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Skinfold Equations for Estimation of Body Fatness in Children and Youth

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... Triceps and subscapular skinfolds were assessed using Lange ® compass. Slaughter et al. [16] equation was used to estimate BF%. The Lohman criteria [17] was used for classification, with a subsequent dichotomization into desirable (very low, low, and optimal) and undesirable (moderately high, high, and very high). ...
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Background The behavior of anthropometrics and the relationship with genetic factors through a long-term perspective should be better explored. This study aims to verify the odds of maintaining the nutritional status classification after three years, according to the rs9939609 polymorphism (FTO gene). Methods It was a retrospective longitudinal study with 355 schoolchildren (7–17 years). Body mass index, body-fat percentage (BF%), and waist circumference (WC) were measured at baseline and follow-up. The FTO gene was evaluated from blood collection and genotyping performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results For those homozygous with the A allele, the odds of being at less favorable classification at follow-up were 2.29 (1.24; 4.22) and 4.05 (2.08; 7.86) times higher than expected for BF% and WC, respectively, whereas the odds of being in the more favorable classification at follow-up were 0.34 (0.12; 0.93) and 0.11 (0.01; 0.78) for BF% and WC, respectively. The odds of being at less favorable classification were higher for AA carriers with less favorable classification at baseline for BF% and WC compared to AT and TT carriers. Conclusions Schoolchildren with a genetic predisposition to obesity and unfavorable anthropometric profile at baseline had more chances of maintaining their nutritional status after three years of follow-up.
... : Boileau et al.11 , Faulkner 12 , Lázari13 and Slaughter et al.14 . Predictive equations description by skinfolds method, population intended in its original article, folds quantity and author. ...
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The aim of this study was to describe the correlation between body composition data obtained through DXA and through skinfolds strategy, with some of their respective formulas, in sprinters. The sample consisted of 15 male sprinters (23.81 years ± 3.11; 70.06 Kg ± 4.38; and 179.13 CM ± 5.16) all high performance runners of speed and barriers events (100m, 200m, 400m, 110m with barriers and 400m with barriers). The athletes were submitted to DXA evaluation procedure and to skinfolds collection (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra iliac, abdominal, medial thigh and calf) and the results were calculated through four distinct equations: Slaughter, Faulkner, Lázari and Boileau. The respective DXA correlations (0.60; 0.81; 0.23 and 0.48) and the equations predicted by skinfold strategy were calculated using Pearson correlation. Among the equations used, Faulkner's was the one presenting highest correlation value when compared to DXA protocol, although all of them aimed to estimate values for BF%.
... Co., Indiana) was used to measure the thickness of the soccer players' hypodermic fat in four of their skinfolds (biceps, triceps, suprailiac, subscapular). All skinfold measurements were taken on the right side of the body, as described by Slaughter et al. 16 Finally, the body density was calculated according to the Durnin and Rahaman equation 17 for people over 16 years of age, and body fat percentage was calculated with the use of Siri equation (1956). 18 ...
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High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is widely used in soccer. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of an HIIT program on the performance of soccer players under the age of 17. Twenty-nine youth players participated in this study. Players were randomly separated into two groups: control group ( n = 14) and intervention group which performed extra HIIT (EX, n = 15). The duration of the training program was 4 weeks. Sprint 10 m, 30 m, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), Illinois agility test, YO-YO intermitted recovery test 1, and repeated sprint ability (RSA) test (RSAbest, RSAmean, RSAdecrement) were measured pre and post the training program. The performance in 10 m, Illinois test, and RSAmean improved in the EX group ( P = 0.022, P = 0.047, and P = 0.045, respectively). The performances of the two groups differed significantly in post-measurement of 10 m, Illinois test, and RSAmean ( P = 0.046, P = 0.039, and P = 0.044, respectively). This study supports that a short-term program of HIIT can improve acceleration, agility, and RSA performance.
... Triceps and subscapular skinfolds were assessed according to Lohman's anthropometric standardization reference manual [23] by trained professionals. Skinfolds were taken on the non-dominant side of the body using a holtain skinfold caliper (range, 0 to 40 mm; precision, 0.2 mm) and body fat percentage (%BF) was estimated with Slaughter equations [24]. Two non-consecutive measurements of all body composition variables were carried out, and the average was recorded. ...
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Purpose: We aimed to analyse the longitudinal association between physical fitness (PF) and body composition (BC) with metabolic syndrome score (MetS) in children and adolescents, and to elucidate whether the association between PF and MetS differs when using relativized or absolute fitness variables. Methods: A total of 188 children (86 females) and 195 adolescents (97 females) were included. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was determined by the 20-m shuttle run test and muscular fitness (MF) was determined by hand grip and standing long jump tests. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index (kg/m²) was calculated. Triceps and subscapular skinfolds were assessed to compute body fat percentage. MetS was computed from: waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose levels. Results: Relative CRF was longitudinally and negatively associated with MetS in female children (β=-0.031,p=0.025), while absolute CRF was positively associated with MetS in male children and adolescents (β=0.000,p<0.05). Relative upper and lower-body MF were longitudinally and negatively associated with MetS in female adolescents (β=-1.347,β=-0.005,p<0.05), while absolute lower-body MF was positively associated with MetS in male children (β=0.000,p=0.019). BC was longitudinally and positive associated with MetS in male children (β-ranging from 0.011-0.055,all p<0.05) and male adolescents (β-ranging from 0.011-0.046,all p<0.05). Conclusion: BC is more strongly associated with MetS than PF in children and adolescents. An optimal body weight status should be considered the main objective of health promoting programs at childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, the way of expressing the fitness variables determines the direction of the association with MetS.
... On the third day of neonatal life, skinfold thickness was measured for subscapular, abdominal, triceps, biceps, and upper leg performed using a Harpenden skinfold caliper with a calibration dowel [27]. To calculate fatty mass percentage, we used the equations of Slaughter et al. [28]. ...
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The study aimed to determine the relationship between glucose, C-peptide, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and leptin between mother and fetus and neonatal weight. Methods: In the prospective observational cohort study, we included 66 women with type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). According to the z-score for neonatal weight, patients were divided into healthy-weight neonates (n = 42) and overweight neonates (n = 24). The maternal blood samples were taken during pregnancy and cesarean section when the umbilical vein blood sample was also withdrawn. The maternal vein sera were analyzed for fasting glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, BDNF, TSH, FT3, and FT4. The umbilical vein sera were analyzed for glucose, C-peptide, leptin, TSH, thyroid-stimulating protein (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and BDNF concentration. The neonatologist measured the skinfold thickness on the third day of neonatal life. Results: A strong correlation was confirmed between maternal and umbilical vein glucose concentration and maternal glucose and C-peptide in umbilical vein blood. A negative correlation was found between the concentration of BDNF in the umbilical vein and glucose in maternal blood. A strong correlation was seen between BMI and maternal blood leptin concentration, neonatal fat body mass, and umbilical vein blood leptin concentration. Higher BMI elevated BDNF, and TSH increase the odds for overweight neonates in the first trimester of pregnancy. Maternal higher leptin concentration in the first trimester decrease the odds of overweight neonates. Conclusions: Maternal glucose concentrations affect the fetus’s glucose, C-peptide, and BDNF concentrations. Leptin levels increase in maternal blood due to increased body mass index, and in the neonate, fat body mass is responsible for increased leptin concentrations.
Thesis
La littérature scientifique a montré une augmentation de la réponse mécanique avec l’âge lors d’un exercice à haute-intensité, où les garçons sont capables de produire une puissance plus importante que les filles à partir de 14 ans en raison d’une prise de masse maigre plus importante. Toutefois, les conséquences de cette différenciation sexuelle sur les réponses métaboliques et perceptives au cours de l’exercice sont inconnues, de même concernant les cinétiques de consommation d’oxygène et de lactatémie au cours de la récupération. Ainsi, les objectifs de ce travail de thèse ont été de déterminer, à partir d’un exercice à haute-intensité et de 79 rameurs et rameuses de 10 à 18 ans, (i) en quoi le sexe influence les réponses mécaniques, métaboliques et perceptives au cours de l’exercice et de la récupération lors de l’enfance et l’adolescence ; et (ii) si ces évolutions en fonction de l’âge et du sexe étaient directement influencées par le gain de masse maigre plus important des garçons à partir de 14 ans. Ainsi, l’augmentation plus importante de la réponse métabolique (i.e., production d’énergie d’origine non-oxydative) des garçons à partir de 14 ans conduit à des réponses mécanique (étude n°1) et perceptive supérieures au cours de l’exercice (étude n°2), ainsi qu’à des réponses cardiorespiratoire (étude n°3) et sanguine (étude n°4) supérieures lors de la récupération. Grâce à une modélisation allométrique multi- niveaux, les effets concomitants de la masse maigre et de l’âge expliquent la différenciation sexuelle de puissance, de production d’énergie d’origine non-oxydative au cours de l’exercice à haute-intensité (étude n°1) et de consommation d’oxygène au cours de la récupération (étude n°3). Dès lors que la masse maigre permet d’estimer le volume sanguin, les garçons ont davantage de lactate dans le sang à partir de 14 ans (étude n°4). Ce résultat suggère le rôle déterminant de la masse maigre au cours de l’enfance et de l’adolescence sur la production de puissance, d’énergie d’origine non-oxydative, la perception de l’effort au cours de l’exercice à haute-intensité, ainsi que la consommation d’oxygène et la lactatémie au cours de la récupération. De plus, l’analyse des coefficients allométriques associés à la masse maigre indiquent que le gain de masse maigre avec l’âge se transfère directement et proportionnellement sur les réponses mécaniques et métaboliques des garçons, alors que la masse maigre est « moins déterminante » chez les filles. De nouvelles investigations sont nécessaires à ce stade
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Introdução: Em adolescentes, a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade, alimentação inadequada, associados a baixos níveis de atividade física são fatores de risco para doenças crônicas. Enfatiza-se que hábitos e os comportamentos formados em crianças e adolescentes refletem-se na idade adulta Objetivo: Descrever o perfil antropométrico, o nível de atividade física e o dispêndio energético de adolescentes de ambos os sexos do ensino médio de Goiânia. Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal realizado em amostra populacional (n=347) de ambos os sexos, na faixa etária entre 14 e 18 anos. Avaliou-se estatura, massa corporal, circunferências de cintura e abdome, composição corporal, nível de atividade física e estimativa do dispêndio energético. Utilizaram-se o teste de normalidade Shapiro-Wilk e o de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: Houve diferenças significativas segundo sexo para: massa corporal, circunferências de cintura e de abdome, soma das dobras, percentual de gordura e gordura absoluta. As diferenças observadas foram para as atividades moderadas, vigorosas e dispêndio energético total. Foram 74,4% os estudantes fisicamente ativos, sendo de 80,1% maior que o feminino (68,1%). Conclusão: Constatou-se maior dispêndio energético em atividades físicas moderadas, vigorosas e dispêndio energético total nos escolares do sexo masculino, ao passo que se registrou maior soma de dobras cutâneas, percentual de gordura e gordura absoluta nas escolares do sexo feminino.
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The aim of this research was to analyze differences in kinanthropometric characteristics and physical performance in relation to maturity status, as well as to determine if age, maturity offset or kinanthropometric variables could predict better performance in physical fitness tests. A total of 152 female volleyball players (14.16 ± 1.25 years old) underwent a kinanthropometric assessment, followed by a physical fitness assessment composed of different tests. The age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated, and the sample was divided according to biological maturation into three groups. Significant differences were observed in kinanthropometric variables (p < 0.001–0.026), with early maturers showing higher values. Age, body mass, Cormic index, relative arm span, ∑8 skinfolds, fat mass, corrected arm and thigh girths, muscle mass and biacromial and biiliocristal breadths were the variables that best predicted performance in the physical tests (p < 0.001–0.024). The more mature players showed higher values in most of the kinanthropometric variables, with the more remarkable differences being in body mass, height, arm span and sitting height, and those related to adiposity and absolute body composition, and with structural variables being the most influential on the physical tests. Age had a determinant influence on the differences found between groups in strength and power-related test performance.
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Objetivo: Evaluar los efectos de un Programa de Hábitos Saludables (PHS), basado en la práctica de actividad física en escolares entre 10 y 12 años. Material y Método: 158 estudiantes (edad: 10.66 ±.71 años), repartidos en Grupo Control (GC) (n=76) y Grupo Intervención (GI) (n=82), participaron en el estudio. El GI participó en el PHS, y el GC continuó con su rutina diaria. Todos los participantes estaban escolarizados en centros educativos del este de España (Comunidad Valenciana, España). El PHS consistió en 2 sesiones semanales extraescolares de 75 minutos (10 min de clase teórica sobre hábitos saludables, 60 min de práctica de actividad física utilizando juegos tematizados y 5 min de vuelta a la calma) durante 8 meses. Se administró material didáctico y se involucró y reforzó a los padres mediante 3 charlas. Se evaluó el porcentaje de grasa corporal (PGC) y la condición física mediante las pruebas validadas de la Batería EUROFIT, Salto de Longitud (SL), Agilidad, Sit and Reach (SR) y Course Navette (CN). Resultados: El GI mejoró sus puntuaciones en todas las variables, existiendo diferencias significativas y obteniéndose un alto tamaño del efecto en PGC (p< .001; ηp2 228); SL (p= .021; ηp2 034); y CN (p< .001; ηp2 211); no existiendo diferencias significativas, pero sí una tendencia en SR (p= .051; ηp2.24). Conclusiones: El PHS consiguió mejorar el PGC de los escolares y aumentar su condición física de forma notable, lo que parece demostrar que, con solo 140 minutos semanales extras de Actividad Física y Educación en Hábitos Saludables, se podrían conseguir grandes beneficios sobre la salud futura de nuestros escolares.
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