Serologic Markers After the Transplantation of Corneas from Donors Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Four corneas from two cadavers that later had positive test results on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and Western blot analysis for antibodies against the human immunodeficiency virus were inadvertently transplanted to recipients who were without known risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection. We performed serial studies of serologic markers of human immunodeficiency virus infection in the cornea recipients and assayed reverse transcriptase levels of their mixed lymphocyte cultures. The four cornea transplant recipients were followed up for 130, 152, 397, and 440 days, respectively, and the results on all serologic tests and reverse transcriptase assays remain negative.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is scarcity of data in the literature on cornel graft rejection rate in patients exclusively of African ancestry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rejection rate of corneal transplant surgery performed at Howard University Hospital on such patients over a 15 year period. A retrospective evaluation was performed of the cornea graft rejection and corneal graft failure rate in 125 penetrating keratoplasties (PKPs) done by one corneal specialist at Howard University Hospital from January 1, 1990 to August 31, 2005. Of the 125 patients, 62 were eliminated from the study because of re-grafted eyes, non-African descent, primary graft failures, follow-up less than 1 month and lack of availability of charts. This study, therefore, studied and recorded data from 63 penetrating keratoplasties of 63 eyes from 60 patients. Episodes of graft rejection were documented in 23 eyes (36.5% of cases). Nine out of the 23 graft rejections manifested to secondary graft failure (39%). Overall, there were nine out of the 63 PKPs (14.3%) that resulted in secondary graft failure over the past 15 years. The major diagnostic categories were bullous keratopathy 24 (38%), keratoconus 10 (15.8%), Fuch's dystrophy 4 (6.3%), other 20 (31.7%). Of the cases with episodes of rejection and failure, 4.3% and none were attributable to keratoconus, 30.4% and 22.2% for bullous keratopathy, and 8.7% and 22.2% for Fuch's dystrophy, respectively. Also, best visual acuity was looked at in patients with rejection episodes. None of the patients had a pre-op visual acuity 20/40 or better; however, post-op PKP 2 (8.7%) of patients achieved 20/40 or better. Also, 4 (17.4%) of patients had a pre-op visual acuity between 20/50 and 20/150, but post-op PKP best visual acuity between 20/50 and 20/150 was increased to 9 (39.1%). At 36% the prevalence of corneal graft rejection was one of the highest in the reported literature. But only 14% of those episodes resulted in graft failure which is one of the lowest in the published literature. This study demonstrates that patients of African ancestry may have a higher rejection rate which does not necessarily result in graft failure.
- "Since the first successful penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) was reported by Edward Zirm in 1906, corneal transplant has become the oldest, most successful and most common form of tissue transplantation (Pepose et al., 1987). The success rate for maintaining a clear transplant has increased over the years (Price and Whitson, 1991; Williams et al., 2006). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transmission of viral and non-viral infectious pathogens continues to be the most serious of the potential adverse effects of allogenic tissue transplantations. EU Directive 2006/17/EC stipulates that cadaveric blood specimens for serology testing in the context of post-mortem tissue donation must be taken not later than 24 h post-mortem. An expanded time slot would significantly improve the availability of tissue donations, but there are no significant data on the stability of infectious serology assays for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBC core antigen (HBc) in samples collected more than 24 h post-mortem. In this prospective study, serum samples of 30 deceased persons were taken upon admission to the Institute of Forensic Medicine (University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany) and at 12, 24, 36 and 48 h post-mortem. All samples were measured twice, first using the Abbott AxSYM system, and then after ~9 months of storage at -70 °C using the BEP III System with Siemens and Ortho reagents. For HIV, six deceased persons with a pre-mortem HIV history were included. All samples (at committal and at 12, 24, 36, 48 h) were reactive. Indeterminate or false-negative results did not occur. For HCV, 17 deceased persons with a pre-mortem HCV history were included; 16 samples were reactive up to 48 h and one was reactive at 36 h post-mortem (48 h sample was not available). Indeterminate or false-negative results did not occur. For HBV, nine deceased persons were included: five samples were initially positive for HBsAg and remained positive up to 48 h, and eight of the samples were reactive for anti-HBc up to 48 h and one up to 36 h post-mortem (48 h sample was not available). Indeterminate or false-negative results did not occur. These data suggest that infectious serological testing may be extended for blood samples of potential tissue donors collected up to 48 h post-mortem to detect antibodies or antigens for HIV, HBV and HCV.
- "False-positive reactions showed no correlation with haemolysis. Of the 35 HIV-positive donors, 34 were confirmed as true positives, whilst one was shown to be a false negative, even using multiple test systems (Pepose et al., 1987). The authors attributed this to the existence of a pre-mortem titre reduction in HIV antibodies (Essex et al., 1985), highlighting the importance of access to the donor's medical history. "