Characteristic Expressions of Combat-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Israeli Soldiers in the 1982 Lebanon War

Article (PDF Available)inBehavioral Medicine 14(4):171-8 · February 1988
DOI: 10.1080/08964289.1988.9935142 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
This study assessed the clinical picture of two groups of Israeli soldiers: front-line soldiers who had been treated for combat stress reaction during the 1982 Lebanon War (n = 382); and matched control front-line soldiers who did not sustain combat stress reaction (n = 334). Subjects were screened one year after the war for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric symptomatology using the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Results indicated that anxiety, depression, hostility, and obsessive-compulsive problems were the most salient features of PTSD among combat stress reaction casualties. The contribution of DSM-III criteria as well as their limitations in the diagnosis of PTSD are discussed.
    • "As acute stress is thought to lead to PTSD (Solomon et al., 1988a; Solomon, 1988 Solomon, , 2001 Solomon et al., 1988b) and the reduction of acute stress is thought to be the best way to reduce the future incidence of it (Solomon et al., 1988a; Solomon, 1988 Solomon, , 2001 Solomon et al., 1988b). The important predictors of PTSD for soldiers are exposure to combat (Solomon et al., 1988a; Solomon et al., 1988b; Murdoch et al., 2003; De Montleau et al., 2000); lengthy continuous deployment (Okulate and Jones, 2006); severe drug abuse (Maguen et al., 2004; Okulate and Jones, 2006); and pre-exposure to civilian trauma (Maguen et al., 2004). Stress reactions appear to differ based on previous combat experience with those who have it exhibiting repression and thus experiencing relatively lower affective and greater somatic complaints (Solomon, 1988; Killgore et al., 2006) without a change in PTSD rates (Killgore et al., 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To aid with Australian Army deployment planning we propose a flexible deployment concept developed using adversarial scenario analysis. This novel technique begins with a simple scenario and a core strategy. Iteratively, the scenario is modified to defeat the existing strategy and the strategy is altered to cope. This process results in the deployed force being structured as a set of cohesive functional teams that provide emotional support to their members, suffer stress at different rates and are able to be rotated independently of each other. An accumulator model of deployment stress is assumed and continuous time-in-theatre is minimised subject to realistic constraints. The concept is focused on stable long term commitments to small wars, insurgencies and peacekeeping operations within four time-zones of the deployment source and with forward bases near usable airfields. To plan specific deployments, the same process could be expanded upon with appropriate detail.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010
    • "This is supported by the finding that in addition to more endorsed PTSD symptoms, the HE subjects reported higher levels of somatization, depression, phobic anxiety and psychoticism than did LE subjects (Tyano et al., 1996 ). This is also consistent with the accumulated evidence that traumatic experiences usher in a wide range of somatic, behavioral, and emotional sequelae (Solomon, Mikulincer, & Bleich, 1988). Moreover, this is consistent with previous findings that indicated a typical pattern of causal attribution among traumatized individuals (Mikulincer & Solomon, 1989; Solomon, 1993). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed the beliefs and cognitions of bus-train collision survivors, 7 years following the accident. The sample consisted of 389 young adults who were adolescents at the time of the disaster. The sample was composed of 4 groups who differed in their levels of exposure to traumatic stress. Results indicated that (a) exposure to the traumatic accident was implicated in challenging survivors' beliefs about the benevolence of the world. Justice and luck were also associated with posttraumatic psychiatric and functional impairment; (b) the level of exposure had a direct bearing on dependent variables; and (c) cognitive schemata were associated with psychiatric symptomatology and problems in functioning, reflecting the coexistence of diverse traumatic sequelae. Theoretical implications of these results are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2006
    • "PTSD was relatively common among the sample, appearing at a rate of 14%. This is very similar to the 10± 20% rates reported in the few long-term studies of chronic PTSD [40], and of combat stress reaction (CSR) 3 years after the war [20]. The profile of PTSD-related symptoms of the participants is also very similar to that found in the longitudinal course of PTSD. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to measure the very long-term mental and psychosocial outcomes of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Seventy-six persons with severe TBI were evaluated extensively by means of standardized scales, neuropsychological tests and evaluations by family members, at an average of 14.1 (SD = 5.5) years post-injury. Six mental and functional domains were examined: psychiatric symptomatology, cognitive abilities, vocational status, family integration, social functioning, and independence in daily routines. The findings indicate a long-term differential effect of severe TBI, with seriously affected psychiatric symptomatology, family and social domains, as compared to moderately influenced cognitive, vocational and independent functioning. Relatively high rates of depression, psychomotor slowness, loneliness and family members' sense of burden were found. In addition to their epidemiological importance, the results indicate that persons with TBI and their families may need professional assistance to maintain a reasonable psychosocial quality of life, even more than a decade post-injury.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2001
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