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Estimation of body fluid volumes using tetrapolar bioelectrical measurements

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Abstract

Mathematical equations using tetrapolar bioelectrical resistive (R) and reactive (Xc) impedance measures were developed and crossvalidated to predict total body water (TBW) and corrected bromide space (CBS) in two independent samples (n = 110). Height2 per low R was the best predictor of TBW (R = 0.96) and CBS (R = 0.92). When the influence of TBW was removed from CBS and dependent variables, height2 per low Xc was the best predictor (R = 0.50) of CBS. Double crossvalidation of each sample showed that observed and predicted TBW (R = 0.978 and 9.986) and CBS (0.937 and 0.907) were significantly related (p less than 0.001), and there was no difference (p greater than 0.05) between the values. The lines representing the relationships between observed and predicted values had regression coefficients not different than the line of identity. Data from both samples were combined to give a representative multiple regression equation to predict TBW and CBS. This study establishes the validity of the tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance method to assess body fluid volumes in humans.
... Using the foot to hand technology coupled with predictive equations developed for athletes, BIA showed no difference with reference methods for estimating FFM (Lukaski et al. 1990;Fornetti et al. 1999;Graybeal et al. 2020; in men Kushner and Schoeller (1986) equation overestimated TBW in women (difference mean value: 1.7 L, LoA: − 2.2 to 5.7), while showed no difference for the TBW estimation in men (difference mean value: 0.4 L, LoA: − 5.2 to 5.9) Van Loan and Mayclin (1987) equation overestimated TBW in women (difference mean value: 2.6 L, LoA: 2.3 to 7.6), while underestimated TBW in men (difference mean value: − 5.3 L, LoA: − 11.5 to 0.8) Lukaski and Bolonchuk (1988) in the TBW (difference mean value: − 0.0 L, LoA: − 5.6 to 5.6), ECW (difference mean value: 0.2 L, LoA: − 3.6 to 4.0), and ICW (difference mean value: − 0.2 L, LoA: − 6.5 to 6.1) estimations Kushner and Schoeller (1986) Kotler et al. (1996) showed no difference for the TBW estimation in women (difference mean value: 0.5 L, LoA: − 3.4 to 4.1) and men (difference mean value: − 1.6 L, LoA: − 7.1 to 3.4) Lukaski and Bolonchuk (1988) (Sardinha et al. 2020). On the contrary, when generalized equations were used, inconclusive findings were observed. ...
... Using the foot to hand technology coupled with predictive equations developed for athletes, BIA showed no difference with reference methods for estimating FFM (Lukaski et al. 1990;Fornetti et al. 1999;Graybeal et al. 2020; in men Kushner and Schoeller (1986) equation overestimated TBW in women (difference mean value: 1.7 L, LoA: − 2.2 to 5.7), while showed no difference for the TBW estimation in men (difference mean value: 0.4 L, LoA: − 5.2 to 5.9) Van Loan and Mayclin (1987) equation overestimated TBW in women (difference mean value: 2.6 L, LoA: 2.3 to 7.6), while underestimated TBW in men (difference mean value: − 5.3 L, LoA: − 11.5 to 0.8) Lukaski and Bolonchuk (1988) in the TBW (difference mean value: − 0.0 L, LoA: − 5.6 to 5.6), ECW (difference mean value: 0.2 L, LoA: − 3.6 to 4.0), and ICW (difference mean value: − 0.2 L, LoA: − 6.5 to 6.1) estimations Kushner and Schoeller (1986) Kotler et al. (1996) showed no difference for the TBW estimation in women (difference mean value: 0.5 L, LoA: − 3.4 to 4.1) and men (difference mean value: − 1.6 L, LoA: − 7.1 to 3.4) Lukaski and Bolonchuk (1988) (Sardinha et al. 2020). On the contrary, when generalized equations were used, inconclusive findings were observed. ...
... Notably, the Matias' equations (Matias et al. 2016b) were developed for the foot to hand technology at a 50 kHz frequency, and are to date the only available ones. In contrast, the use of generalized predictive equations (Kushner and Schoeller 1986;Van Loan and Mayclin 1987;Lukaski and Bolonchuk 1988;Kushner et al. 1992;Sergi et al. 1994;Schoeller and Luke 2000;Morgenstern et al. 2002;Sun et al. 2003) led to an overall underestimation of the body fluids. Lastly, BIA was also shown to be a valid method for assessing body fluids in person with varying hydration status (Francisco et al. 2021). ...
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The present systematic review aimed to compare the accuracy of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) and Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) vs. reference methods for the assessment of body composition in athletes. Studies were identified based on a systematic search of internationally electronic databases (PubMed and Scopus) and hand searching of the reference lists of the included studies. In total, 42 studies published between 1988 and 2021 were included. The meth-odological quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-sectional Studies as recommended by the National Institute of Health. Twenty-three studies had an overall good rating in terms of quality, while 13 were rated as fair and 6 as poor, resulting in a low to moderate risk of bias. Fat mass was inconsistently determined using BIA vs. the reference methods, regardless of the BIA-technology. When using the foot to hand technology with predictive equations for athletes, a good agreement between BIA and the reference methods was observed for fat-free mass, total body, intra and extra cellular water. However, an underestimation in fat-free mass and body fluids was found when using generalized predictive equations. Classic and Specific BIVA represented a valid approach for assessing body fluids (Classic BIVA) and percentage of fat mass (Specific BIVA). The present systematic review suggests that BIA and BIVA can be used for assessing body composition in athletes, provided that foot-to-hand technology, predictive equations, and BIVA references for athletes are used.
... 3,4 The BIA provides raw bioelectrical values that can be inserted into predictive equations for estimating total TBW and ECW. 1,3 Most of the predictive equations have been developed and validated in the general population, [11][12][13][14][15][16] but the extent to which athletes water compartments may have been incorrectly estimated is still to be determined. Indeed, specific predictive equations for assessing TBW and ECW in athletes have recently been provided 17 and used in some studies. ...
... Total body water estimation using specific or generalized equations was highly correlated (R 2 ranged from 0.86 to 0.94) with the reference values in both sexes with the highest coefficient of determination observed using the model developed for athletes (Matias et al. 17 ) ( Table 2). For the ECW, an R 2 value lower than 0.80 was found for the predictive equations developed by Sergi et al. 13 in men and Lukaski et al. 14 for men and women while a coefficient of determination of 84% was found using the specific models developed by Matias et al. 17 (Table 2). ...
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The current study aimed: i) to external-validate total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) derived from athlete and non-athlete predictive equations using radioisotope-dilution techniques as a reference criterion in male and female athletes; ii) in a larger sample, to determine the agreement between specific and generalized equations when estimating body fluids in male and female athletes practicing different sports. A total of 1371 athletes (men: n=921, age 23.9±1.4 y; women: n=450, age 27.3±6.8 y) participated in this study. All athletes underwent bioelectrical impedance analyses, while TBW and ECW were assessed with dilution techniques in a subgroup of 185 participants (men: n=132, age 21.7±5.1 y; women: n=53, age 20.3±4.5 y). Two specific and eight generalized predictive equations were tested. Compared to the criterion methods, no mean bias was observed using the athlete-specific equations for TBW and ECW (-0.32 to 0.05, p>0.05) and the coefficient of determination ranged from R2= 0.83 to 0.94. The majority of the generalized predictive equations underestimated TBW and ECW (p<0.05); R2 ranged from 0.66 to 0.89. In the larger sample, all the generalized equations showed lower TBW and ECW values (ranging from -6.58 to -0.19, p<0.05) than specific predictive equations; except for TBW in female power/velocity (one equation) athletes and team sport (two equations). The use of generalized BIA-based equations leads to an underestimation of TBW, and ECW compared to athlete-specific predictive equations. Additionally, the larger sample indicates that generalized equations overall provided lower TBW and ECW compared to the athlete-specific equations
... BIA, which provides a straightforward estimation of BC, is now widely utilized in routine health assessments. BIA measures the electrical resistance of different tissues (e.g., fat, muscle, bone) simply by applying a low current to the body [13][14][15][16]. The phase angle (PhA) is one of the most therapeutically relevant bioimpedance factors evaluated with BIA. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive value of phase angle (PhA) in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). This study includes 104 participants (52 for each group) of SCI patients and healthy subjects (HS) treated at the Indian Spinal Injury Centre (ISIC, New Delhi, India) between October 2020 and March 2021 A cross-sectional study was operated Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) at 50 kHz and measured the prognostic effect of PhA on participants. An independentsample t-test was used to estimate PhA between groups. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves predicted the PhA cutoff and Youden’s index. There was a significant difference in PhA of gender, with p < 0.0001, a difference (2.40), 95% confidence interval (CI) (2.10 to 2.80), median (4.70) for the SCI group, and (7.1) for HS, respectively. In contrast, PhA was significantly different in males with p < 0.0001, a difference (2.60), 95% CI (3.00 to 2.10), median (5.0) for SCI, and (7.30) for HS, respectively. Similarly, PhA was significantly different in females, with p < 0.0001, a difference (1.9881), 95 % CI of difference (1.3565 to 2.6197), median (6.60) for SCI, and (4.40) for HS, respectively, as well as PhA cutoff values for SCI (female ≤ 4.4◦ ; male ≤ 4.7◦ ). The outcomes indicate a difference between groups of people with SCI and HS across the groups of gender, with a lower PhA in people with SCI.
... Indeed, the greater elevation of post-exercise energy expenditures (EEE) was deemed as one of the potential contributors to the promising effects of HIIT and sprint interval training (SIT) interventions on fat loss [26]. Both types of intermittend trainings (IT) promoted reductions in body mass, markers of subcutaneous fat (skinfolds) and waist circumference, which is in agreement with the suggestion of Astorino and Schubert (2018) that HIIT and SIT increase whole-body fat oxidation [27]. Physical activity may also reduce body fat, preferentially from the abdominal area. ...
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The study is conducted to determine the effect of a 12-week High Intensity Intermittent Exercise (HIIE) intervention on anthropometric characteristics include total body water, total body weight, body fat, waist to hip circumference ratio, body mass index, girth measurements include neck, chest, bicep, forearm, waist, thigh, calf, waist to hip ratio of overweight males adolescents. The 50 participants of this study were randomly assigned to either exercise or to control group. The intervention group (n=25) received HIIE at frequencey three times per week, 20 minutes per session, for 12 weeks. The results of high intensity intermittent exercise HIIE and control groups (n=25) have been shown on body composition of over weight males, the experimental group was significantly reduced total body water by 2.39 kg, total body weight was not significantly but reduced by 2.33 kg, body fat was significantly reduced 1.86 %, waist to hip circumference ratio was also reduced by 0.01 and body mass index was also reduced by 1.7 kg/m 2. On the other hand, the control group slightly increased in body water, body weight, % body fat, waist to hip, body mass index. The HIIE on girth measurements of overweight males, the experimental group was significantly reduced neck size by 2.72 cm, chest was significantly reduced by 5.08 cm , bicep significantly reduced 2.74 cm , forearm significantly reduced by 1.2 cm , waist significantly reduced by 4.93 cm , thigh was also reduced by 1.68 cm but not significant, hips significantly Webology (ISSN: 1735-188X) Volume 19, Number 2, 2022 9631 http://www.webology.org reduced by 4.42 cm , calf significantly reduced by 2.49 cm and waist to hip circumference ratio was also reduced by 0.01. On the other hand, the control group slightly increased in neck, chest, bicep, forearm, waist, thigh, hips, calf, waist to hip ratio.
... Body composition was evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) via the tetra polar electrode method with a BIA 101 device from AKERN, Italy (Lukaski and Bolonchuk, 1988;Jaffrin and Morel, 2008). The BIA 101 measures resistance at a fixed constant sine current of 50 kHz for the determination of reactance in human tissue and has been clinically validated to allow the evaluation of body composition (Segal et al., 1988) and provided a mobile platform of data collection during our study. ...
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Background Long-endurance exercises like ultramarathons are known to elicit various metabolic and physiological changes in the human body. However, little is known about very long-duration exercise at low intensities regarding healthy human subjects. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in body composition and metabolism in long-endurance but low-intensity events. Methods Twenty-five male and 18 female healthy recreational athletes (age 34.6 ± 8.8 years; BMI: 22.4 ± 2.0 kg/m ² ) of the “100 km Mammutmarsch” were recruited for participation during the events in 2014–2016. Other than classical ultramarathons, the “Mammutmarsch” is a hiking event, in which participants were required to walk but not run or jog. It was expected to complete the 100-km distance within 24 h, resulting in a calculated mean speed of 4.17 km/h, which fits to the mean speed observed (4.12 ± 0.76 km/h). As not all participants reached the finish line, comparison of finishers (FIN, n = 11) and non-finishers (NON, n = 21) allowed differential assessment of performance. Body composition measured through bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was determined pre- and post-event, and serum samples were taken pre-event, at 30, 70, and 100 km to determine NT-pro-BNP, troponin T, C-reactive protein (CRP), cortisol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, total cholesterol, total creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB, aminotransferase (AST), ALT, and sodium levels. Nineteen participants wore actimeter armbands (SenseWear ® ) to gain information about body activity and exercise intensity [metabolic equivalent of task (MET)]. Sixteen participants wore mobile heart rate monitors to assess mean heart rate during the race. Serum parameter alterations over the course of the race were analyzed with mixed-effects ANOVA and additional t -tests. All serum parameters were analyzed for correlation concerning different MET levels, speed, age, BMI, baseline NT-pro-BNP, mean heart rate during the race, and sex with linear regression analysis. Results We found significant elevations for muscle and cardiac stress markers (CRP, CK, CK-MB, AST, ALT, cortisol, and NT-pro-BNP) as well as decreasing markers of lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL). Although the intensity level demanded from our participants was low compared with other studies on (ultra-) marathons, the alteration of tested parameters was similar to those of high-intensity exercise, e.g., NT-pro-BNP showed a fourfold increase ( p < 0.01) and LDL decreased by 20% ( p = 0.05). Besides the duration of exercise, age, BMI, training status, and sex are relevant parameters that influence the elevation of stress factors. Notably, our data indicate that NT-pro-BNP might be a marker for cardiovascular fitness also in healthy adults. Conclusion This low-intensity long-endurance walk evoked a strong systemic reaction and large cell stress and shifted to a favorable lipid profile, comparable to higher intensity events. Despite increasing cardiac stress parameters, there were no indications of cardiac cell damage. Remarkably, the duration seems to have a greater influence on stress markers and metabolism than intensity.
... Several techniques are used, such as the application of dual frequency, where a high frequency (50 kHz) is paired with a low frequency (1.5 kHz) measurement [97]. Patients are kept in the supine position [97][98][99] and electrode patches are placed on their upper and lower extremities. A typical device estimates variables such as body mass index (BMI), extracellular water (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW) as a percentage of total body water (TBW), fat mass (FM) as a percentage of body weight, skeletal muscle mass (SK) as a percentage of fat-free mass (FFM), and phase angle (PA), [100][101][102]. ...
... According to the indications of Lukasky and Bolonchuk (Lukaski and Bolonchuk 1988) and Segal et al. (1987), height 2 /resistance (cm 2 /X) and height 2 / reactance (cm 2 /X) (bioelectrical impedance indices) were calculated in order to assess TBW, ECW, and ICW amounts. ...
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This study aims to evaluate the effects of myo-inositol supplementation on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) rates and body water distribution in overweight non-obese women. 223 overweight non-obese women pregnant were randomly assigned to the treatment group (2 g of myo-inositol plus 200 µg of folic acid) or to the placebo one (200 µg of folic acid). The treatment lasted until three weeks after delivery. A tetrapolar impedance analyser was used to study body composition. The incidence of GDM was significantly reduced in the myo-inositol group compared with the placebo group. There was a significant increase in TBW, ECW and ICW values in the placebo group compared to the myo-inositol group. We have recorded a significant reduction in the overall incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in the myo-inositol group compared with the placebo group. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of myo-inositol supplementation in preventing GDM in overweight non-obese pregnant women.
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The objective of this study was the comparison of three different methods: skin fold thikness, near infrared spectrophotometry and bioelectrical impedance for estimation of the total body fat. The measurements were made on the sample of 48 young men, 18-20 years old. The results turned out to be independent of the method which was used for estimation of the total body fat.
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Hypertension is common among both peritoneal and hemodialysis patients. It is an important modifiable condition, and one of the most important contributors to the excess morbidity and mortality in this population. Accurate diagnosis with appropriate blood pressure measurement, especially with the use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, is crucial in order to achieve optimal blood pressure control. Achievement of dry weight during dialysis and avoidance of excessive interdialytic weight gain are the most important therapeutic strategies. When hypertension persists despite the achievement of euvolemia, antihypertensive medications may be required, and in some patients, native kidney nephrectomies.
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