, and better performance) can be explained by paradox view. Finally, drawing from conservation of resources (COR) theory, we integrate workplace stressor framework and the paradox view to address when the ambivalent leader-follower relationship is beneficial or detrimental for followers. We proposed that the degree of ambivalence, support from the third party, and integrative complexity of follower will influence the possible positive or negative influences. Limitations and future directions were also discussed.
... In contrast, trust in the leader was reduced in the weeks that leaders showed relatively more laissez-faire leadership and less transformational leadership than usual. This finding is not in line with our predictions or with previous research (e.g., De Cremer, 2003;Mullen et al., 2011). That is, we expected that it would be more difficult for followers to trust their leader in the weeks that their leader is a source of both laissez-faire and transformational leadership, because followers receive mixed signals from their leader which may make it difficult to trust that their leader would act in the f 2002). ...
... Research based on the ambidexterity theory of leadership and innovation has generally shown that opening and closing leadership behaviours enhance eac decisions made by leaders showed that inconsistent decisions were associated with a range of negative follower outcomes such as reduced procedural fairness perceptions and increased willingness to replace the leader. Based on previous research (e.g., De Cremer, 2003;Duffy et al., 2002;Hobman et al., 2009), we expected that inconsistent leadership behaviour (i.e., transformational and laissezconsequently, leaders perceived effectiveness. Contrary to these expectations, we found that when the use of transformational leadership was higher, trust was highest irrespective of laissez-faire leadership. ...
... Such research could also examine whether the use of different types of laissez-faire (e.g., laissez-faire because one is not around or because one has a bad day) leads to different results than those found in the current study. Moreover, De Cremer (2003) showed that inconsistent leader decisions had negative outcomes, but only for those followers who had a low social self-esteem. It could be that those low in self self-esteem evaluate their WEEKLY TRANSFORMATIONAL AND LAISSEZ-FAIRE LEADERSHIP 33 y (e.g., blame it on their selves). ...
Article
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Leaders' behaviour fluctuates over time, and leaders use different behaviours that impact their followers. Whereas transformational leadership is associated with positive outcomes, laissez-faire leadership negatively affects followers. An important question that remains unanswered is how the joint use of both leadership behaviours relates to leader effectiveness. In this study, we answer this question by investigating the main and interactive effects of transformational and laissez-faire leadership behaviours on perceived leader effectiveness. Specifically, we hypothesized that leaders are perceived as less effective by their followers when they use both transformational and laissez-faire leadership, because it reduces followers' trust in their leader. Data came from 59 employees who participated in a weekly diary study and provided 228 data points. Results showed that both weekly transformational and laissez-faire leadership predicted trust in the leader assessed in the following week. Trust in the leader, in turn, positively predicted perceived leader effectiveness assessed one week later. Contrary to our predictions, we found that trust in the leader and perceived leader effectiveness were reduced when leaders showed a combination of less (-1SD) weekly transformational and more (+1SD) laissez-faire leadership than usual. In the weeks that leaders showed more (+1SD) transformational leadership, followers had more trust in their leader and perceived their leader to be more effective regardless of the leader's use of laissez-faire. These findings suggest that it is important to take interactions between different leadership behaviours into account when studying leadership effectiveness.
... Following this definition, inconsistency means that leaders make different decisions and/or use different behaviours across situations and persons. De Cremer (2003) conducted three experimental studies in which he manipulated leaders' consistency in decisions and examined its effects on followers. He found that participants in the "inconsistent leader" condition perceived less procedural fairness, were more uncertain about themselves in their relationship with their supervisor, were more willing to replace the leader and had more negative self-evaluations compared to those in the "consistent leader" condition. ...
... In contrast, trust in the leader was reduced in the weeks that leaders showed relatively more laissez-faire leadership and less transformational leadership than usual. This finding is not in line with our predictions or with previous research (e.g., De Cremer, 2003;Mullen et al., 2011). That is, we expected that it would be more difficult for followers to trust their leader in the weeks that their leader is a source of both laissez-faire and transformational leadership, because followers receive mixed signals from their leader which may make it difficult to trust that their leader would act in the followers' best interest (Blau, 1964;Dirks & Ferrin, 2002). ...
... Research based on the ambidexterity theory of leadership and innovation has generally shown that opening and closing leadership behaviours enhance each other's positive effects on employee innovative performance. De Cremer's (2003) experimental research on inconsistent decisions made by leaders showed that inconsistent decisions were associated with a range of negative follower outcomes such as reduced procedural fairness perceptions and increased willingness to replace the leader. Based on previous research (e.g., De Cremer, 2003;Duffy et al., 2002;Hobman et al., 2009), we expected that inconsistent leadership behaviour (i.e., transformational and laissez-faire leadership) would lower followers' trust in their leader and consequently, leaders' perceived effectiveness. ...
Article
Full-text available
Leaders’ behaviour fluctuates over time, and leaders use different behaviours that impact their followers. Whereas transformational leadership is associated with positive outcomes, laissez‐faire leadership negatively affects followers. An important question that remains unanswered is how the joint use of both leadership behaviours relates to leader effectiveness. In this study, we answer this question by investigating the main and interactive effects of transformational and laissez‐faire leadership behaviours on perceived leader effectiveness. Specifically, we hypothesized that leaders are perceived as less effective by their followers when they use both transformational and laissez‐faire leadership, because it reduces followers’ trust in their leader. Data came from 59 employees who participated in a weekly diary study and provided 228 data points. Results showed that both weekly transformational and laissez‐faire leadership predicted trust in the leader assessed in the following week. Trust in the leader, in turn, positively predicted perceived leader effectiveness assessed one week later. Contrary to our predictions, we found that trust in the leader and perceived leader effectiveness were reduced when leaders showed a combination of less (−1 SD) weekly transformational and more (+1 SD) laissez‐faire leadership than usual. In the weeks that leaders showed more (+1 SD) transformational leadership, followers had more trust in their leader and perceived their leader to be more effective regardless of the leader's use of laissez‐faire. These findings suggest that it is important to take interactions between different leadership behaviours into account when studying leadership effectiveness. Practitioner points • Leaders should inspire, support, and intellectually challenge their followers on a weekly basis, because these transformational leadership behaviours enhance followers’ trust in the leader. • Leaders should refrain from a passive approach towards their followers, especially in weeks when they do not show transformational leadership, because this approach reduces followers’ trust in the leader. • Leaders use different leadership behaviours within the same week and the effects of these behaviours are rather short‐lived (i.e., within that week rather than across weeks). • Followers’ trust in the leader positively predicts followers’ perceptions of leader effectiveness.
... Previous studies indicated that leadership is not only critical for business survival, developing effective business strategies, and enhancing firm performance but is also a contingent factor that dominates internal control systems (e.g., Carmeli et al., 2010;Liu et al., 2017;Zhu et al., 2004). Leadership is defined as the capacity to articulate compelling visions and goals based on the organization's values (Holmberg & Tyrstrup, 2010) and is often assessed based on properties, such as leadership consistency and quality and the leaders' ability to inspire and influence people (De Cremer, 2003;Zhou et al., 2008). Among these characteristics, leadership consistency is recognized as a vital element (Sorek et al., 2018). ...
... Leadership consistency is generalized as maintaining unity in words and actions throughout different contexts (Leventhal, 1980). Consistency builds employee trust (Wang & Hsieh, 2013), contributes to the fairness of corporate policies (De Cremer, 2003), and endows leaders with specific social values, including self-esteem and trust (De Cremer, 2003). In contrast, inconsistent leadership degrades work performance and eventually becomes the primary cause of corporate failure (Aboyassin & Abood, 2013;Bodolica & Spraggon, 2021). ...
... Leadership consistency is generalized as maintaining unity in words and actions throughout different contexts (Leventhal, 1980). Consistency builds employee trust (Wang & Hsieh, 2013), contributes to the fairness of corporate policies (De Cremer, 2003), and endows leaders with specific social values, including self-esteem and trust (De Cremer, 2003). In contrast, inconsistent leadership degrades work performance and eventually becomes the primary cause of corporate failure (Aboyassin & Abood, 2013;Bodolica & Spraggon, 2021). ...
Article
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This study aims to investigate the potential interaction between leadership and the internal control structure and determine whether this interaction can benefit emerging market businesses by increasing the effectiveness of their internal controls. Drawing upon the cognitive consistency and expectancy theories, this study develops and tests a mediated moderation model to examine how leadership consistency and quality can be integrated to regulate the effectiveness of internal control systems toward enhancing firm performance. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) results from survey data from 206 Vietnamese firms indicated the following: (a) internal control effectiveness mediates the effect of the internal control structure on firm performance; (b) leadership consistency positively moderates the impact of the internal control structure on internal control effectiveness; and (c) the moderating effect of leadership consistency is strengthened with a higher level of leadership quality. These findings lead to several theoretical and practical implications.
... Surprisingly, leader (in-)consistency has received very little attention so far (De Cremer, 2003;Johnson et al., 2012;Michel & LeBreton, 2011;Mullen et al., 2011) and it is often limited to particular types of inconsistency such as the misalignment of a leader's words and deeds (leader hypocrisy, Brunsson, 1989;behavioral integrity, Simons, 2002). Based on inconsistent leadership's inherent lack of ethicality, we argue that there is a need for an overarching concept that captures inconsistent leadership going beyond the narrow focus on particular types of inconsistency found in other conceptualizations. ...
... First, we define the concept of inconsistent leadership and place it in the leadership landscape. Findings by Allgeier et al. (1979) and De Cremer (2003) convey the idea that inconsistency can be understood as objective behavioral change across situations. We propose, however, that not every change in the leader's behavior is a sign of inconsistency. ...
... To understand inconsistent leadership, it is important to first gain an exact understanding of consistency in this context. Following Leventhal (1980), De Cremer (2003) states that leader consistency implies "the rule that authorities use procedures consistently across people and over time". This definition underlines the ethical implications of inconsistent leadership, as violations of this rule would be evaluated as unfair and lacking integrity. ...
Article
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Perceived consistency, and even more so inconsistency of behavior is an important factor in the evaluation of other people. This is especially true for leaders, whose behavior is typically closely monitored and interpreted by their followers. While perceived consistency is typically rewarded, behaving inconsistently as a leader can be ethically problematic, as it violates fundamental ethical principles. To theoretically capture how followers interpret and react to unexpected, ambiguous and/or confusing leader behavior, we introduce the concept of inconsistent leadership. We define this new concept as a process in which over a longer period of time the activities, experiences, and/or relationships of an individual or the members of a group are repeatedly influenced by their leader in a way that followers cannot make sense of in light of prior behavior or traits of that leader. We propose that a sensemaking process is triggered in followers whenever they register salient/important leader behavior that is novel, ambiguous and/or confusing when compared to behavioral expectations for that leader. Ascriptions of inconsistent leadership arise when followers’ sensemaking strategies temporarily or permanently fail to resolve the behavior–expectation discrepancy. Moreover, we clarify the relationships to other leadership concepts and delineate relevant follower and environmental influences on the sensemaking process. In doing so, we offer a clear conceptualization of inconsistent leadership and provide a solid base for future research.
... Accordingly, followers may experience pronounced discrepancies in transformational and abusive leadership between calm and stressful situations. However, while minor fluctuations in leadership may be tolerable and have less influence on followers, stronger discrepancies may have a crucial influence on follower health, as stronger inconsistencies and unpredictable behavior may cause insecurity, anxiety and feelings of loss of control (de Cremer, 2003;Schyns and Schilling, 2013;Poethke et al., 2021). Therefore, not only the level of transformational or abusive leadership that may be consistently good or bad relates to followers' health, but the extent of inconsistency may be a stressor in its own right. ...
... Second, and most importantly, we expect that not only the levels of transformational or abusive leadership are crucial for follower health, but that the level of leadership inconsistency (i.e., the extent of discrepancies between routine and stressful periods) has an incremental effect resulting from increased insecurity for followers. This would be in line with literature suggesting negative effects of leadership inconsistency across situations (de Cremer, 2003). Third, based on the literature on leadership deteriorations under stress (Harms et al., 2017), we expect that followers perceive stronger inconsistencies in transformational and abusive leadership when they perceive high strain among their leaders (see our conceptual model in Figure 1). ...
... The findings will contribute to the literature as follows: First, we contribute to the literature on inconsistent leadership by investigating the extent of discrepancies that followers generally perceive among their leaders across situations (de Cremer, 2003;Breevaart and Zacher, 2019). We shift the focus on implications of inconsistency as such, in addition to previous studies showing correlations between leadership levels and follower strain in a given situation or time. ...
Article
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It is widely acknowledged that leadership is crucial for follower health. Under stress, positive leader behaviors such as transformational leadership may decrease and the risk of negative behaviors such as abusive leadership may increase. Followers experience these discrepancies in leadership between routine and stressful periods as inconsistent. While positive and negative leadership is generally associated with follower strain, inconsistency may be stressful by itself, because it entails insecurity and unpredictability in the leader-follower relationship. We suggest that the level of perceived inconsistency and volatility in leaders’ behavior across situations is an additional risk factor for follower health. Moreover, we expect perceived inconsistency to be stronger when leaders are strained. This survey study with N = 304 employees examines the relationships between leadership inconsistency and leader as well as follower strain from a followers’ perspective. Participants rated their leaders’ transformational and abusive leadership separately for routine and stressful conditions, their leaders’ strain and their own strain. Employees who experienced stronger discrepancies in leadership between routine and stressful conditions, i.e., more inconsistency, experienced more strain. Moreover, from a followers’ perspective, inconsistencies were stronger when leaders were strained. The findings provide evidence that leadership is less stable and consistent than generally assumed and that inconsistency is an additional risk factor. Leader strain may threaten the consistency of leadership and thereby negatively affect follower health.
... The uncertainty of employees will jeopardize their self-evaluation (Lian et al., 2012) and their sense of control over the work environment, making them doubt their ability to complete a certain task, which is not conducive to the generation of employees' innovative behavior. In addition, De Cremer (2003) argues that subordinates experience more uncertainty when leaders exhibit inconsistent behaviors before and after. Zhao and Guo (2017) also pointed out that the two behaviors of leaders showing differences may lead to a cognitive dissonance of subordinates, thus deepening their uncertainty. ...
... At this time, subordinates will not only be unable to grasp the leader's true intentions and ways of treating themselves, and thus unable to accurately position their roles (Wu and Peng, 2017), and they will also feel confused about their work due to the two different styles of instructions from the leaders. It can be seen that authoritarian-benevolent leadership is easy to make subordinates to have more uncertainty (De Cremer, 2003). ...
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Employee innovation is the key to enhancing the core competitiveness of an enterprise, and leadership style plays an important role in stimulating employees' innovative behavior. This study explores the impact of unique ambidextrous leadership in the Chinese context, authoritarian-benevolent leadership, on employees' innovative behavior from the perspective of employees' psychological perception, based on research data from 430 employees of companies with direct leaders. Based on the configuration theory, using the fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis method, the configuration analysis was carried out by taking authoritarian-benevolent ambidextrous leadership and employees' psychological perception as the influencing factors and obtained five configurations of high-level employees' innovative behavior. The results show that the combination of individualized care, understanding, and forgiving of benevolent leadership and Shang-yan of authoritarian leadership can effectively stimulate employees' innovative behavior. Juan-Chiuan leadership is not conducive to employees' innovative behavior. Employees' high psychological safety and low uncertainty are important conditions for promoting employee innovation. In this study, the four dimensions of authoritarian-benevolent leadership and the psychological perceptions of employees are discussed in combination, and the paths of motivating employees to innovate actively are obtained. It is hoped that it can provide certain ideas for leaders to promote employee innovation.
... Given that being able to predict someone's behaviors is a critical component of interpersonal trust, the unpredictability that inconsistent behaviors creates can damage the relationship between leaders and followers (Rempel, Holmes, & Zanna, 1985). For example, De Cremer (2003) found that inconsistent leader behaviors lead to negative evaluations of a supervisor's trustworthiness and uncertainty about the ongoing relationship. Matta et al. (2017) introduced the concept of justice variability as a between-individual difference in the consistency of general fairness perceptions. ...
... Building on the earlier arguments, we posit that the effects of inconsistent interpersonal justice over time can be extended to a chronic level and have important implications for chronic levels of psychological detachment at home. De Cremer (2003) found that receiving inconsistent fairness treatment results in negative self-evaluation because individuals tend to attribute the cause of undesirable treatment to themselves. Individuals may spend additional effort thinking why they are treated inconsistently. ...
Article
To understand the implications of the dynamic nature of daily interpersonal justice, we examined the relationship between daily shifts and variability in interpersonal justice over time and recovery experiences at home. A ten-day daily diary study of 58 workers with 422 observations was conducted. Results from multi-level modeling revealed that daily shifts in interpersonal justice at the within-person level, operationalized as residual changes across consecutive work days, positively predicted daily levels of psychological detachment, which in turn predicted daily levels of positive low-arousal affect at home. Variability in interpersonal justice at the between-person level, operationalized as the standard deviation of interpersonal justice over the ten-day period, was negatively related to the chronic level of psychological detachment, which in turn was related to chronic negative low-arousal affect at home. Variability in interpersonal justice explained unique variance in psychological detachment beyond the average level of interpersonal justice. We conclude that within-person daily shifts in interpersonal justice and between-person differences in interpersonal justice variability over time may play critical roles in the negative spillover of interpersonal injustice from work to home. Practical implications such as training on consistent treatment are discussed.
... They propose consistency as a main mechanism that reduces ambiguity about the organizational environment and about leaderfollower interactions. Furthermore, in an experimental study, De Cremer (2003) demonstrated that inconsistent leaders influenced followers' feelings of uncertainty and also demonstrated that variations in leader consistency (e.g. high levels of leader variability) elicited negative feelings in followers about themselves that led to increased levels of stress. ...
... This inconsistency results in ambiguous, unpredictable situations for followers in which they have no clear information about when and if to expect support from their leader. This finding goes in line with previous research on leader inconsistency that has linked unpredictable leadership behaviour over time with followers feeling uncertainty about interactions with their leader (Johnson et al., 2012), feeling bad about themselves (De Cremer, 2003), and reporting more stress (Matta et al., 2017). With regard to the joint effect of daily laissez-faire leadership and neuroticism on daily stress, results show that for individuals high on neuroticism only varying levels of daily laissez-faire leadership seem to be stressful. ...
Article
Previous research on laissez-faire leadership and stress has focused on between-person differences by looking at general ratings of leader behaviours. Yet, researchers have demonstrated a high situational contingency of leadership behaviours that call for a more detailed analysis of within-person differences. We adopt a role theory perspective to explain why daily laissez-faire leadership is linked to daily stress of followers. Also drawing on role theory, we further explain fluctuations of supervisors’ laissez-faire leadership behaviour over time in relation to follower perceptions of day-specific stress. Finally, we also take followers’ level of neuroticism into perspective to describe when followers are particularly vulnerable to laissez-faire leadership. We conducted a diary study spanning over 5 days within 1 working week to test whether daily laissez-faire leadership and its variability were positively related to followers’ daily stress and whether these relations were moderated by follower neuroticism. A total of 201 participants completed the diary surveys ( M = 4.79 days × 201 participants = 963 data points) and provided information in an initial survey. Results gave support for most of our hypotheses and showed a positive relationship between daily laissez-faire leadership and daily stress as well as a positive relationship between laissez-faire leadership variability and daily stress. Neuroticism moderated the positive relationship between laissez-faire leadership variability and daily stress in the way that the relationship between laissez-faire leadership variability and daily stress was stronger for individuals with high neuroticism.
... Second, inconsistent supervisor behaviors create relational uncertainty (De Cremer, 2003), by informing followers that their relationship is unstable and malfunctioning (van den Bos & Lind, 2002). Supervisors relying on a combination of CLB and DLB send conflicting messages to employees about their worth, the quality of their contribution, and the quality of their relationships with them. ...
... Multiple studies have shown that relationships seen as both aversive and supportive tend to be more stressful than consistently aversive ones (Herr et al., 2018;Holt-Lunstad, Uchino, Smith, Olson-Cerny, & Nealey-Moore, 2003;Uchino, Holt-Lunstad, Uno, & Flinders, 2001). In addition, mixed messages can thwart employees' need to experience a coherent sense of self, leading to feelings of self-uncertainty (De Cremer, 2003;Lind & van den Bos, 2002;Nahum-Shani et al., 2014;Swann, Rentfrow, & Guinn, 2003), that could further impede thriving and empowered behaviors. ...
Article
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This study investigates the within-domain exacerbation phenomenon in relation to employees’ perception of their supervisors’ leadership behaviors. This phenomenon proposes that exposure to supervisors relying on a combination of destructive leadership behaviors (DLB; operationalized as petty tyranny) and constructive leadership behaviors (CLB; operationalized as transformational leadership) should have more negative consequences on followers’ levels of thriving and behavioral empowerment than exposure to supervisors relying more exclusively on DLB or CLB. This phenomenon was tested using a person-centered mixture regression approach with a sample of 2104 Canadian employees from a police organization. Three profiles of employees were identified, representing those exposed to moderately transformational (mostly CLB), destructive (mostly DLB), and inconsistent (CLB and DLB) supervisors. Members of the inconsistent profile displayed the lowest levels of thriving and behavioral empowerment, followed by members of the destructive profile, and finally by members of the moderately transformational profile. Results also suggest that the inability to determine if a supervisor is more destructive or constructive might explain the within-domain exacerbation phenomenon. Indeed, in the inconsistent profile, leadership clarification seemed beneficial for employees. Increases in DLB resulted in a matching increase in empowered behaviors centered on the group and organization, while increases in CLB resulted in increases in thriving and empowered behaviors centered on individual performance.
... However, what happens in situations where leaders exhibit or are perceived as showing intermediate (moderate) levels of a certain leadership style, i.e., being less consistent or less predictable? Various leadership theories emphasize the importance of consistency of leadership behaviors (Yukl, 2010) and traditionally view inconsistent leadership behaviors as something to be avoided (e.g., De Cremer, 2003;Johnson, Venus, Lanaj, Mao, & Chang, 2012;Michel & LeBreton, 2011;Mullen et al., 2011). Consistent actions are a reflection of leaders' core values (Gardner, Avolio, & Walumbwa, 2005), and they reduce uncertainty about the organizational environment or concerning what should be expected in terms of leaderfollower interactions. ...
... Consistency between leaders' messages and actions has also been noted to have a significant effect on the perception of leaders as truthful and authentic, and to contribute to followers' trust in the leaders and to effectiveness (Shamir & Eilam, 2005). In line with this approach, empirical findings showed that leaders who were inconsistent in how they made decisions were evaluated as less fair and prompted feelings of uncertainty about interpersonal relations (De Cremer, 2003). Thus, inconsistent leaders may be viewed negatively. ...
Article
The underlying assumption of the leadership literature is that the more leaders enact behaviors characterizing a specific positive leadership style, the better would be the followers' outcomes. In three studies using different methodologies (an online survey, an experimental online study, and a field study including multiple sources of data), the current work reveals novel curvilinear relationships between leadership styles – transformational and management-by-exception passive – and followers' outcomes in the context of employee safety (i.e., safety motivation, behaviors, and accident rate). Combining leadership theory with Mischel’s (1973) theoretical framework of situational strength, we propose that leaders create strong situations when there are high levels of perceived clarity and consistency of their leadership style. High levels of a specific leadership style provide unequivocal information, which enables followers to understand the desirability of specific safety behaviors. Low levels also convey a clear and consistent message to followers, since the leaders consistently, clearly, and predictably demonstrate non-leadership and followers know what to expect from the leader. As demonstrated in a fourth study, however, moderate levels of a specific leadership style were perceived by followers as less clear and consistent and thus could create “weak” situations that eventually reduce safety at the individual and team levels. These findings have significant implications for the leadership literature and for employee safety outcomes, suggesting an array of possibilities for future research.
... Les résultats démontrent que les sujets vont évaluer plus positivement les membres de l'endogroupe que ceux de l'exogroupe. D'autres travaux (De Cremer, 2003 ;Ellemers, Spear, & Doosje, 2002) illustrent le biais d'homogénéité endogroupe, mais aussi la possibilité d'une attribution plus importante de traits à l'endogroupe ou à soi-même. ...
Thesis
Ce travail doctoral s’appuie sur l’organisation sociale hiérarchique des joueurs de tennis, afin d’observer les effets de cette structure hiérarchique, sur les représentations sociales que les groupes de joueurs ont du tennis. Le positionnement d’un individu, ou d’un groupe au sein d’une structure sociale, a un impact sur la façon dont il est perçu et dont il se perçoit, cette perception résulte d’un processus de comparaison sociale. Ce positionnement a également un impact sur l’identification des individus. Trois études sont conduites. La première s’intéresse à la perception de l’organisation de la matrice sociale du tennis par les joueurs. Elle met en évidence l’existence de différentes groupes de pratiques : du joueur de tennis loisir, aux joueurs de tennis professionnels, et leur positionnement au sein de la matrice. Elle explore également l’identification au groupe, en fonction du positionnement au sein de la matrice, et mesure la représentation que ces groupes de joueurs, ont du tennis. La deuxième étude ouvre la matrice sociale, elle questionne un groupe composé de sportifs dont la discipline n’est pas le Tennis. Il s’agit de questionner certains résultats observés lors de la première étude, et plus particulièrement d’évaluer l’impact de la variable fréquence de la pratique. La troisième et dernière étude, utilise deux méthodes confirmatoires. Elle se centre sur la représentation du tennis chez les groupes cibles (Haut Niveau, Compétition, Loisir). Elle vise à mettre en lumière les effets de l’identification au groupe sur le contenu mais aussi sur la structure de la représentation sociale. Les résultats montrent un effet du positionnement du groupe et de l’identification au groupe sur la représentation sociale. En conclusion, nous envisageons les implications de nos résultats dans le cadre de la théorie des représentations sociales. Nous soulignons l’intérêt de définir la structure de la matrice sociale (hiérarchique) et le positionnement des groupes pour appréhender la représentation sociale.
... Employees consider satisfied with leaders who are supportive in nature, and quality of relationship between leader and employee has significant relation with employee's job satisfaction (De Cremer, 2003). ...
Article
The objective of this investigation is to analyze the impact of leadership styles on frontline employee psychological empowerment, and thereby, improving the job satisfaction level of employees. A questionnaire‐based survey was conducted in nongovernmental organization (NGO) functioning in two major cities (Islamabad and Peshawar) of Pakistan, analyzing a total sample size of 319. Structural equation modeling results revealed that transformational leadership style has a significant association with job satisfaction, and the effect is partially mediated by the psychological empowerment. Conversely, findings showed that the relationship between transactional leadership and psychological empowerment was insignificant. Though, there existed a direct positive relationship between transactional leadership and job satisfaction. This research makes an important contribution in the area of leadership, which can be useful for NGOs to recognize the importance of leadership and encourage psychological empowerment of frontline employees. The findings also provide significant implications for organizations to understand better the importance of leadership, which will be helpful to enhance organizational success.
... No entanto, alguns estudos mostram que, às vezes, o uso de humor pelos líderes é inconsistente com seu estilo de liderança, ou seja, seus padrões comportamentais adotados para influenciar e motivar o comportamento dos liderados (Tremblay & Gibson, 2016;Vecchio, Justin, & Pearce, 2009). Tais inconsistências têm consequências importantes sobre as atitudes e comportamentos dos liderados, uma vez que eles esperam que os líderes atuem de modo previsível e consistente (Cremer, 2003;Mullen, Kelloway, & Teed, 2011). Assim, ambos os estilos de liderança e humor são fundamentais para estabelecer vínculos supervisor-subordinados no local de trabalho (Pundt & Herrmann, 2015), e, quando são inconsistentes entre si, podem desencadear sentimentos e pensamentos desconfortáveis nos liderados, o que caracteriza a ambivalência (Ashforth, Rogers, Pratt, & Pradies, 2014;Methot, Melwani, & Rothman, 2017). ...
Article
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This study examines the effects of (in)consistent leadership behaviors in promoting (or suppressing) relevant work outcomes for temporary employees such as interns. Specifically, to better understand the drivers of internship effectiveness, we hypothesized that supervisor humor interacts with leadership style, sending implicit messages about the organizational and supervisory relationship, thus shaping interns’ attitudes and behaviors. Using a sample of 164 interns, we empirically examined the moderating effect of humor (affiliative and aggressive) on the relationship between leadership styles (transformational and laissez-faire), attitudes (satisfaction and stress), and behaviors (negligence and job acceptance intentions) using a two-wave research design. Our findings were consistent with the hypotheses, suggesting that humor needs to be tailored to leadership styles to predict interns’ attitudinal and behavioral responses, with different types of humor interacting differently across leadership styles. Implications for further research are discussed.
... We argue that leaders may not engage in opposing behaviors but may provide complementary and consistent forms of support for the innovation process. Considering that innovation is a nonlinear and recursive process in which the different stages may overlap, toggling back and forth between opposing leadership behaviors may create uncertainty among employees (De Cremer, 2003). For example, employees may not understand why a leader sometimes allows errors and sometimes corrects them. ...
Article
Purpose In this study, the authors integrate the concept of leader support with a process model of innovation including the generation, promotion and implementation of innovative ideas to obtain an in-depth understanding of how leaders may support employees’ innovative efforts. The purpose of this paper is to develop an organizing framework and validate a measure for assessing leader support for innovation. Design/methodology/approach The authors validated the Leader Support for Innovation Questionnaire (LSIQ) in German and English using samples from Germany ( n =1,049) and South Africa ( n =129). Findings Although confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor model of the 12-item LSIQ (leader support for idea generation, promotion and implementation), strong intercorrelations between the factors provide only weak evidence for the three-factor structure. Positive correlations with individual and organizational innovation demonstrate adequate construct validity. The LSIQ explains additional variance in innovation beyond that explained by measures of transformational leadership and leader–member exchange. Research limitations/implications The findings suggest that linking leader support and innovation more directly to one another matches the complexity of innovation processes. The LSIQ is a theory based and valid tool that enables more rigorous research on the role of leadership in facilitating innovation. Originality/value Previous studies using well-established leadership approaches have produced a considerable heterogeneity of findings on the relationship between leadership and innovation. Therefore, the authors introduce an integrative framework for defining and organizing leadership behaviors specifically supporting employees’ innovative efforts and validate a measure of leader support for innovation that may guide both theoretical developments and empirical research on the relationship between leadership and innovation in organizations.
... The word "Man" was used because at the beginning men were only considered to be leaders. 5 According to, 6 the eminence of the leader-employee relationship has an important impact. There are five common qualities of a leader: ...
... Not only job satisfaction but also the relationship between the leader and the follower define the level of influence on employee job satisfaction (De Cremer, 2003). Furthermore, it was found that the reasons for employee dissatisfaction mainly stem from the confusing nature of the job demands coming from ineffective leadership styles (Schyns and Sanders, 2007). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of servant leadership on work engagement and affective commitment among academics in higher education. Moreover, the paper highlights the role of job satisfaction as an intervening mechanism among the examined variables. Design/methodology/approach Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to academics working in the Palestinian higher education sector. We used structural equation modelling to examine the hypotheses. Findings A positive relationship was found between servant leadership and affective commitment. The relationship between servant leadership and work engagement is fully mediated by job satisfaction, whereas partial mediation was found between servant leadership and affective commitment. Both work engagement and affective commitment have a positive impact on academics’ job performance. Practical implications The paper provides a fertile ground for higher education managers concerning the role of leadership in stimulating work engagement and organisational commitment among academics. Originality/value First, the paper is one of the few studies that empirically examines servant leadership in higher education using data coming from a non-Western context because most of the servant leadership research is conducted in the Western part of the world (Parris and Peachey, 2013). Second, we empirically provide evidence for the argument that servant leadership is needed in higher education. Third, the paper contributes to the limited body of research on work engagement and commitment in the higher education sector.
... Many studies have observed a positive relationship between the organizational climate and job satisfaction. For example, Chen and Spector [62], Brockner [63], and De Cremer [64] have shown that negative leader-employee interactions have a negative influence on the employees' satisfaction, which results in signs of stress and unwillingness to go to work. Tsai [65], Hashemi and Sadeqi [41], Ángel Calderón Molina et al. [66], and Ahmad et al. [67] predict that the organizational climate has a significant effect on job satisfaction. ...
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People try to find the role of government in today’s modern society. Citizens of any country look forward to benefit from government services. Although the government implements laws and policies in all areas of society, people only know about it through government’s services. We describe a good government’s service of organization, department, unit, and division that has an appropriate human strategy. Purpose: Purpose of this study is to investigate which factors have been missing that connects and maintains the sustainability between the leadership style and employees’ satisfaction in the government sector of Mongolia. More specifically, the purpose of the study is to investigate the missing link between leadership style and job satisfaction among Mongolian public sector employees. This study reiterates the mediating role of organizational climate (OC) and work style (WS) in a new proposed model. Methodology: The questionnaire is designed by a synthesis of existing constructs in current relevant literature. The research sample consisted of 143 officers who work in the primary and middle units of the territory and administration of Mongolia. Factor analysis, a reliability test, a collinearity test, and correlation analyses confirm the validity and reliability of the model. Multiple regression analysis, using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), tests the hypotheses of the study. The sample of this study is chosen from the public organization. Mongolia is a developing country. This country needs good public leaders who can serve citizens. This study will be extended further. In addition, Mongolia really needs sufficient studies. Practical implications: This study has several important implications for studies related to organizational behavior and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the implications of these findings are beneficial to organizations aimed at improving policies and practices related to organizational behavior and human resource management. Regulators and supervisors of private or public organizations aiming to increase the level of their employees’ job satisfaction will also benefit from the findings. Therefore, this study’s new proposed model can be the basis of fundamental research to build a better human resource policy. Although the leadership style is an influential factor for job satisfaction, this study identifies the mediating missing links between the leadership style and employees’ job satisfaction. Findings: The findings of this research indicate that the organizational climate and work style complement and fully mediate the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction. An appropriate leadership style is most effective when it matches the organizational climate as well as employees’ work style. Furthermore, a suitable organizational climate will increase the level of job satisfaction. If the work style of employees is respected and taken into consideration, the leadership style can find its way into job satisfaction. Originality/value: This study is the first to understand the motivators of job satisfaction in the government sector of Mongolia. This study suggests valuable findings for executive officers who are junior and primary unit’s officers of the register sector of government in Mongolia. The findings of this study help managers and executives in their effort develop and implement successful human resource strategies.
... The nature and type of leader-follower relationship exerts tremendous influence on the job satisfaction of employees (DeCremer, 2003). The sources of employee job dissatisfaction are linked, in part, to conflicting job demands stemming from leadership styles (Schyns and Sanders, 2007). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the influences of transactional and transformational leadership styles on employee job satisfaction, employee affective commitment and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) within Moroccan organisations. Design/methodology/approach Data were gathered from a sample of 219 employees working in seven different industries in Morocco and analysed using Structural Equations Modelling (SEM). Findings SEM analyses reveal that employee job satisfaction, affective commitment and OCB are only impacted by the personal recognition dimension of the transformational leadership style. The study indicates that charisma and intellectual stimulation (transformational leadership) as well as contingent reward and management-by-exception (transactional leadership) did not yield significant results. Research limitations/implications The use of a cross-sectional research design limits establishing cause-and-effect relationships. Practical implications The results of the current study may be of use and interest for organisations in designing effective leadership training programs, as it takes into account how managers and/or practitioners tap into their subordinates’ effective behaviour. Originality/value With insights derived from a non-Western perspective, the major theoretical contribution of the present study lies in exploring the effects of transactional and transformational leadership styles on employee job satisfaction, employee affective commitment and OCB in Morocco.
... On the relationship between servant leadership and job satisfaction, we predicted that such leadership style would positively contribute to higher levels of followers' job satisfaction for the following reasons. First, it has been argued that the relationship between the leader and the follower defines the level of influence on job satisfaction (De Cremer, 2003). Therefore, guided by the relational theory perspective, a job can be viewed as an essentially social act and stresses relationships as the core inspiration for work (Blustein, 2011). ...
Article
Drawing upon social exchange and self-determination theories, we propose a model to examine the mediating role of organizational justice and organizational trust in the relationship between servant leadership and job satisfaction. Data from 258 Palestinian academics were collected and analyzed using correlation-based structural equation modeling (partial least squares). Our findings show that organizational justice and organizational trust partly mediate the relationship between servant leadership and job satisfaction. In addition, the results show that there are significant differences in gender and experience pertaining to job satisfaction levels. This research advances the knowledge on servant leadership literature and adds insight into its relationship with job satisfaction in the field of higher education through examining the mediating role of organizational justice and organizational trust in the aforesaid relationship. Our findings encourage academic institutions to employ and nurture servant behaviors among academic leaders and managers. Academic institutions are also encouraged to embrace clear measures toward building a satisfied workforce through instilling a climate of justice and mutual trust.
... In this study, we argue that one way followers build consonance between leaders' conflicting leadership styles is to question and discredit leaders' charismatic leadership behaviors as the frequency of their abusive behaviors increases (De Cremer, 2003;Mullen et al., 2011). When charismatic leaders are perceived to also frequently engage in abusive supervisory behaviors, the inconsistency in the leader's behaviors or the contrast between desirable and undesirable behaviors would cue followers to be suspicious of the integrity and trustworthiness of the charismatic leader (Dasborough & Ashkanasy, 2002;Martinko, Harvey, & Douglas, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the independent treatment of the positive and negative sides of leadership in the literature, evidence suggests that the same leader may demonstrate both positive and negative leadership behaviors albeit with a different frequency (i.e., Jekyll and Hyde). What impacts would such opposing leadership styles jointly have on follower and team outcomes? To address this question, the current study examines the interactive impact of charismatic leadership and abusive supervision on individual- and team-level outcomes. Findings across three different samples gathered from the United States and South Korea suggest significant moderating roles of abusive supervision in the positive relationships of charismatic leadership with follower and team outcomes. This study highlights the importance of incorporating otherwise separate perspectives on leadership and provides insights into the boundary condition that impedes the effectiveness of charismatic leadership. Thus, we call for more research on integrative models of leadership that embrace different aspects of leader behaviors.
... The assumption of happy employees are more productive rather than pro Wilkinson and Wagner (1993) asserted that working with a leader who does not provide support as well as revealing hostile behaviors could be stressful for the employees. Besides, Chen and Spector (1991), Brockner (1988) and De Cremer (2003) also noted that negative leader-employee interactions can have a negative infl satisfaction showing signs of stress and unwillingness to go to work. Therefore the costs to the firm can be quite high in terms of stress, reduced productivity, increased absenteeism, and turnover (Keashly, Trott and MacLean, 1994;Ribelin, 2003). ...
... Inconsistent leader behavior pertains to showing varying behavior in similar situations, which makes it hard for followers to predict how an inconsistent leader will act. Prior research has suggested that inconsistent behavior may indeed play an important role in increasing experiences of unpredictability (O'Driscoll and Beehr, 1994;De Cremer, 2003). Predictability is valued very much by followers, and unpredictability is typically experienced as a strong stressor (e.g., Monat et al., 1972). ...
Article
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Although narcissists often emerge as leaders, the relationship between leader narcissism and follower performance is ambiguous and often even found to be negative. For women, narcissism seems especially likely to lead to negative evaluations. Since narcissists have the tendency to be impulsive and change their minds on a whim, they may come across as inconsistent. We propose “inconsistent leader behavior” as a new mechanism in the relationship between leader narcissism and follower performance and argue that leader gender plays an important role in whether narcissistic leaders are perceived as inconsistent. Specifically, we expect leader narcissism to have a negative relationship with follower performance through perceived inconsistent leader behavior, especially for female leaders. Thus, we examine leader gender as a personal factor moderating the relationship between narcissism and perceived inconsistent behavior. Also, as perceived inconsistency is likely less problematic when a good relationship exists, we examine leader–member exchange (LMX) as a contextual condition moderating the relationship between leader behavior and follower performance. We test our moderated mediation model in a multi-source study with 165 unique leader–follower dyads. As expected, leader narcissism was positively related to perceived inconsistent leader behavior, and this relationship was stronger for female leaders. Inconsistent leader behavior was negatively related to follower performance, but only when LMX was low. Our research highlights that perceived behavioral inconsistency can be problematic and—for female leaders—provides an explanation of the negative relation of leader narcissism with follower performance and of the inconsistencies in evaluations of narcissistic leaders’ effectiveness.
... Bien plus, cet état d'incertitude s'accompagnerait à la fois d'une perception de perte de contrôle sur son environnement, mais aussi d'incertitude par rapport au maintien de la relation avec son gestionnaire van den Bos et Lind, 2002). Motivé à réduire l'inconfort suscité par cet état d'incertitude, l'employé serait plus vigilant vis-à-vis des informations relatives au traitement reçu par son gestionnaire, spécifiquement aux informations relatives à l'équité et à la justice (De Cremer, 2003;. Cette vigilance augmentée ferait en sorte que l'employé porterait plus attention aux comportements destructifs de son gestionnaire, exacerbant leurs effets délétères (Morrison et Robinson, 1997). ...
... According to COR, because low-power individuals possess few resources, they are likely to experience a sense of vulnerability as those with low power are often treated poorly by others. This assumption is rooted in sociocultural perspectives on power, which suggest that social groups that typically have little power have been oppressed and subjugated by more powerful groups (Kraus & Torrez, 2020;Fiske, 2010;Sidanius et al., 2017), and with social psychological and economic research highlighting that the powerful often treat those with little power negatively (De Cremer, 2003;Kipnis, 1972). Furthermore, controlling few resources signals to low-power individuals that they are ill-equipped to protect themselves from these aversive behaviors (Hobfoll, 1989;ten Brummelhuis & Bakker, 2012;Wells, Hobfoll, & Lavin, 1999), which is likely to contribute to their sense of vulnerability. ...
Article
Due to its pervasive negative consequences, failing to understand the origins of paranoia can be costly for organizations. Prior research suggests that powerful employees are particularly likely to experience paranoia as others want to exploit the resources they control, implying that employees low in power should feel less paranoid. In contrast, we build on Conservation of Resources Theory and sociocultural perspectives of power to argue that the inherent vulnerability associated with being low power also evokes paranoia as a protection mechanism. Because paranoia causes employees to form malevolent attributions towards others, we predict that paranoia, in turn, leads to aggressive tendencies. Five studies (N = 2,341), including three experiments, a correlational study, and an experience sampling study, support our predictions. We further find that the effect of low power on paranoia is weaker when employees can rely on other valuable resources, including individual (socioeconomic status) and social (organizational support) resources.
... Dies dürfte bei den Mitarbeitern zu Skepsis und Zweifeln an der Kompetenz der Führungskraft führen, was in Unzufriedenheit und einer negativen Bewertung des Führungsverhaltens mündet. Dies steht im Einklang zu früheren Forschungsergebnissen, die darauf hindeuten, dass unsicheres und nicht vorhersehbares Führungsverhalten negativ empfunden wird (De Cremer, 2003;Schilling, 2009 Kontrollvariablen. Das Alter wurde als Kontrollvariable in alle Berechnungen integriert, da sich in früheren Untersuchungen signifikante Zusammenhänge mit den relevanten Variablen gezeigt hatten (Chan & Drasgow, 2001;Felfe et al., 2012). ...
Article
Motivation to lead (MtL) mediates the relationship between personality and leadership (Stiehl, Gatzka et al., 2015). With a sample of 296 employees we assessed the mediation effect of MtL in the relationship between personality and leadership potential in assessment centers. Affective MtL always appeared as an important mediator, whereas calculative MtL had a significant, although negative, effect in the personnel selection assessment only. We then conducted a second study with 140 employees to investigate the long-term success of highly intrinsic motivated leaders and to examine the interplay with other motives. The staff only appreciated a high affective MtL when it came with a low need for power. The positive relation between affective MtL and the number of subordinate employees was dampened by a high avoidance of leadership. The results extend the knowledge of MtL in a different context and can be used for the selection and training of leaders.
... The word "Man" was used because at the beginning men were only considered to be leaders. 5 According to, 6 the eminence of the leader-employee relationship has an important impact. There are five common qualities of a leader: ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To identify the role of the leader in managing change and its effect on the improvement of secondary schools. To investigate the correlation between the principal’s supports for an overall change in school. Methods/statistical analysis: Quantitative research design was used in the study. The convenience sampling technique was employed to select the sample (n = 150) of Subject Specialist Teachers (SSTs) from public schools of two districts of Punjab province. The instrument was a self-developed survey questionnaire constituting 48 items at a five-point rating scale for data collection. SPSS-16 was employed for data analysis. Factor analysis was used to recognize the common connections among different items and grouping with maximum and minimum correlations. Correlation analysis was conducted to test relationships among variables. ANOVA and t-test were applied to find out significant differences among different groups. Key findings: No effect of leadership styles was found on communication (p = 0.163), vision (p = 0.080), personal management (p = 0.327), learning (p = 0.192), team building (p = 0.444) and planning (p = 0.067). However, significant impact of leadership styles was identified on decision making (p = 0.002), stakeholders (p = 0.046), budget resources (p = 0.001) and resistance (p = 0.005) with significant values. There was no significant difference found between leadership styles of male and female. Application: It is hoped that the findings of the study would be beneficial for educators in managing change through adopting effective leadership styles. It would also be helpful to indicate guidelines to newly appointed administrators for a successful administartion.
... There are several aspects can improve job satisfaction of employees' like working conditions, work itself, management, strategy and organization, headway, remuneration, relational connections, acknowledgment, and strengthening however pioneer character has a significant relationship to support representatives' activity fulfillment (Castillo, 2004). The quality of leader-employee relationship has a critical relatedness with employees' job satisfaction and workers feel fulfilled and alright with managers who are supportive (DeCremer, 2003). Employees feel pressure when they need to work with a manager who is unsupportive and whose behavior is negative. ...
... A truth about organizational life is that leaders do not always act responsibly and ethically (De Cremer, 2003). As seen, supervisors carry adverse language with their workers, degrade them before other people, threaten their subordinates, or treat them violently (Bies & Tripp, 1998;Zellars, Tepper, & Duffy, 2002). ...
... Many studies have observed a positive relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction. For example, Chen & Spector (1991), Brockner (1988) and De Cremer (2003) have shown that negative leader-employee interactions have a negative influence on the employees' satisfaction, resulting in signs of stress and unwillingness to go to work. Tsai (2014), Hashemi & Sadeqi (2016), Molina et al. (2014) and Ahmad, et al. (2018) findings propagate that organizational climate has a significant effect on job satisfaction. ...
Preprint
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Purpose - The purpose of the study is to investigate the missing link between leadership style and job satisfaction among Mongolian public sector employees. This study reiterates the mediating role of organizational climate (OC) and work style (WS) in a new proposed model. Methodology - The questionnaire is designed by a synthesis of existing constructs in the current relevant literature. The research sample consisted of 143 officers who work in the primary and middle units of territory and administration of Mongolia. Factor analysis, reliability test, collinearity test, and correlation analyses confirm validity and reliability of the model. Multiple regression analysis, using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), tests the hypotheses of the study. Practical implications - This study has several important implications for studies related to organizational behavior and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the implications of findings are beneficial to organizations aiming at improving policies and practices related to organizational behavior and human resource management. Regulators and supervisors of private or public organizations aiming to increase the level of their employees’ job satisfaction will also benefit from the findings. Therefore, this study’s new proposed model can be the basis of fundamental research to build a better human resource policy. Although leadership style is an influential factor for job satisfaction, this study identifies the mediating missing links between leadership style and employees’ job satisfaction. Findings: The findings of this research indicate that organizational climate and work style complement and fully mediate the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction. Appropriate leadership style is most effective when it matches organizational climate as well as employees’ work style. Furthermore, suitable organizational climate will increases the level of job satisfaction. If work style of employees is respected and taken into consideration, leadership style can find its way into job satisfaction. Originality/value - This study is the first to understand the motivators of job satisfaction in government sector of Mongolia. This study suggests valuable findings for executive officers, junior and primary unit’s officers of register sector of government in Mongolia. The findings of this study help managers and executives in their effort to develop and implement successful human resource strategies.
... Two justice principles have been discussed: equality and equity (Deutsch, 1975). An equality perspective leads members to perceived LMXD as unfair and detrimental due to the leader's differential treatment of followers (De Cremer, 2003;Deutsch, 1975). From an equity lens, LMXD should be perceived to be fair and acceptable when the differentiation is, or at least seems to be, proportional to different levels of employees' work effort and contributions (Chen et al., 2018;Erdogan & Bauer, 2010;Liden et al., 2006;Sias & Jablin, 1995;Yu et al., 2018). ...
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Variability in the quality of relationships between leaders and followers, referred to as leader‐member exchange differentiation (LMXD), is common in organizations. In the current study, we propose a political perspective to illustrate the mechanism through which LMXD influences employee task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). Using multisource survey data collected from 304 employees working in 62 work groups, we found that LMXD is an antecedent of group political climate, which in turn influences employee work behaviors. The mediating effects of group political climate remained significant after controlling for supervisory justice climate, which has been considered as the dominant mechanism in prior studies in explaining group‐level outcomes of LMXD. Furthermore, we found moderating effects of group political climate and indirect moderating effects of LMXD via group political climate on the relationships between individual level LMX quality and members’ work behaviors. Specifically, the results showed that political climate strengthens the positive relationships between individual level LMX quality and employees’ task performance and OCB toward individuals and that LMXD indirectly moderates the relationships through group political climate.
... Leadership styles have been noted among other factors, as a critical variable responsible for employee job satisfaction and performance [4][5][6][7][8][9]. Employee job satisfaction is influenced by the internal organization environment which includes organizational climate, leadership styles and personnel relationship [10][11][12][13][14]. The quality of the leader-employee relationshipor the lack thereof -has a great influence on the employee's self-esteem and job satisfaction [15][16][17][18][19][20]. ...
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... Many studies have observed a positive relationship between the organizational climate and job satisfaction. For example, Chen and Spector [62], Brockner [63], and De Cremer [64] have shown that negative leader-employee interactions have a negative influence on the employees' satisfaction, which results in signs of stress and unwillingness to go to work. Tsai [65], Hashemi and Sadeqi [41], Ángel Calderón Molina et al. [66], and Ahmad et al. [67] predict that the organizational climate has a significant effect on job satisfaction. ...
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Background: Due to the paucity of literature in leadership styles and job satisfaction within the Philippine context, this descriptive correlational study among Filipino nurses (FNs) was piloted in a selected tertiary hospital in Manila. Purpose: This study utilized a descriptive correlational research design to describe aspects of a situation and explore relationships among leadership styles and job satisfaction, without seeking to establish causal connections Methods: Before the data collection, the researchers secured an administrative and ethical clearance from the executive assistant to the President thru the Officer-in-Charge of the Nursing Service Division of the hospital. There were 285 staff nurses, of which only 100 nurses were qualified to have at least one year of experience. Three sets of questionnaires were disseminated, and responses were treated analyzed using the descriptive statistics to describe the demographic and work profile, LS, and JS while Pearson R correlation was used to measure the relationship between LS and JS. Results: Using self-administered questionnaires, FNs rated their level of satisfaction (M=3.37) from high to a moderate extent along with professional autonomy (M=3.91), work environment (M=3.81), work assignment (M=3.61), and benefits (M=2.71). Participants agreed that their nurse managers utilized either transformational or transactional leadership styles. Findings indicate that transformational (r=0.558, p
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Self-esteem is a central construct in clinical, developmental, personality, and social psychology, and its role in psychological functioning has been studied for nearly a century. Though there have been periods in which research on self-esteem fell into disfavor (cf. Wylie, 1974), in the last decade there has been a resurgence of interest. This resurgence has yielded significant advances in our understanding, as revealed in the other chapters in this volume, as well as in other recent compilations (e.g., Baumeister, 1993a). Nonetheless (and perhaps not surprisingly), significant controversies remain. At their core, these controversies revolve around the essence of what it means to be either high or low in self-esteem. For example, is high self-esteem a precious commodity that must be zealously defended and promoted in order to survive? Or does it reflect a global and secure sense of one’s self-worth that is not readily threatened? Likewise, to what extent is low self-esteem indicative of maladjustment? Is it inevitably associated with an absence of self-protective and self-enhancement strategies?
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Results of a survey of 222 detainees in Dutch jails and police stations showed that outcome-fairness judgments of individuals with high self-esteem were more strongly related to outcome considerations than to procedural considerations, whereas outcome-fairness judgments of individuals with low self-esteem were more strongly related to procedural considerations than to outcome considerations. It was proposed that these differences were due to the fact that (a) procedures more strongly express a social evaluation than outcomes and (b) individuals with low self-esteem are more concerned with social evaluations than individuals with high self-esteem. The implications of the results for other individual-differences factors and other populations than detainees are discussed.
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This study (N = 216) measured the strength of endorsements for ingroup leaders who varied in both their relative ingroup prototypicality and distributive intergroup fairness. Leadership endorsement overall was positively related to group members’ levels of social identification and negatively related to their levels of reported self-interest. Among low identifiers, however, leaders’ distributive behavior reliably predicted endorsements, with stronger endorsements provided for distributively fair than unfair leaders. Among high identifiers, in contrast, both leaders’ distributive behavior and relative ingroup prototypicality were important. Leaders high in ingroup prototypicality received strong endorsements from high identifiers regardless of the leaders’ ingroup-favoring, outgroup-favoring, or fair intergroup behavior. Leaders low in ingroup prototypicality and who were relatively similar to the outgroup received strong endorsements from high identifiers only when the leaders made ingroup-favoring distributions. These data are interpreted within a social identity theory framework.
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This chapter focuses on one particular aspect of authoritativeness: voluntary compliance with the decisions of authorities. Social psychologists have long distinguished between obedience that is the result of coercion, and obedience that is the result of internal attitudes. Opinions describe “reward power” and “coercive power”, in which obedience is contingent on positive and negative outcomes, and distinguish both of these types of power from legitimate power, in which obedience flows from judgments about the legitimacy of the authority. Legitimate power depends on people taking the obligation on themselves to obey and voluntarily follow the decisions made by authorities. The chapter also focuses on legitimacy because it is important to recognize, that legitimacy is not the only attitudinal factor influencing effectiveness. It is also influenced by other cognitions about the authority, most notably judgments of his or her expertise with respect to the problem at hand. The willingness of group members to accept a leader's directives is only helpful when the leader knows what directives to issue.
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This chapter describes a model of the justice judgment process. It is proposed that people used their perceptions of fairness as a heuristic to assess the quality and nature of their relationship to important groups and institutions to which they belong. The implications of this notion for the development and use of fairness cognitions are explored.
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336 undergraduates considered allocations made within 16 representative types of interpersonal relationships that varied with regard to social-emotional or task basis, cooperative or competitive style of interaction, causal or rule-directed behavior, and power distribution. Ss also rated the importance of 8 allocation criteria, such as objectivity and practicality, and of 6 criteria for judging procedural fairness, such as consistency and correctability. Results suggest that procedural justice was a more important criterion in decisions concerning resource allocations than were a variety of nonfairness criteria and that it was equal in importance to distributive justice. The meaning of procedural justice in allocations and the relation of procedural justice concerns to social allocation goals are explored. (41 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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For this text focused on the social psychology of justice, the authors have assembled the most current information relating to 5 major questions. These questions look specifically at how justice is defined, how it influences individuals' thoughts and actions and shapes their behavior, and when and why it matters. The underlying unifying theme is that individuals do care about issues of fairness in their interactions with others, with groups, and with institutions they support or oppose. Using this theme as their guidepost, the authors explore research on relative deprivation, distributive justice, procedural justice, and retributive justice. Extensive use of examples drawn from contemporary culture make this book an informative and engaging collection of the most current thinking about topics such as diversity, gender, equal pay, personal satisfaction, 3rd-party dispute management, crime, cultural preservation, and scarcity theory. This text will be a valuable source for advanced courses on social justice, interpersonal relations, negotiation, intergroup conflict, and group processes in social psychology, political science, sociology, and legal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two experimental studies investigated the role of group identification in the selection of and cooperation with leaders to manage public good dilemmas. The findings of the 1st study revealed that there was a general preference to select leaders with a legitimate power base (i.e., democratic, elected, and internal leaders), but these preferences were particularly pronounced when people's identification with their group was high rather than low. The 2nd study complemented these findings by showing that when group identification was low, an instrumental leader (i.e., who punishes noncontributing members) was far more efficient than a relational leader (i.e., who builds positive intragroup relations) in raising contributions. Yet, when group identification was high, both leader types appeared to be equally efficient. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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179 undergraduates took part in a study of the effects of instrumental and noninstrumental participation on distributive and procedural fairness judgments. In a goal-setting procedure, Ss were allowed voice before the goal was set, after the goal was set, or not at all. Ss received information relevant to the task, irrelevant information, or no information. Both pre- and postdecision voice led to higher fairness judgments than no voice, with predecision voice leading to higher fairness judgments than postdecision voice. Relevant information also increased perceived fairness. Mediation analyses showed that perceptions of control account for some, but not all, of the voice-based enhancement of procedural justice. Results show that both instrumental and noninstrumental concerns are involved in choice effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two experiments on task-assignment procedures, one conducted in a laboratory and one conducted in a field setting, examined the effects of voice and choice on perceived control, perceived procedural justice, task commitment, and task performance. Three models of procedural justice—two positing control mediation of justice judgments and one positing covarying, but not mediating, effects of control—suggested that the procedural justice effect of voice beyond choice would be especially potent when the participation involved decisions about task selection procedures as opposed to decisions about specific task assignments. The models differed with respect to the causal relations they predicted. Both studies examined the effects of three modes of participation (choice + voice, choice only, or no participation) in either the selection of a specific task or the selection of a procedure to be used to assign a task. In the laboratory experiment, 72 students worked on a business simulation task; in the field experiment, 72 employees of a mail-order firm worked at taking telephone orders. In both experiments the hypothesized effects were found, and in both experiments LISREL VI analyses showed that the justice judgment effects were not mediated by perceived control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Differences in the strength of endorsement for distributively fair and unfair leaders in interpersonal and intergroup situations were measured. Fair leaders were expected to receive stronger endorsements than unfair leaders in interpersonal situations. This difference, however, was expected to attenuate, if not reverse in intergroup situations when the unfairness favoured the ingroup. An attenuation effect obtained in Experiment 1 (N=49) using ad hoc groups in a laboratory setting. Attenuation and reversal effects obtained, respectively, in Experiments 2 (N=314) and 3 (N=213) using preexisting groups (students and New Zealanders, respectively) in a scenario setting. Fairness ratings followed patterns similar to leadership endorsements in Experiments 2 and 3. Finally, Experiment 3 showed a reversal in participants' private attitudes toward an issue about which the leader expressed an opinion. These data extend previous research on leadership endorsement and are consistent with predictions derived from Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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In this paper we seek to accomplish two objectives. First, we review and describe a phenomenon we call the justice dilemma. We argue that workers often perceive valid assessment practices to be unfair. By using these techniques, employers risk incurring hidden costs that are associated with perceived injustice. Thus, it is sometimes impractical to utilize an assessment technique even though the procedure has good validity evidence. Our second purpose is to propose and test one way that organizations can resolve the justice dilemma. We do this in the context of workplace drug screening. We argue that employees are often more tolerant of controversial assessment techniques to the extent that these procedures do not result in particularly negative outcomes. In a field study examining employee reactions to a drug screening program, this proposition was generally supported.
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This chapter describes self-esteem and provides an overview of existing perspectives on self-esteem. Self-esteem is a sociometer, essentially an internal monitor of the degree to which one is valued or devalued as a relational partner. The chapter evaluates a series of specific, testable hypotheses about self-esteem and examines laboratory and other findings in relevance to the sociometer theory and its specific hypotheses. This sociometer theory also reinterprets several interpersonal phenomena that have been explained previously in terms of the self-esteem motive. In specific, self-esteem refers to a person's appraisal of his or her value. Global self-esteem denotes a global value judgment about the self, whereas domain-specific self-esteem involves appraisals of one's value in a particular area. Self-esteem is an affectively laden self-evaluation. Self-evaluations are in turn assessments of one's behavior or attributes along evaluative dimensions. Some self-evaluations are dispassionate. whereas others are affectively laden. Self-esteem focuses primarily on individual differences in dispositional or trait self-esteem.
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The greater power of bad events over good ones is found in everyday events, major life events (e.g., trauma), close relationship outcomes, social network patterns, interpersonal interactions, and learning processes. Bad emotions, bad parents, and bad feedback have more impact than good ones, and bad information is processed more thoroughly than good. The self is more motivated to avoid bad self-definitions than to pursue good ones. Bad impressions and bad stereotypes are quicker to form and more resistant to disconfirmation than good ones. Various explanations such as diagnosticity and salience help explain some findings, but the greater power of bad events is still found when such variables are controlled. Hardly any exceptions (indicating greater power of good) can be found. Taken together, these findings suggest that bad is stronger than good, as a general principle across a broad range of psychological phenomena.
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This article focuses on the psychology of the fair process effect (the frequently replicated finding that perceived procedural fairness positively affects people&apos;s reactions). It is argued that when people receive an unfavorable outcome, they may start looking for causes that explain why they received this outcome. Furthermore, the authors propose that unfair procedures provide an opportunity to attribute one&apos;s unfavorable outcome to external causes, whereas fair procedures do not. As a consequence, people may react more negatively after fair as opposed to unfair procedures (a reversal of the fair process effect). The findings of 3 experiments corroborate the authors&apos; line of reasoning and show that if unfavorable outcomes strongly instigate attribution-seeking processes, a reversal of the fair process effect indeed can be found. In this way, these findings show that sometimes unfair procedures have nice aspects.
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The authors refine and extend their explanation of the psychology of the fair process effect (the positive influence of procedural fairness on outcome evaluations). On the basis of fairness heuristic theory's substitutability proposition, the authors predicted and found that outcome evaluations show strong effects of procedural fairness when outcomes are better or worse than expected, whereas less strong fair process effects appear when outcomes are equal to or differ from the outcome of a comparison other. This finding suggests some important differences in how people use expectations versus social comparisons as reference points for evaluating outcomes. Findings also revealed that fairness judgments do not always show the same effects as do satisfaction judgments, indicating differences in the way people form judgments on these two dimensions of outcome evaluation.
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An extensive network of empirical relations has been identified in research on the psychological construct of self-monitoring. Nevertheless, in recent years some concerns have been expressed about the instrument used for the assessment of self-monitoring propensities, the Self-Monitoring Scale. Both the extent to which the measure taps an interpretable and meaningful causal variable and the extent to which the self-monitoring construct provides an appropriate theoretical understanding of this causal variable have been questioned. An examination of reanalyses of studies of self-monitoring, analyses of the internal structure of the Self-Monitoring Scale, and further relevant data suggest that the measure does tap a meaningful and interpretable causal variable with pervasive influences on social behavior, a variable reflected as a general self-monitoring factor. We discuss the evaluation and furthering of the interpretation of this latent causal variable, offer criteria for evaluating alternative measures of self-monitoring, and present a new, 18-item Self-Monitoring Scale.
Chapter
Justice, equity, and fairness are central concerns of everyday life, whether we are assessing the fairness of individual acts, social programmes, or institutional policies. This book explores how the distribution of costs and benefits determine our intuition about fairness and why individual behaviour sometimes deviates from normative theories of justice. To make any comparison, one must first state how fair distributions of resources or burdens should be made. Here, competing theories, such as utilitarianism and economic efficiency, are discussed. The chapters cover many topics including an investigation of various rules and heuristics that people use to make fair distributions; the motivation for people to conform to rules of fairness even when they conflict with self-interest; differences between the views of liberals and conservatives; societal rules for the distribution or allocation of critical or scarce resources; and implications for public policy. This mixture of theoretical and applied perspectives provides a balanced look at the psychology of justice.
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Five studies tested hypotheses derived from the sociometer model of self-esteem according to which the self-esteem system monitors others' reactions and alerts the individual to the possibility of social exclusion. Study 1 showed that the effects of events on participants' state self-esteem paralleled their assumptions about whether such events would lead others to accept or reject them. In Study 2, participants' ratings of how included they felt in a real social situation correlated highly with their self-esteem feelings. In Studies 3 and 4, social exclusion caused decreases in self-esteem when respondents were excluded from a group for personal reasons, but not when exclusion was random, but this effect was not mediated by self-presentation. Study 5 showed that trait self-esteem correlated highly with the degree to which respondents generally felt included versus excluded by other people. Overall, results provided converging evidence for the sociometer model.