Effects of cold on ST amplitudes and blood pressure during exercise in angina pectoris
Department of Medicine, Ostra sjukhuset, Göteborg, Sweden. European Heart Journal
(Impact Factor: 15.2).
To investigate the mechanisms of cold susceptibility in angina pectoris nine male angina patients were studied. All were cold susceptible by history and had developed ischaemic ST changes during a previous exercise test. The patients underwent two additional bicycle exercise tests, one in a cold chamber with an average temperature of -8 degrees C, and the other at room temperature. The ECG was computer analysed and the intra-arterial blood pressure was measured. No significant decrease in work capacity was found during exercise in the cold chamber. In the cold, systolic blood pressure was consistently higher throughout the test and in seven of nine subjects ST depression was more pronounced at corresponding workloads. ST depression was also analysed versus heart work which was assessed as rate pressure product. In the cold, 1 mm ST depression appeared at a somewhat higher rate pressure product when compared to room temperature. It was concluded, therefore, that an augmented heart work, secondary to substantial increases in blood pressure, appears to account for the cold-induced increase in ST depression found in the angina patients in this study.
Available from: Martin Hoffman
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age and coronary artery disease on responses to snow shoveling.
Little information is available on the hemodynamic and metabolic responses to snow shoveling.
Sixteen men with asymptomatic coronary artery disease and relatively good functional work capacity, 13 older normal men and 12 younger normal men shoveled snow at a self-paced rate. Oxygen consumption, heart rate and blood pressure were determined. In nine men with coronary artery disease left ventricular ejection fraction was evaluated with an ambulatory radionuclide recorder.
Oxygen consumption during snow shoveling differed (p < 0.05) among groups; it was lowest (18.5 +/- 0.8 ml/kg per min) in those with coronary artery disease, intermediate (22.2 +/- 0.9 ml/kg/min) in older normal men and highest (25.6 +/- 1.3 ml/kg/min) in younger normal men. Percent peak treadmill oxygen consumption and heart rate with shoveling in the three groups ranged from 60% to 68% and 75% to 78%, respectively. Left ventricular ejection fraction and frequency of arrhythmias during shoveling were similar to those during treadmill testing.
During snow shoveling 1) the rate of energy expenditure selected varied in relation to each man's peak oxygen consumption; 2) older and younger normal men and asymptomatic men with coronary artery disease paced themselves at similar relative work intensities; 3) the work intensity selected represented hard work but was within commonly recommended criteria for aerobic exercise training; and 4) arrhythmias and left ventricular ejection fraction were similar to those associated with dynamic exercise.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of temperature stress on responses to static-dynamic work in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), 10 men with IHD shoveled gravel for 30 min in a warm (29 degrees C), neutral (24 degrees C), and cold (-8 degrees C) environment (on separate days). A pace of 15 lifts.min-1 was set, and the load per lift approximated 5.5 kg. Heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2), and systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were evaluated at 5-min intervals. Arrhythmias and ST-segment depression were evaluated by ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. At 30 min, VO2, SBP, and DBP were higher (P < 0.05) in the cold environment, and HR was higher (P < 0.05) in the warm environment compared with the neutral environment. HR increased (P < 0.05) from 5 to 30 min in all three conditions. The increase in HR was greater (P < 0.05) in the warm environment. None of the subjects reported angina or demonstrated electrocardiographic ST-segment changes during shoveling in any environment. The results indicate that low-risk patients with stable IHD show modest temperature-induced alterations in hemodynamic and VO2 responses during 30 min of moderate intensity (50-60% of peak VO2) static-dynamic work without adverse electrocardiographic responses or symptomatology.
Available from: Matthew Scarborough
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ABSTRACT: Patients with angina often report that symptoms are worse in cold weather. This study was designed to determine differences between cold-tolerant and cold-intolerant patients in the hemodynamic and ischemic response to exercise at cold temperatures and to assess the role of catecholamines and baroreceptor function.
Studies have suggested that the heart rate response may differ at cold temperatures, but the mechanism and role of this variation have not been examined.
Seven cold-intolerant and seven cold-tolerant patients with angina underwent exercise treadmill testing at 6 and 25 degrees C with measurement of catecholamines. Baroreceptor function was assessed by the decrease in systolic blood pressure after patients stood up from the supine position.
Norepinephrine levels increased by 139% in the cold environment, but there were no differences between cold-intolerant and cold-tolerant patients. Consequently, blood pressure was higher in the cold environment in all patients, but the heart rate response was similar. However, cold-intolerant patients had a steeper heart rate response in the cold and developed ischemia (mean [+/- SEM] 201 +/- 58 vs. 242 +/- 50 s, p = 0.05) and angina (348 +/- 87 vs. 449 +/- 60 s, p = 0.04) earlier in the cold environment, a difference not seen in the cold-tolerant patients. Baroreceptor function was impaired in cold-intolerant patients (decrease in systolic blood pressure after patients stood up from the supine position 19 +/- 7 vs. 0 +/- 4 mm Hg, p = 0.04).
Exposure to cold causes an increase in blood pressure with an associated increase in myocardial oxygen demand in all patients. In cold-tolerant patients, this increase may be offset by a reduction in heart rate if baroreceptor function is normal. If baroreceptor function is abnormal, heart rate may not decrease in response to a cold-induced increase in blood pressure. This mechanism may account for some of the variability in tolerance to cold exposure that affects patients with exertional angina.
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