Physical activity and depressive symptoms: The NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study

Epidemiology and Psychopathology Research Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Rockville, MD 20857.
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 01/1989; 128(6):1340-51.
Source: PubMed


The relation between self-reported physical activity and depressive symptoms was analyzed for 1,900 healthy subjects aged 25-77 years in the Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (1982-1984) to the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I). Depressive symptomatology as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was examined by sex and race in relation to recreational physical activity and physical activity apart from recreation, controlling for age, education, income, employment status, and chronic conditions. Little or no recreational physical activity and little or no physical activity apart from recreation were cross-sectionally associated with depressive symptoms in whites and in blacks. After exclusion of those with depressive symptoms at baseline, recreational physical activity was an independent predictor of depressive symptoms an average of eight years later in white women. The adjusted odds of depressive symptoms at follow-up were approximately 2 for women with little or no recreational physical activity compared with women with much or moderate recreational physical activity (95% confidence interval 1.1-3.2). These findings are the first indication from a prospective study of a large community sample that physical inactivity may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms.

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    • "Frequent participation in gardening/yard work was associated with decreased odds of depressive symptoms in African-American men in crude analyses and when controlling for social factors, but not when controlling for biological factors. The current results coincide with a previous study that found no association between walking frequency and depressive symptoms (Torres et al., in press), but contradict previous studies that found frequency of physical activity (Farmer et al., 1988) and sports/exercise (Torres et al., 2013) were associated with decreased odds of depressive symptoms in African-American men when controlled for similar biological and social factors. African-American men who report more disability, a family history of depression, lower income, and less safe neighborhoods are more at risk for depressive symptoms. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of gardening/yard work in relation to depressive symptoms in African-Americans while controlling for biological and social factors. Methods: A secondary analysis was performed on the National Survey of American Life (n = 2,903) using logistic regression for complex samples. Gardening/Yard work was measured by self-reported frequency. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Results: Biological and social factors, not gardening/yard work, were associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Biological and social factors may need to be addressed before the association between gardening/yard work and depressive symptoms can be determined.
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    • "Depression and stress in addition to the mental condition of a person's self-esteem is associated with physical conditions (Boomsma, 2002). As mentioned nor epinephrine and serotonin secretion in depressed patients are low and this deficiency can be relieved with medication and exercise (Farmer et al. (1988). Exercise helps regulate blood pressure and nervous system respond better to specific cases (Eysenck et al., 1964). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of group exercise on depression. The quasi experimental method (pretest, post test) was conducted. 35 hospitalized depressed patients participated in this research. 20 patients had interested in the group exercise were assigned to the experimental group and 15 patients were assigned to the control group. Experimental group played for 60 days. The control group did not played any sport team. Results showed significant differences in pretest- posttest in the experimental group on the Beck Depression Inventory (p < 05, t = 9.74). The control group showed no significant difference in pretest- posttest (p < 05, t=.88). Team exercise decreased depression in the experimental group. According to the result, group exercise (team sports) in hospitalized depressed patients is recommended.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences
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    • "The subjects were divided into anxiety symptom group and non-anxiety symptom group, depression symptom group and non-depression symptom group according to boundary score of the previous study (Farmer et al., 1988; Spielberger, 1983). When it comes to suicidal behaviors, suicidal group was coded as 1, and non-suicidal group coded as 0. The t test was used to compare the difference of PSS score between the symptom group and its corresponding non-symptom group. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The original Psychological Strain Scales (PSS) was published with data from a sample of Chinese population, which consisted of four strain scales: value strain, aspiration strain, deprivation strain, and coping strain. This study aims to validate and develop the English version of the PSS instrument. Method: Together with the PSS, Moos׳s Coping Response Inventory (CRI), Spielberger Trait-Anxiety scale, CES-D depression scale, and the NCS suicidal behavior scales were administered in a survey to a sample (N=280) of American college students. Item-total statistics, Cronbach׳s Alpha, Guttman Split-Half coefficient, factor analyses, correlation analysis and t tests were applied to test the reliability and validity of the English version of the PSS. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were operated to know how extent the PSS predicts psychopathology such as anxiety, depression and suicidal behaviors. Results: Cronbach׳s Alpha coefficient of PSS was 0.936. The Split-Half coefficient of PSS was 0.839. The reliability of the PSS was excellent. The factor analysis results demonstrated strong construct validity of each scale. The criterion validity and the discriminant validity were both excellent for the English version of PSS instrument. Conclusions: With the excellent scores on both reliability and validity, the English version of the PSS scales can be an excellent measurement for estimating the psychological strain levels of American college students as well as predicting their psychopathology. The PSS can be applicable for research to evaluate and predict suicidal behaviors and mental disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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