Positive an Negative Affectivity and Their Relation to Anxiety and Depressive Disorders
Journal of Abnormal Psychology (Impact Factor: 5.15). 09/1988; 97(3):346-53. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.97.3.346
Distinguishing between depression and anxiety has been a matter of concern and controversy for some time. Studies in normal samples have suggested, however, that assessment of two broad mood factors—Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA)—may improve their differentiation. The present study extends these findings to a clinical sample. As part of an ongoing twin study, 90 inpatient probands and 60 cotwins were interviewed with the anxiety and depression sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS; Robins, Helzer, Croughan, & Ratcliff, 1981). Respondents also completed trait NA and PA scales. Consistent with previous research, NA was broadly correlated with symptoms and diagnoses of both anxiety and depression, and acted as a general predictor of psychiatric disorder. In contrast, PA was consistently related (negatively) only to symptoms and diagnoses of depression, indicating that the loss of pleasurable engagement is a distinctive feature of depression. The results suggest that strengthening the PA component in depression measures may enhance their discriminative power.
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[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Healthy individuals differ in self-reported chemical intolerance (CI). It is unclear whether this inter-individual variability impacts well-being and performance in environmental and occupational settings with chemical exposures. So far, operational definitions and questionnaires of CI have either emphasized physical symptoms or affective/behavioral disruption. In contrast, this study focused on healthy individuals who reported strong CI which generalized to awareness, physiology, affect, and behavior. We investigated whether generalized self-reported CI is associated with hyper-reactivity and reduced cognitive functioning due to chemosensory-mediated distraction during ammonia exposure. Methods: An online sample (N = 321) answered established CI questionnaires. Based on the convergent self-reports in these questionnaires, healthy women with generalized CI and healthy female control participants were selected (total N = 26). Baseline characterization was performed using implicit association, lung and olfactory function tests, health-related self-reports, plasma inflammatory and metabolic markers. Performance in neurobehavioral tasks, perceptual ratings, nasal inflammatory, neuroendocrine, and autonomic nervous system reactivity were examined by means of a 75-min whole-body challenge to ammonia (stepwise increase: 0-10 ppm). Results: Correlational analyses confirmed the multidimensionality of CI. Participants with generalized self-reported CI exhibited better olfactory function and reported stronger pungency during the challenge than controls. Cognitive performance and physiological response to the challenge were comparable between the two groups. Conclusions: Self-reports of CI are complex and not easily assessed by unidimensional questionnaires. While generalized self-reported CI is associated with altered chemosensory processing, it seems unlikely that it modulates health effects and cognitive functioning during chemical exposure.
- "Participants answered a demographic questionnaire, the three questionnaires for the assessment of CI (TMS, Kiesswetter et al. 1999; CSS-SHR, Nordin et al. 2004; negOAS, Smeets et al. 2008), the trait version of the Negative and Positive Affect Schedule (PANAS, Watson et al. 1988), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, Cohen et al. 1983), and the Somatic Symptom Severity Scale of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15, Kroenke et al. 2002). Presentation order of questionnaires in the Internet-based survey was randomized over participants. "
- "For example, positive and negative life events are associated with increases in positive affect and negative affect respectively . From the abnormal psychology literature, depression has historically been conceptualized as an affectively complex syndrome that is best differentiated from anxiety by assessing for the presence of low positive affect, or anhedonia [35,36]. This conceptualization was extended by the 'tripartite model', which conceptualized depression and anxiety using a three-factor model of nonspecific-general distress, low positive affect, and somatic arousal . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit) effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2) were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect. Furthermore, both targeting individual employees and redesigning working conditions at the work unit level seems important.
- "However, correlation coefficients of -0.51 at T1 and -0.53 at T2 showed some degree of independency. While depression has exhibited negative associations with positive affectivity as a trait, studies have reported no relationship of positive affectivity with anxiety (e.g. ). The present measure of mental distress (HSCL-10) captures symptoms of depression and anxiety [18, 19, 34] , and has been suggested to be a measure of general psychological distress more than reflecting discriminate subscales of depression and anxiety [34, 64]. "