ArticlePDF Available

The effect of alcoholic beverages on iron and zinc metabolism in the rat

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

1. Male Wistar rats (approximately 200 g) were given distilled water and a semi-synthetic control diet for 6 d. On day 7, 37 kBq ⁶⁵ Zn were administered intramuscularly and the rats were given distilled water, beer, cider, red wine, whisky or ethanol as their only source of fluid. The wine, whisky and ethanol were diluted so that each of the beverages contained a similar ethanol concentration (approximately 30 g/1). Food and fluid intake, growth rate and whole-body ⁶⁵ Zn were measured regularly over 11 d, after which animals were killed and blood haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, liver iron stores and the Zn concentration in testes determined. 2. There were no differences in body-weight gain or food intake between groups but fluid intake for the beer group was considerably higher than that for the other groups. 3. There was a significant effect of the type of alcoholic beverage consumed on whole-body ⁶⁵ Zn retention. Rats given whisky had a smaller daily loss of ⁶⁵ Zn than those given water, beer or cider. The ethanol group also showed a lower rate of ⁶⁵ Zn loss compared with the water group. The observed changes in whole-body ⁶⁵ Zn retention could be explained by an adverse influence of ethanol on Zn absorption from the diet. 4. Blood Hb and testes Zn concentration were similar in all groups but the type of liquid consumed influenced liver Fe levels. The cider group had the lowest liver Fe values and the ethanol group the highest values. 5. It is apparent from the present study that ethanol and alcoholic beverages affect Zn and Fe metabolism, but that the effects of ethanol are moderated by other components of the alcoholic beverages.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Brilish
Journal
of
Nufrifion
(1988),
60,
209-215
209
The effect
of
alcoholic beverages on iron and zinc
metabolism in the rat
BY
SUSAN
J.
FAIRWEATHER-TAIT, SUSAN SOUTHON
AND
ZOE
PIPER
AFRC Institute
of
Food Research, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UA
(Received 29 December 1987
-
Accepted I9 April
1988)
1.
Male Wistar rats (approximately
200
g) were given distilled water and
a
semi-synthetic control diet for
6
d.
On day
7,
37
kBq 65Zn were administered intramuscularly and the rats were given distilled water,
beer,
cider, red
wine, whisky
or
ethanol as their only source of fluid. The wine, whisky and ethanol were diluted
so
that each of
the beverages contained a similar ethanol concentration (approximately
30
g/l). Food and fluid intake, growth
rate and whole-body p5Zn were measured regularly over
ll
d, after which animals were killed and blood
haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, liver iron stores and the Zn concentration in testes determined.
2. There were no differences in body-weight gain
or
food intake between groups but fluid intake for the beer
group was considerably higher than that for the other groups.
3.
There was a significant effect of the type of alcoholic beverage consumed on whole-body s5Zn retention. Rats
given whisky had a smaller daily
loss
of 65Zn than those given water,
beer
or
cider. The ethanol group also showed
a lower rate of 65Zn
loss
compared with the water
group.
The observed changes in whole-body 65Zn retention
could
be
explained by an adverse influence of ethanol on Zn absorption from the diet.
4.
Blood Hb and testes Zn concentration were similar in all groups but the type of liquid consumed influenced
liver Fe levels. The cider group had the lowest liver Fe values and the ethanol group the highest values.
5. It is apparent from the present study that ethanol and alcoholic beverages affect Zn and Fe metabolism, but
that the effects of ethanol are moderated by other components
of
the alcoholic beverages.
Alcohol has been reported to enhance iron absorption, and there appears to be a good
correlation between hepatic Fe levels and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Conversely,
it has been demonstrated that alcohol increases urinary zinc excretion, which has led to the
suggestion that a high intake
of
alcohol might lead to Zn deficiency. There may be
differences in response depending on the composition
of
the alcoholic beverage, which are
not necessarily the same as the response elicited by ethanol alone (McDonald
&
Margen,
1980).
The present study was designed to examine the effects of consuming alcoholic beverages,
of similar (modest) ethanol concentration, on Fe and Zn status in the rat. A variety
of
beverages were given in order that direct comparisons between different sources
of
ethanol
could be made. The rate
of
loss
of
endogenous Zn during the period
of
ethanol ingestion
was also measured, using s5Zn to label the metabolically active pool
of
Zn in the body, to
see whether the alcoholic beverages influenced whole-body Zn turnover.
MATERIALS
AND
METHODS
Sixty immature male Wistar rats were individually caged in stainless-steel and plastic cages
with wire-gridded bottoms, and given drinking water and semi-synthetic control diet
ad fib.
for
6
d. The composition of the diet is given in Table 1. On the 7th day, between 10.00 and
12.00
hours, each animal was given an intramuscular injection containing 37 kBq ‘j5Zn (as
zinc chloride; Amersham International plc, Amersham, Bucks.) and then counted in
a
small-animal whole-body counter (NE8112; NE Technology Ltd, Beenham, Berks), as
described previously (Fairweather-Tait
&
Wright, 1984). The counting efficiency for 65Zn
was approximately
25
%.
210
SUSAN
J.
FAIRWEATHER-TAIT
AND
OTHERS
Table 1.
Composition
of
the semi-synthetic diet given
to
rats
(g/kg
diet)
Maize starch
309
Sucrose
309
Casein 200
Solka floc 40
Maize oil
80
Mineral mix* 40
Vitamin mix? 20
Methionine 2.5
__
*
Contained (g/kg diet): CaHPO, 13.0, Na,HPO, 7.4, CaCO, 8.2, KC1 7.03, MgSO,.H,O 4.0, ZnCO, 0100,
FeS0,.7H20 0144,
CuSO,.
5H,O 0023,
KIO,
0.001,
MnSO,.H,O
0.180.
t
Contained (mg/kg diet)
:
nicotinic acid
60,
cyanocobalamin in mannitol (Glaxo)
50,
calcium-D-pantothenate
40, thiamin hydrochloride
10,
riboflavin
10,
pyridoxine 10, pteroylmonoglutamic acid
10,
o-biotin
1,
vitamin
K,
2,
Rovimix E-50 (Roche, North Dunstable, Bedfordshire)
150,
Rovimix
A-500
25,
Rovimix D,-500
15.
choline bitartrate 180.
The rats were randomly allocated to six groups of ten, and animals in each group given
one of the following liquids containing approximately
30
g alcohol/l in place of drinking
water as their only source of fluid: group 1, distilled water; group
2,
beer (Bentley’s
Yorkshire Bitter; Whitbread
&
Co., London); group
3,
cider (Taunton Special Vat Cider;
Taunton Cider Co. Ltd, Norton Fitzwarren, Somerset); group
4,
diluted red wine
(wine-water
0.33:
1, v/v, Colman’s French Red Wine, 11.5% alcohol by volume;
Colman’s of Norwich, Norfolk); group
5,
diluted whisky (whisky-water
0.1
:
1,
v/v,
Claymore,
40%
alcohol by volume;
A.
Ferguson
&
Co. Ltd., Glasgow); group
6,
diluted
ethanol (ethanol-water
0.034
:
1, v/v). The animals were allowed access to food and drink
ad lib.
for
1
1
d, during which time their consumption and growth were monitored. Beer was
the only carbonated liquid studied, and initially we encountered some problems with
excessive drip from the teat of the water bottle. However, once the beer bottle had been
open for several days, most of the carbon dioxide disappeared and there were no further
difficulties in measuring fluid intake. For this reason, the mean daily intake of beer was
calculated from the last 9 d of the study period, the values from the first
2
d being
discarded. Great care was taken to collect all the spilt fluid, and allowances were made for
evaporative losses.
Each animal was counted daily in the whole-body counter and the 65Zn content
calculated as a percentage
of
the original level immediately post-injection, after making
corrections for background, counting efficiency and isotope decay.
After
11
d
the animals were killed with a lethal dose of sodium pentobarbitone (1 ml
Euthatal; May
&
Baker, Dagenham, Essex). Blood was removed by cardiac puncture for
haemoglobin (Hb) estimation by the cyanomethaemoglobin method (Richterich
&
Colombo,
1981).
The liver was removed for Fe analysis and the testes for Zn analysis.
Organs were freeze-dried, ground and subsamples ashed at
480”
for
48
h in silica crucibles.
The ash was dissolved in a minimum volume of hot concentrated hydrochloric acid, made
up to volume with distilled water, filtered through Whatman
no.
542
paper and the Fe or
Zn concentrations measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (PU9000
;
Pye Unicam,
Cambridge) using certified NBS standards for validation (Office of Standard Reference
Materials, Washington DC).
Statistical analysis
Results were subjected to analysis
of
variance, and where this showed a treatment effect,
approximate
t
tests were performed using the standard error for differences between means.
Eflect
of
alcohol
on
iron
and
zinc
metabolism
21
1
Table
2.
Iron and zinc contents of liquids and diet given to rats
Fe Olglml) Zn Ocglml)
Distilled water
0.04 020
Beer
0.14 0.03
Cider
1.67 0.2
1
Wine-water
(0.33:
1,
v/v)
3.29 0.24
Whisky-water
(0.1:
I,
v/v)
0.10
035
Ethanol-water
(0.034:
1,
v/v)
0.04
0.20
Semi-synthetic diet
30.5
Pg/g
60.4
Pg/g
Table
3.
Initial andjnal body-weights, food and liquid intakes (g/d)
of
rats given different
alcoholic beverages for
I1
d
(Values are means for ten ratslgroup)
Liquid
Percentage
Initial Final Food Fluid
of
energy
Alcohol body-wt body-wt intake intake derived from
(g/O (g) (€9 (g) (g) alcoholt
Distilled water
0
199.3 283.5 24.0 18.0
0
Beer
31
204.6 295.8 23.4 28.4' 5.9
Cider
38 198.6 277.3 21.2 16.7 4.8
Wine-water
(0.33
:
1,
v/v)
32 201.7 284.9 22.7 19.5 4.4
Whisky-water
(0.1
:
1,
v/v)
32 205.1 290.1 23.3 18.9
41
Ethanol-water
(0.034:
1,
v/v)
34 207.4 2966 24.6 20.6 4.5
Pooled
SEM
3.9 7.0 0.8
5.5
SED
5.6 9.9
1.2
2.5
F
0.8
(NS)
1.2
(NS)
2.0
(NS)
5.7
(P
<
0.01)
-
__
SED,
standard
error
of difference;
NS,
not significant
*
Mean beer intake calculated over last
9
d
of
the period.
t
Energy value of control diet
16.6
kJ
(4.2
kcal)/g, and alcohol
29.3
kJ
(7.0
kcal)/g.
The 65Zn retention values were transformed to log,, values, as described in the Results
section, and regression analysis performed on the values for days
6-10
inclusive post-
injection. Differences between groups were again tested for using approximate
t
tests. The
relation between 65Zn loss and liver
Fe
levels was examined using a Spearman rank
correlation coefficient.
The concentrations
of
Fe
and Zn in the diet and in the various fluids are shown in Table
2.
All except beer contained a trace of Zn, with whisky containing the highest amount.
There was a more marked variation in the Fe content, the diluted red wine containing the
most at
3.3
pg Fe/ml. With a daily intake of
20
ml, the wine would provide
66
pg
Fe/rat,
compared with a daily intake of
700
pg from the diet. Therefore the additional Fe
(or
Zn)
in the fluids made only a small contribution towards the total intake in terms of absolute
amounts.
There were no differences in initial or final body-weights, nor in food intake, between the
groups, as shown in Table
3.
However, the animals in the beer group drank considerably
more than those in the other groups, presumably due to the sensory qualities of beer.
RESULTS
212
SUSAN
J.
FAIRWEATHER-TAIT
AND
OTHERS
Table
4.
Daily
loss
of
"Zn
6-10
d post-injection and percentage s5Zn remaining in the
body
of
rats afer consumption
of
diferent alcoholic beverages for
11
d
(Values are means for ten rats/group)
___
____
"Zn retained after 10 d
(%
of original amount) Daily 65Zn loss
(%
of total body 6sZn)
Distilled water 67.3" 2.0"
Beer 667" 1.8""
Cider 68.2a" 2.0'
Wine-water (0.33: 1, v/v) 69.6" 1.7ahe
Whisky-water (0.1
:
1, v/v) 71.9' 1.3bc
Ethanol-water (0034: 1, v/v) 69.6" 1.5'
Pooled
SEM
2.5
0.5
SED
1.1 0.2
F
6.0
(P
<
0.01)
2.9
(P
<
005)
__
_____~
SED,
standard error of difference.
a,b,r,
Values in each column with different superscript letters were significantly different
(P
<
0.05).
Table
5.
Haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, liver iron and testes zinc
of
rats given different
alchoholic beverages for
11
d
(Values are means
for
ten rats/group)
-
Hb
Liver Fe Total liver Testes Zn Total testes
Liquid (g/U bg/g dry wt) Fe (mg) @g/g dry wt) Zn @g)
Distilled water 140 214"
1.10
1"" 160 67
Beer 139 221" 1.1 7OabC 148 62
Cider I40 200" 0.956' 154
64
Wine-water 139 256b 1.24lbC 156 66
Whisky-water
141
262h 1.3
1
jbr
152 66
Ethanol-water I38 268" 1,373' 152 67
Pooled
(033:
I,
v/v)
(0.1
:
1,
v/v)
(0.034: 1, V/V)
SEM
1.7
11
0.077
5
2
SED
2.5 16 0.109 7 3
F
0.4
(NS)
6.3
(P
<
0.01)
3.9
(P
<
001)
0.8
(NS)
1.0 (NS)
-
-~
a.h.r3
Values in each column with different superscript letters were significantly different
(P
<
0.05).
SED,
standard error of difference;
NS,
not
significant.
The percentage
loss
of injected s5Zn followed an exponential decay curve, and in order
to compare rates between the groups the amount
of
Zn retained (expressed as a percentage
of the initial value) was transformed to the log,, value and plotted against time. The
relation was linear between days
6
and
10
(inclusive) post-injection, as demonstrated by
regression analysis, when the mean percentage variance accounted
for
was
94.1
(SEM
1.0).
There was a small but significant effect of type
of
liquid consumed on the amount of 65Zn
lost during days 6-10 post-injection, and on the amount
of
65Zn remaining after
10
d, as
shown in Table
4.
The most obvious difference was in the group given whisky. These
animals had a smaller daily loss of s5Zn than those given distilled water, beer or cider. The
ethanol group also exhibited a lower rate
of
loss
of
65Zn, compared with the distilled-water
Eflect
of
alcohol on iron and zinc metabolism
213
group. The differences in rate of loss of 65Zn resulted in differences in 65Zn retention
10
d
post-injection (when expressed as a percentage of the initial value) with the whisky group
retaining the most 65Zn, followed by the ethanol and wine groups.
Blood Hb values, liver Fe and testes Zn are given in Table
5.
The liver and testes weights
and moisture contents were similar in all groups. Although there were no differences in
blood Hb levels, the different fluids had an effect on the Fe concentration and total Fe
content of the liver. Rats given cider had the lowest levels, followed by distilled water then
beer. Those given wine, whisky and ethanol had higher Fe concentrations, ethanol having
the greatest effect, despite the fact that it contributed no more Fe than distilled water.
Furthermore, there was an inverse correlation
(P
<
0.05)
between liver Fe level and daily
65Zn loss
(r
0.93).
The Zn content of the testes was unaffected by the type of fluid
consumed.
DISCUSSION
Alcoholism had been associated with Zn deficiency (Vallee
et
al.
1957;
Sullivan
&
Lankford,
1965),
and apart from inadequate Zn intake, one possible explanation for this
phenomenon would be an accelerated
loss
of Zn from the body. Prolonged hyperzincuria,
if
unaccompanied by any Zn-conserving mechanisms, may well lead to Zn depletion.
Moderate intakes of alcohol have been reported to cause increased urinary Zn excretion in
normal subjects (Carey
et
al.
1971)
and patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (Kahn
et
al.
1965;
Mills
et
al.
1983),
and rats fed on Zn-deficient diets (Ahmed
&
Russell,
1982),
but there are
also reports demonstrating that alcohol consumption does not affect urinary Zn loss
(Sullivan,
1962;
Helwig
et
al.
1966).
The present study was undertaken
to
study the effect
of consuming small amounts
(4-6
%
of total energy intake) of various alcoholic beverages
and ethanol on loss of endogenous Zn, labelled with “Zn, from the body. Contrary to
expectation, there was, in fact,
a
small but significant decrease in Zn loss in animals given
wine, whisky
or
ethanol when compared with distilled water. Beer and cider had no effect
on Zn retention. After
11
d of alcohol consumption, there were no differences in Zn
concentration or total Zn in the testes. This tissue was selected as being very sensitive to
changes in dietary Zn levels (Prasad
et
al.
1967)
and, therefore, should reflect any major
changes in Zn metabolism. For example, Ahmed
&
Russell
(1982)
found that testes were
the first tissue to show a reduction in Zn concentration in rats fed on a Zn-deficient liquid
diet containing ethanol, when compared with control animals. In the present experiment
the small differences in whole-body daily 65Zn
loss
were obviously not great enough to
affect the levels of Zn in this tissue over the
11
d experimental period, but further work is
required to determine whether changes would occur over a longer period of modest alcohol
consumption.
The results we obtained with rats lend support to the findings
of
Helwig
et
al.
(1966)
and
Sullivan
(1962)
that alcohol
per
se
does not result in increased urinary Zn excretion in
normal subjects, but that alcohol-induced hepatic damage is a major determinant of
urinary Zn excretion, since hepatic disease is accompanied by increases in urinary Zn
excretion. The different responses to alcohol consumption reported in the literature
probably relate to the degree of hepatic disturbance, as influenced by individual
susceptibility and the level
of
alcoholic consumption.
Lower Zn absorption might also explain the effect of alcohol on Zn status observed in
some studies (Vallee
et
al.
1957;
Sullivan
&
Lankford,
1965).
This could be caused by a
direct reduction in the amount of Zn available for absorption or be related to intestinal
epithelial changes that occur with alcohol consumption (Hillman,
1975).
Using a dual-label
technique, Dinsmore
er
al.
(1985)
showed that chronic alcoholics absorbed less Zn (from
9
pmol ZnCI, labelled with
37
KBq 65Zn) than non-alcoholics, which points to alcohol-
related changes
in
gut function rather than lumen interactions between ethanol and Zn.
214
SUSAN
J.
FAIRWEATHER-TAIT
AND OTHERS
Antonson
&
Vanderhoof
(1983)
have demonstrated by perfusion in vivo that rats given a
diet containing
36%
of the energy as ethanol for
1
month had significantly reduced Zn
absorption in the ileum. It has been suggested that the first step in diminished intestinal
absorption of Zn in alcoholism is reduced binding to high-molecular-weight jejunal
proteins (Silverman
&
Rivlin,
1982).
In the present study, three of the groups of rats
consuming alcohol excreted less s5Zn than the controls, which may well be a direct effect
of reduced absorption of Zn from the diet; we have already demonstrated the rapid
response made by rats to changes in dietary Zn levels whereby Zn is conserved when Zn
intake is limited (Fairweather-Tait
et
al.
1985).
It is possible, therefore, that in the absence
of hepatic damage, any adverse effects of alcohol on Zn status are mediated through
reduced absorption from the diet rather than increased elimination from the body.
The present study also showed that consumption of wine, whisky and ethanol resulted
in
higher liver Fe concentrations, whereas beer and cider had
no
effect
on
Fe status. The
group given cider had the lowest total liver Fe content and the group given ethanol had the
highest. It has been known for some time that alcoholics have greater than normal Fe
stores, which has been linked to the observed enhancement in absorption of ferric-Fe in the
presence of alcohol in normal subjects (Charlton
et
al.
1964)
and ferrous-Fe in Fe-deficient
subjects (Sorensen,
1966).
However, it has been reported that in rats the absorption of Fe
from a single dose of 59Fe intrinsically labelled wine was similar to the absorption from the
same amount of Fe as ferrous sulphate in water or other alcoholic beverages, including
beer, whisky, gin and bourbon (MacDonald
&
Pechet,
1964).
Similar observations have
been made in our laboratory (unpublished results) which suggest that alcohol increases Fe
absorption from ferric- but not ferrous-Fe in Fe-replete rats. Most of the Fe consumed by
the animals in the present experiment was in the form of ferrous sulphate, yet liver Fe was
raised in animals given wine, whisky and ethanol. From the present findings it might be
inferred that these substances had caused tissue redistribution of Fe. However, in view of
the fact that Hb levels (and hence erythropoeisis) were similar between all groups, the most
likely explanation for the higher liver Fe levels
in
rats given wine, whisky and ethanol
would be an increase in Fe absorption from the diet. The fact that the same level of alcohol
in beer or cider did not provoke the same effect suggests that they contained antagonistic
substances such as tannins that negated the Fe-absorption-enhancing effect of ethanol
(Gillooly
et
al.
1984).
It was interesting to note that animals with the lowest loss of 65Zn
had the highest liver Fe levels, which suggests an interaction in the intestinal lumen that
somehow modifies absorption.
It is apparent from the present study that some alcoholic beverages and ethanol alone
can affect Zn and Fe metabolism. Findings presented here demonstrate that 65Zn loss from
mobilizable endogenous pools is reduced with alcohol consumption and Fe absorption is
increased. The response to alcoholic drinks is dependent on the type of beverage consumed,
presumably because of other substances present in the fluids. It would appear from the
results of the present study that certain components of beer and cider have a modifying
effect on both 65Zn loss and liver Fe accumulation.
The authors thank
Ms
Lisa Symss for the atomic absorption spectroscopy measurements,
Mr
A.
J.
A.
Wright for technical assistance, and Mrs Jacqui Cooke for help with the
animals.
REFERENCES
Ahmed,
S.
B.
&
Russell,
R.
M.
(1982).
Journal
of
Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
100,
21 1-217.
Antonson,
D.
L.
&
Vanderhoof,
J.
A.
(1983).
Digestive Diseases and Sciences
28,
604-608.
Carey,
M.
A.,
Jones,
J.
D.
&
Gastineau,
C.
F.
(1971).
Journal
of
American Medical Association
216,
17661769.
Charlton, R.
W.,
Jacobs,
P.,
Seftel,
H.
&
Bothwell, T.
H.
(1964).
Brifish Medical Journal
ii,
1427-1429.
Efect
of
alcohol
on
iron and
zinc
metabolism
215
Dinsmore, W., Callender, M.
E.,
McMaster,
D.,
Todd,
S.
1.
&
Love, A. H.
G. (1985).
Digestion
32,
238-242.
Fairweather-Tait,
S.
J.
&
Wright, A.
J.
A.
(1984).
British Journal of Nutrition
51,
185-191.
Fairweather-Tait,
S.
J.,
Wright, A.
J.
A,, Cooke,
J.
&
Franklin,
J.
(1985).
British Journal of Nutrition
54,
Gillooly, M., Bothwell, T.
H.,
Charlton, R. W., Torrance,
J.
D., Bezwoda, W. R., MacPhail, A. P., Derman,
Helwig, H.
L.,
Hoffer,
E.
M., Thielen, W.
C.,
Alcocer, A.
E.,
Hotelling,
D.
R., Rogers, W. H.
&
Lench,
J.
(1966).
Hillman, R.
S.
(1975).
Annals
of
the New York Academy of Science
252,
297-306.
Kahn, A. M., Helwig, H. L., Redeker, A.
G.
&
Reynolds,
T.
B.
(1965).
American Journalof Clinical Pathology
44,
McDonald,
J.
T.
&
Margen,
S.
(1980).
American Journal
of
Clinical Nutrition
33,
10961 102.
MacDonald, R. A.
&
Pechet,
G.
S.
(1964).
Proceedings
of
the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine
117,
Mills, P. R., Fell,
G.
S.,
Bessent, R.
G.,
Nelson,
L.
M.
&
Russell, R.
1.
(1983).
Clinical Science
64,
527-535.
Prasad, A.
S.,
Oberleas, D., Wolf, P.
&
Horwitz,
J.
P.
(1967).
Journal of Clinical Investigation
46,
549-557.
Richterich,
R.
&
Colombo,
J.
P.
(1981).
Clinical Chemistry,
pp.
543-546.
Chichester: John Wiley
&
Sons.
Silverman, B.
&
Rivlin,
R.
S.
(1982).
Journal of~%trilion
112,
744749.
Sorensen,
E.
W.
(1966).
Acta Medica Scandinavica
180,
241-244.
Sullivan,
J.
F.
(1962).
Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol
23,
216-220.
Sullivan,
J.
F.
&
Lankford, H.
G.
(1965).
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
17,
57-63.
Vallee,
B.
L., Wacher, W.
E.,
Bartholomay, A.
F.
&
Hoch,
F.
L.
(1957).
New England Journal
of
Medicine
257,
401413.
D.
P., Novelli, L., Morrdll, P.
&
Mayet,
F.
(1984).
British Journal of Nutrition
51,
3746.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology
45,
156-159.
42-35,
54-56.
1055-1065.
Printed in Great Britain
... It is thought that interactions of cadmium with metabolism and functions of bioelements are one of the mechanisms of this heavy metal toxicity. Long-term ethanol consumption can also interfere with metabolism of these bioelements (Fairweather-Tait et al., 1988;Sharma et al., 1991;Gonzalez-Reimers et al., 1998). It has been shown that repeated ethanol administration influences some effects of cadmium (Flora and Tandon, 1987;Kershaw et al., 1990;Brus et al., 1995). ...
... One should therefore take into consideration diminished intake of these elements in this type of study. It is known that long-term excessive consumption of ethanol can lead to anorexia and malabsorption as well as to increased urinary loss of many essential substances and, as a consequence, to impoverishment of micro-and macrobioelements, and vitamins (Fairweather-Tait et al., 1988;Sharma et al., 1991;Gonzalez-Reimers et al., 1998). In this study the duration of ethanol administration was very short and as ethanol has no influence on dietary consumption, it is unlikely to have influenced the gastrointestinal absorption of zinc and copper. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was performed to assess the effect of short-term ethanol administration on cadmium retention and accumulation as well as on bioelement metabolism (zinc, copper, calcium, and magnesium) in rats exposed to an aqueous solution of cadmium chloride for 8 weeks. Intoxication with cadmium led to accumulation of this toxic metal, particularly in the liver and kidney, which was linked to metallothionein synthesis as well as to a disturbance in the metabolism of zinc, copper, and calcium. These effects were dependent on the level of exposure. The administration of ethanol in the final phase of cadmium treatment increased cadmium retention and accumulation in the body with simultaneous elevation in liver and kidney metallothionein concentration. Ethanol alone or with cadmium caused or intensified the cadmium-induced changes in metabolism of zinc and copper. Calcium metabolism disturbed by cadmium was not influenced by ethanol. Neither agents had any effect on magnesium metabolism. We conclude that even short-term ethanol consumption in conditions of exposure to cadmium can increase this heavy metal body burden and lead to more serious disturbances in metabolism of important elements such as zinc and copper. Cadmium- and ethanol-induced changes in the homeostasis of these microelements are probably connected with the ability of both xenobiotics to cause metallothionein induction.
... Because of the nutritional importance of Fe, many studies have been done on the effect of red wine or ethanol in animals (Fairweather-Tait et al. 1988) and humans (Bezwoda et al. 1985, Cook et al. 1995, Duane et al. 1992, Hurrell 1990, Tuntawiroon et al. 1991) and of other polyphenol-rich products on Fe absorption and status in animals (Brown et al. 1990, Garcia-Lopez et al. 1990, Greger and Lyle 1988, Morck et al. 1983, Record et al. 1996, Rossowska et al. 1997). However, only few studies examined the effects of either red wine or ethanol (Dinsmore et al. 1985aand 1985b, Fairweather-Tait et al. 1988, McDonald and Margen 1980, or other polyphenol-rich products (Ganji and Kies 1994, Greger and Lyle 1988, Record et al. 1996, Rossowska and Nakamoto 1990, Rossowska et al. 1997 on Zn or Cu absorption and status in animals and humans. ...
... Because of the nutritional importance of Fe, many studies have been done on the effect of red wine or ethanol in animals (Fairweather-Tait et al. 1988) and humans (Bezwoda et al. 1985, Cook et al. 1995, Duane et al. 1992, Hurrell 1990, Tuntawiroon et al. 1991) and of other polyphenol-rich products on Fe absorption and status in animals (Brown et al. 1990, Garcia-Lopez et al. 1990, Greger and Lyle 1988, Morck et al. 1983, Record et al. 1996, Rossowska et al. 1997). However, only few studies examined the effects of either red wine or ethanol (Dinsmore et al. 1985aand 1985b, Fairweather-Tait et al. 1988, McDonald and Margen 1980, or other polyphenol-rich products (Ganji and Kies 1994, Greger and Lyle 1988, Record et al. 1996, Rossowska and Nakamoto 1990, Rossowska et al. 1997 on Zn or Cu absorption and status in animals and humans. The goal of this work was to provide information on the short-and long-term effects of both red wine and ethanol on Zn and Cu absorption and status in rats using stable isotopes of Zn and Cu. ...
Article
Full-text available
Red wines contain many components such as polyphenols and ethanol that may influence mineral absorption. We report on studies in a rat model that were designed to investigate the extent to which short- and long-term intake of red wine or ethanol may influence 67Zn and 65Cu absorption in rats. Rats (n 5 96) were divided into three groups, a control group that received demineralized water, a group that received red wine diluted with water (v/v) and an ethanol group that received 6% ethanol. Half of each group was used for the short-term study; the others were used for the long-term study. After 3 d (short-term study) or 28 d (long-term study) of beverage consumption, the rats were gavaged with 2 mL of solution containing 2027 nmol 67Zn and 902 nmol 65Cu. Subsequently, 3-d urinary and fecal collections were performed and analyzed for total and isotopic Zn and Cu. In the long-term study, blood, tibia and liver were also sampled for mineral status assessment. Neither short- nor long-term intake of red wine altered 67Zn or 65Cu absorption. In contrast, long-term (but not short-term) ethanol consumption significantly increased both 67Zn and 65Cu absorption compared with the control and red wine groups. The long-term consumption of ethanol or red wine did not affect blood or tissue Zn or Cu levels. In conclusion, short- or long-term consumption of red wine did not have a negative effect on intestinal absorption or tissue levels of zinc and Cu in rats. J. Nutr. 130: 1309 -1313, 2000.
... Also the use of ethanol in the coating technology could affect the retention and bioavailability of zinc, which is an accordance with the findings of Fairweather. Tait et al. [28] who observed an adverse effect of ethanol and alcoholic beverages on zinc retention and bioavailability. A similar study by Alavi et al. [29] recorded a higher zinc content by dusting technology when compared with coating technology in fortification of rice. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Reports have shown that consumption of acha (Digitaria exilis) is beneficial to both diabetic and hypertensive patients considering its low glycaemic index, if fortified could assist to improve health and in combating hidden hunger. Aims: This work was aimed at establishing the technology of fortifying acha (Digitaria exilis) grains with vitamin A, Iron, copper and zinc by comparing the effectiveness of coating and dusting technologies and analysing the vitamin A, iron, zinc and copper levels of acha grains fortified by both methods. Methodology: Vitamin A was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method, while iron, zinc and copper were quantified using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) method. Results: Vitamin A was undetected in unfortified grain, but present at 29,904.18 IU/kg and 29,657.66 IU/kg in coated and dusted grains respectively. The iron content(58 mg/kg) in unfortified grain increased by 22% and 15% for coated and dusted respectively, Copper increased by 25% and 14% and Zinc by 32% and 45% with coating and dusting respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that coating is a more promising technology for fortifying acha grains with Vitamin A, iron and copper, which will assist in delivering these critical micronutrients in the vulnerable population and also be used as a strategy for dietary improvement.
Article
The gustatory thresholds in volunteers following gargling with 15% ethanol solution and alcohol consumption were evaluated by means of electrogustometry (EGM) and the filter-paper disc (FPD) method. The EGM and FPD method after gargling with 15% ethanol solution tended to show an increased gustatory sensitivity in both the chorda tympani and the glossopharyngeal (except in the case of sourness and bitterness) nerve areas (left side). After drinking of beer (0.58 g/kg), EGM revealed a tendency for lowering of the threshold (p<0.05). After drinking of sake (0.79 g/kg), the gustometry revealed a tendency for rising of the threshold. After drinking of beer, the threshold in the FPD method for saltiness rose and that for sourness decreased at 3 hr in the chorda tympani nerve area (p<0.05). The thresholds for both saltiness and bitterness fell at 3 hr in the glossopharyngeal nerve area (p<0.05). After drinking of sake, the threshold in the FPD method for bitterness rose significantly at 3 hr in the chorda tympani nerve area (p<0.05). The difference in gustatory responses might have resulted from the different doses of ethanol contained in the beer and sake. Saliva samples were analyzed for ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetate during alcohol oxidation by head-space gas chromatography. The ethanol levels in the saliva were almost equal to those in the blood. The acetaldehyde levels in the saliva fluctuated at much higher values than those in the blood, and the acetate levels also displayed a much higher pattern than those in the blood. These findings were peculiar to the saliva, and the higher levels of ethanol metabolites in the saliva appeared to influence gustation.
Article
Adult male Wistar rats were allocated to 4 groups of 15 animals (mean weight 511g). Each rat in group 1 was given 10g semisynthetic control diet containing 38 μg Fe/g, labelled extrinsically with 37kBq 59Fe, and Fe retention measured daily for 7 days using a small animal whole body gamma counter. The same procedure was carried out in the other 3 groups, but small intestinal (S.I.) transit time was modified by administering pharmacological preparations with the test meal: metoclopramide hydrochloride (0.25 mg) orally or I.M. (to reduce transit time), and loperamide hydrochloride (0.1 mg) orally (to increase transit time). Mean whole body retention 7 days after the test meal was 14% of the administered dose, with no differences between groups, indicating that S.I. transit time does not significantly alter the efficiency of Fe absorption.
Chapter
Alcoholic liver disease is associated with marked disorders of iron homeostasis. These abnormalities include changes in plasma iron turnover, 1 red cell iron incorporation, 1,2 depression of the serum levels of transferrin3 (the major serum iron transport protein), and, in approximately one-third of chronic alcoholics, an increase in liver iron concentrations. 4In the rat, ethanol alters the rate of synthesis and secretion of transferrin and other serum proteins by the liver. 5-7 Although these disturbances have been attributed to a variety of causes, such as a direct toxic effect of alcohol on heme synthesis,8 negative vitamin balance, 2altered iron absorption,9-11 or intake of greater quantities of iron contained in some alcoholic beverages,12,13 the mechanism(s) of these disorders remain(s) in doubt.
Article
Numerous experimental data reviewed in the present article indicate that free radical mechanisms contribute to ethanol-induced liver injury. Increased generation of oxygen- and ethanol-derived free radicals has been observed at the microsomal level, especially through the intervention of the ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 isoform (CYP2E1). Furthermore, an ethanol-linked enhancement in free radical generation can occur through the cytosolic xanthine and/or aldehyde oxidases, as well as through the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Ethanol administration also elicits hepatic disturbances in the availability of non-safely-sequestered iron derivatives and in the antioxidant defense. The resulting oxidative stress leads, in some experimental conditions, to enhanced lipid peroxidation and can also affect other imporant cellular components, such as proteins or DNA. The reported production of a chemoattractant for human neutrophils may be of special importance in the pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis. Free radical mechanisms also appear to be implicated in the toxicity of ethanol on various extrahepatic tissues. Most of the experimental data available concern the gastric mucosa, the central nervous system, the heart, and the testes. Clinical studies have not yet demonstrated the role of free radical mechanisms in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced cellular injury in alcoholics. However, many data support the involvement of such mechanisms and suggest that dietary and/or pharmacological agents able to prevent an ethanol-induced oxidative stress may reduce the incidence of ethanol toxicity in humans.
Article
The effect of red wine (RW), red grape juice (RGJ), green tea (GT), and representative polyphenols on Caco-2 cell (65)Zn uptake was explored. RW, RGJ, and GT enhanced the uptake of zinc from rice matrix. Fractionation of RW revealed that enhancing activity of zinc uptake was exclusively resided in the polyphenol fraction. Among the polyphenols tested, only tannic acid and quercitin stimulated the uptake of zinc while others did not influence the uptake. In tune with these results, only tannic acid and quercitin competed with zinquin (a zinc selective fluorophore) for zinc in vitro. Although all the polyphenols tested appear to enhance the expression of metallothionein (MT), the induction was higher with tannic acid, quercitin, and RW extract. Furthermore, phytic acid abrogated the tannic acid-induced MT expression. These results suggest that polyphenol-rich beverages, tannic acid, and quercitin bind and stimulate the zinc uptake and MT expression in Caco-2 cells.
Article
Groups of rats were fed diets containing marginal levels of Fe and Zn as glycine chelates (tradename 'Chelazome', Albion Laboratories, Verona, New Jersey, USA), or the same level of mineral as ferrous sulphate or zinc carbonate. The Fe diets were fed to weanling rats for 4 weeks and the Zn diets to young adult rats for 5 weeks. Blood Hb concentrations were significantly higher in the group fed Fe-chelazome than ferrous sulphate, 149 and 128 g/l respectively (P less than 0.001), but PCV and liver Fe concentrations were similar between the two groups. No difference in plasma Zn, pancreas, testes or femur Zn concentrations were observed between the two Zn groups, indicating that Zn-chelazome has no advantage over zinc carbonate. The results of this preliminary study indicate that Fe-chelazome has a higher bioavailability than ferrous sulphate and merits further study.
Article
Adult, male rats were presented in their home cages with either a nonalcoholic beer, the nonalcoholic beer with 10% ethanol added, or a choice between the two fluids. Although alcohol intake was increased by using the beer vehicle when alcohol was presented as the only available fluid, total daily consumption was not found greater than previous studies using other tastants to mask the alcohol taste. When given a choice, the rats preferred the nonalcohol-containing nonalcoholic beer to the alcohol-containing nonalcohol beer. After prolonged ethanol exposure in the home cage using the nonalcoholic beer vehicle, a subgroup of rats was tested in an operant paradigm to determine if ethanol presentation would maintain lever press behavior. There was little indication that, after this home cage procedure, ethanol functioned as an effective reinforcer. Therefore, although it appears that the use of nonalcoholic beer as the vehicle for making alcohol solutions can increase alcohol consumption, the utility of the nonalcoholic beer is no better than that of adding sweeteners.
Article
Full-text available
1. The metabolism of ⁶⁵ Zn administered intramuscularly (Expt 1) or enterally (Expt 2) at the beginning of pregnancy in rats given a control or marginal-Zn diet was measured. In Expt 2 a comparison was also made between pregnant and non-pregnant rats. The loss of ⁶⁵ Zn (assumed to represent labile body Zn) was markedly reduced in animals fed on a marginal-Zn diet compared with controls, and this effect occurred very rapidly, i.e. within 48 h of introducing the marginal-Zn diet. Pregnancy itself had a much less important effect on ⁶⁵ Zn turnover than diet. Transfer of ⁶⁵ Zn to the litter was significantly greater in the animals fed on a marginal-Zn diet compared with controls but total Zn transfer was reduced. 2. The effect of length of time on a marginal-Zn diet on fetal growth and composition was examined. Compared with controls, fetal weight was significantly greater in litters from mothers fed on a marginal-Zn diet during the last 4, 7 or 14 d of pregnancy, but no different in litters from mothers fed on a marginal-Zn diet throughout pregnancy. There were no differences in the proportions of protein or fat in the fetuses from mothers fed on the control or marginal-Zn diets but the Zn concentration was lower in litters from mothers fed on a marginal-Zn diet during part or ail of the pregnancy when compared with controls. 3. The transfer of ⁶⁵ Zn from mothers to litters during birth and the first 3 d of lactation was measured. There were no differences in maternal or litter ⁶⁵ Zn just before or just after birth, but within 72 h maternal ⁶⁵ Zn had significantly decreased and litter ⁶⁵ Zn increased. Increases in litter size were associated with greater total litter ⁶⁵ Zn but reduced individual fetal ⁶⁵ Zn. 4. These experiments demonstrate the importance of an adequate daily supply of Zn during pregnancy. Although there is room for adaptation to a marginal-Zn intake (by reducing Zn excretion) the maintenance of Zn homeostasis is only possible in the absence of other forms of stress, such as pregnancy, to the body. The consequence of insufficient Zn at times of rapid fetal growth on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism warrants further investigation.
Article
Full-text available
1. Non-haem-iron absorption from a variety of cereal and fibre meals was measured in parous Indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive Fe method. 2. The present study was undertaken to establish whether alteration of the phytate and polyphenol contents of sorghum ( Sorghum vulgare ) affected Fe absorption from sorghum meals, and to assess the influence of fibre on Fe absorption. 3. Removing the outer layers of sorghum grain by pearling reduced the polyphenol and phytate contents by 96 and 92% respectively. This treatment significantly increased the geometric mean Fe absorption from 0.017 to 0.035 ( t 3.9, p < 0.005). 4. The geometric mean Fe absorption from a sorghum cultivar that lacked polyphenols (albino sorghum) was 0.043, which was significantly greater than the 0.019 absorbed from bird-proof sorghum, a cultivar with a high polyphenol content ( t 2.83, p < 0.05). 5. Fe was less well absorbed from the phytate-rich pearlings of the albino sorghum than from the pearled albino sorghum (0.015 v. 0.035 ( t 8.4, P < 0.0005)). Addition of sodium phytate to a highly Fe-bioavailable broccoli ( Brassica oleracea ) meal reduced Fe absorption from 0.185 to 0.037. 6. The geometric mean Fe absorption from malted sorghum porridge was 0.024 when 9.5 mg ascorbic acid were added and 0.094 when the ascorbic acid was increased to 50 mg ( t 3.33, P < 0.005). This enhancing effect of 50 mg ascorbic acid was significantly depressed to 0.04 by tea ( t 38.1, P < 0.0005). 7. Wheat bran significantly decreased the geometric mean Fe absorption from white flour from 0.116 to 0.043 ( t 7.2, P < 0.0005). 8. Some of the constituents of the dietary fibre complex, such as apple pectin, guar gum, gum tragacanth and microcrystalline cellulose did not inhibit Fe absorption. On the other hand, hemicellulose and lignin decreased absorption. The geometric mean absorption of Fe given with hemicellulose was 0.079 v. 0.269 with microcrystalline cellulose ( t 2.95, P < 0.05). Addition of cocoa, which contains approximately 280 g lignin/kg, reduced the geometric mean Fe absorption from milk from 0.075 to 0.035 ( t 2.7, P < 0.05).
Article
The effect of moderate alcohol intake (20% of daily caloric requirement) on selected clinical chemistry values was determined in eight normal men and four normal women. When alcohol was consumed in three portions from one hour before supper to 11 PM and serum specimens were obtained between 7 AM and 8 AM the next day, there was no significant alteration in serum uric acid, lactate, pyruvate, cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid, or zinc levels. Fasting blood glucose level was slightly decreased but glucose tolerance curves were not altered. Urinary zinc level was increased. Similar measurements in three subjects between 11 PM and 7 AM showed that serum lactate level increased twofold and uric acid level increased by 0.5 mg/100 ml at first but both returned to control levels by 7 AM. A decrease of 20% in blood glucose level became 6% by 7 AM.
Article
Alcoholism is occasionally complicated by zinc deficiency. We have assessed the possibility that malabsorption of zinc may be a potential cause. Using a dual isotope absorption technique the absorption of 65Zn in 18 alcoholic patients was 37&percnt; (13 ± SD) and 56&percnt; (10 ± SD) in a normal control group (p < 0.001). The mean serum zinc in 55 alcoholic patients was 11.6 μmol/l (3.0 ± SD) and in 36 normal volunteers the mean serum zinc was 13.6μmol/l (1.8 ± SD; p < 0.001). This study suggests that chronic alcohol abuse will decrease the absorption of zinc and this may contribute towards the zinc deficiency occasionally associated with alcoholism.Copyright © 1985 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article
Zinc content of testes, bones, esophagus, kidneys, and muscles was decreased, whereas iron content was increased in the testes of zinc-deficient rats compared to restrictedly fed control rats. Histochemical enzyme determinations revealed reduced activities of certain enzymes in the testes, bones, esophagus, and kidneys. In the testes, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), malic dehydrogenase (MDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and NADH diaphorase; in the bones, LDH, MDH, ADH, and alkaline phosphatase; in the esophagus, MDH, ADH, and NADH diaphorase; and in the kidneys, MDH and alkaline phosphatase were decreased in zinc-deficient rats compared to restrictedly fed controls. Succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) revealed no significant changes under the conditions of our experiments in various groups of rats that were investigated. In a "repleted" group of rats, content of zinc in testes and bones increased significantly, compared to the deficient group. The iron content of the testes decreased after repletion with zinc. In the testes, bones, esophagus, and kidneys, the activities of various enzymes increased after repletion with zinc. Inasmuch as the major manifestations of zinc deficiency syndrome in the rat include growth retardation, testicular atrophy, and esophageal parakeratosis, our results suggest that the content of zinc in the above tissues most likely controls the physiological processes through the formation of zinc-dependent enzymes.
Article
The effect of moderate alcohol intake (20% of daily caloric requirement) on selected clinical chemistry values was determined in eight normal men and four normal women. When alcohol was consumed in three portions from one hour before supper to 11 PM and serum specimens were obtained between 7 AM and 8 AM the next day, there was no significant alteration in serum uric acid, lactate, pyruvate, cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid, or zinc levels. Fasting blood glucose level was slightly decreased but glucose tolerance curves were not altered. Urinary zinc level was increased. Similar measurements in three subjects between 11 PM and 7 AM showed that serum lactate level increased twofold and uric acid level increased by 0.5 mg/100 ml at first but both returned to control levels by 7 AM. A decrease of 20% in blood glucose level became 6% by 7 AM.