Article

Purified cytochrome b from human granulocyte plasma membrane is comprised of two polypeptides of 91,000 and 22,000 relative molecular weights

Journal of Clinical Investigation (Impact Factor: 13.22). 10/1987; 80(3):732-42. DOI: 10.1172/JCI113128
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

A new method has been developed for purification of cytochrome b from stimulated human granulocytes offering the advantage of high yields from practical quantities of whole blood. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were treated with diisopropylfluorophosphate, degranulated and disrupted by nitrogen cavitation. Membranes enriched in cytochrome b were prepared by differential centrifugation. Complete solubilization of the cytochrome from the membranes was achieved in octylglucoside after a 1-M salt wash. Wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated Sepharose 4B specifically bound the solubilized cytochrome b and afforded a threefold purification. Eluate from the immobilized wheat germ agglutinin was further enriched by chromatography on immobilized heparin. The final 260-fold purification of the b-type cytochrome with a 20-30% yield was achieved by velocity sedimentation in sucrose density gradients. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the purified preparation revealed two polypeptides of Mr 91,000 and Mr 22,000. Treatment of the 125I-labeled, purified preparation with peptide:N-glycosidase F, which removes N-linked sugars, decreased relative molecular weight of the larger species to approximately 50,000, whereas beta-elimination, which removes O-linked sugars, had little or no effect on the mobility of the Mr-91,000 polypeptide. Neither of the deglycosylation conditions had any effect on electrophoretic mobility of the Mr-22,000 polypeptide. Disuccinimidyl suberate cross-linked the two polypeptides to a new Mr of 120,000-135,000 by SDS-PAGE. Antibody raised to the purified preparation immunoprecipitated spectral activity and, on Western blots, bound to the Mr-22,000 polypeptide but not the Mr-91,000 polypeptide. Western blot analysis of granulocytes from patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease revealed a complete absence of the Mr-22,000 polypeptide. These results (a) suggest that the two polypeptides are in close association and are part of the cytochrome b, (b) provide explanation for the molecular weight discrepancies previously reported for the protein, and (c) further support the involvement of the cytochrome in superoxide production in human neutrophils.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Al Jesaitis, Dec 19, 2014
  • Source
    • "Subsequently, the cytosolic p47 phox is phosphorylated, leading to its translocation to the plasma membrane and interaction with p22 phox . This results in the activation of NOX2 and consequently in ROS gener- ation2223242526. The expression of p22 phox is crucial for NOX1-4 activity, but its association with the individual regulatory subunits is relevant only in the activation of NOX1 and NOX2[27]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biglycan, a ubiquitous proteoglycan, acts as a danger signal when released from the extracellular matrix. As such, biglycan triggers the synthesis and maturation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2-, TLR4-, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner. Here, we discovered that biglycan autonomously regulates the balance in IL-1β production in vitro and in vivo by modulating expression, activity and stability of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 1, 2 and 4 enzymes via different TLR pathways. In primary murine macrophages, biglycan triggered NOX1/4-mediated ROS generation, thereby enhancing IL-1β expression. Surprisingly, biglycan inhibited IL-1β due to enhancement of NOX2 synthesis and activation, by selectively interacting with TLR4. Synthesis of NOX2 was mediated by adaptor molecule Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF). Via myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MyD88) as well as Rac1 and Erk phosphorylation, biglycan triggered translocation of the cytosolic NOX2 subunit p47(phox) to the plasma membrane, an obligatory step for NOX2 activation. In contrast, by engaging TLR2, soluble biglycan stimulated the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 70, which bound to NOX2, and consequently impaired the inhibitory function of NOX2 on IL-1β expression. Notably, a genetic background lacking biglycan reduced HSP70 expression, rescued the enhanced renal IL-1β production and improved kidney function of Nox2(-/y) mice in a model of renal ischemic-reperfusion injury. Here, we provide a novel mechanism where the danger molecule biglycan influences NOX2 synthesis and activation via different TLR pathways, thereby regulating inflammation severity. Thus, selective inhibition of biglycan-TLR2- or biglycan-TLR4 signaling could be a novel therapeutic approach in ROS-mediated inflammatory diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Matrix biology: journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
  • Source
    • "NADPH oxidase can produce hydrogen peroxide and superoxide which are needed in the bactericidal action of phagocytes.2 NADPH oxidase is composed of 2 plasma membrane subunits, gp91-phox and p22-phox, which comprise the cytochrome b558 complex.3,4,5,6 P47-phox, p67-phox, p40-phox and rac-2 are also important cytosolic oxidase components.3,4,5,6 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare immunodeficiency disease, which is characterized by the lack of a functional nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in phagocytes. The disease presents leukocytosis, anemia, hypergammaglobulinemia, and granuloma formation of the skin, lung, or lymph nodes. The mutation of the CYBB gene encoding gp91phox, located on chromosome Xp21.1 is one of the causes of CGD. We report a patient with X-linked CGD who carried a novel mutation, a c.1133A>G (paAsp378Gly) missense mutation, in the CYBB gene.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Allergy, asthma & immunology research
  • Source
    • "This heterodimeric flavocytochrome is also called cytochrome b 558 , based on its spectroscopic properties. These subunits were named after their molecular mass on gel electrophoresis whereas the letters indicate a protein (p) or glycoprotein (gp) of the phagocyte oxidase (phox) (Dinauer et al., 1987; Parkos et al., 1987, 1988; Rotrosen et al., 1992). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has become increasingly clear that the accumulation of proteins in specific regions of the plasma membrane can facilitate cellular communication. These regions, termed signaling microdomains, are found throughout the blood vessel wall where cellular communication, both within and between cell types, must be tightly regulated to maintain proper vascular function. We will define a cellular signaling microdomain and apply this definition to the plethora of means by which cellular communication has been hypothesized to occur in the blood vessel wall. To that end, we make a case for three broad areas of cellular communication where signaling microdomains could play an important role: 1) paracrine release of free radicals and gaseous molecules such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species; 2) role of ion channels including gap junctions and potassium channels, especially those associated with the endothelium-derived hyperpolarization mediated signaling, and lastly, 3) mechanism of exocytosis that has considerable oversight by signaling microdomains, especially those associated with the release of von Willebrand factor. When summed, we believe that it is clear that the organization and regulation of signaling microdomains is an essential component to vessel wall function.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Pharmacological reviews
Show more