Article

Positive an Negative Affectivity and Their Relation to Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

Journal of Abnormal Psychology (Impact Factor: 5.15). 09/1988; 97(3):346-53. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.97.3.346
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Distinguishing between depression and anxiety has been a matter of concern and controversy for some time. Studies in normal samples have suggested, however, that assessment of two broad mood factors—Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA)—may improve their differentiation. The present study extends these findings to a clinical sample. As part of an ongoing twin study, 90 inpatient probands and 60 cotwins were interviewed with the anxiety and depression sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS; Robins, Helzer, Croughan, & Ratcliff, 1981). Respondents also completed trait NA and PA scales. Consistent with previous research, NA was broadly correlated with symptoms and diagnoses of both anxiety and depression, and acted as a general predictor of psychiatric disorder. In contrast, PA was consistently related (negatively) only to symptoms and diagnoses of depression, indicating that the loss of pleasurable engagement is a distinctive feature of depression. The results suggest that strengthening the PA component in depression measures may enhance their discriminative power.

    • "To assess psychopathology, we used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, SKID I (Wittchen et al. 1997). In addition, we used a number of self-report questionnaires , including the following scales: The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) (Watson et al. 1988), the Empathizing, Systemizing and Autism- Spectrum Quotient (EQ, SQ, and AQ) (Baron-Cohen et al. 2003; Baron-Cohen and Wheelwright 2004; Baron-Cohen et al. 2001), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (Beck et al. 1961), the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEOFFI) (Costa and McCrae 1992), and the trait scale of the State- Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Trait, see Table 1) (Spielberger and Vagg 1984). All participants signed a written informed consent form and received an expense allowance. "
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    ABSTRACT: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can modulate the excitability of stimulated cortical areas, such as prefrontal areas involved in emotion regulation. Low frequency (LF) rTMS is expected to have inhibitory effects on prefrontal regions, and thereby should disinhibit limbic activity, resulting in enhanced emotional and autonomic reactions. For high frequency (HF) rTMS, the opposite pattern might be assumed. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different rTMS frequencies applied to the right dlPFC on autonomic functions and on emotional perception. In a crossover design, two groups of 20 healthy young women were either stimulated with one session of LF rTMS (1 Hz) or one session of HF rTMS (10 Hz), compared to sham stimulation. We assessed phasic cardiac responses (PCR), skin conductance reactions (SCR), and emotional appraisal of emotional pictures as well as recognition memory after each rTMS application. After LF rTMS, PCR (heart rate deceleration) during presentation of pictures with negative and neutral valence was significantly increased compared to the presentation of positive pictures. In contrast, the modulatory effect of picture valence and arousal on the cardiac orienting response was absent after HF rTMS. Our results suggest that frontal LF rTMS indirectly activates the ANS via inhibition of the right dlPFC activity, likely by enhancing the sensory processing or attention to aversive and neutral stimuli.
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    • "Instead, these items were included to prevent uniform responses to items across the negative subscales (Chang et al., 2003). However, depression has long been characterized as a disorder of both positive and negative affect, which appear to be distinct dimensions, rather than opposite ends of the same dimension (Olino, Klein, Lewinsohn, Rohde, & Seeley, 2008; Watson, Clark, & Carey, 1988). Distinct positive and negative emotion dimensions have also been found in cross-cultural studies (Iwata et al., 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: The Chicago Multiscale Depression Inventory (CMDI) was developed to improve accuracy in measuring depression symptoms in individuals with non-psychiatric medical illness. Earlier psychometric evaluation of the CMDI has emphasized properties of items that measure negative affect and experience. In this study, we provide an initial evaluation of an outcome scale of positive items that are also included within the CMDI but have previously been excluded from calculation of the total score. Psychometric data for the CMDI negative and positive item subscales were determined in healthy adults and patients with multiple sclerosis. Analysis included measurements of factor structure, reliability, and validity in comparison with other established measures of depression and affect. Study findings indicate that in healthy and patient samples, the CMDI Positive scale has very good reliability and validity. The Positive scale score also appears to predict depression symptoms beyond the negative item scale scores. The CMDI Positive scale could be a valuable clinical and research tool. Inclusion of the Positive scale in the CMDI total score appears to improve the measure by further capturing symptoms of affect and experience that are important to diagnosis of depression and are not covered by the negative scales alone. ( JINS , 2015, 21 , 1–7)
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
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    • "To measure positive and negative affect, we used the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) (Watson et al., 1988b), which includes 10-positive and 10-negative mood or feeling words (e.g., " inspired " or " scared " ). The PANAS is a well-validated measure of self-reported positive and negative mood (Crawford and Henry, 2004; Watson et al., 1988b), used in healthy and psychiatric patient populations (Heller et al., 2013; Larsen and Ketelaar, 1991; Watson et al., 1988a). Participants rated the amount they generally experienced each item on a scale ranging from 1 to 5 (very slightlyeextremely). "
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    ABSTRACT: Depression is a prevalent psychiatric condition characterized by sad mood and anhedonia. Neuroscientific research has consistently identified abnormalities in a network of brain regions in major depression, including subregions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). However, few studies have investigated whether the same neural correlates of depression symptom severity are apparent in subclinical or healthy subjects. In the current study, we used resting-state fMRI to examine functional connectivity for subregions of the ACC in N = 28 participants with subclinical levels of depression. In regression analyses, we examined relationships between depression severity and functional connectivity for pregenual ACC (pgACC), anterior subgenual ACC (sgACC), and posterior sgACC seed regions. Additionally, we examined relationships between ACC subregion connectivity and trait levels of positive and negative affect. We found distinct associations between depression severity and functional connectivity of ACC subregions. Higher depression severity was associated with reduced pgACC-striatum connectivity and reduced anterior sgACC-anterior insula connectivity. Consistent with resting-state findings in major depression, higher depression severity was also related to greater anterior sgACC-posterior cingulate connectivity and greater posterior sgACC-dorsolateral prefrontal connectivity. Lastly, there were distinct correlations between connectivity for anterior versus posterior ACC subregions and positive and negative affective traits. These findings provide novel support linking subclinical depression to the same neural substrates associated with major depression. More broadly, these results contribute to an emerging literature on dimensional approaches to psychiatric illness.
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